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Radiologic Clinics of North America

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709481/new-view-of-spine-imaging
#1
EDITORIAL
Lubdha M Shah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709480/beyond-the-spinal-canal
#2
REVIEW
Prashant Raghavan, Jessica Record, Lorenna Vidal
Cross-sectional spinal imaging is common, and extraspinal findings are often incidentally identified during interpretation. Although some of these findings may cause symptoms that mimic a spinal disorder, the majority are entirely asymptomatic and incidental. It is essential that the radiologist not only identify those abnormalities that may have clinical significance but also recognize those that are clinically irrelevant and thereby prevent patients from being subjected to further unnecessary, expensive and potentially harmful interventions...
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709479/spontaneous-intracranial-hypotension-imaging-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Timothy J Amrhein, Peter G Kranz
This article reviews the role of imaging in the diagnosis, management, and treatment of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). SIH is a debilitating and often misdiagnosed condition caused by either a spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak or a CSF to venous fistula. This pathologic condition is identified and localized via spinal imaging, including computed tomographic (CT) myelography, dynamic myelography, dynamic (ultrafast) CT myelography, MR imaging, or MR myelography with intrathecal gadolinium. Treatment of SIH involves conservative measures, surgery, or imaging-guided epidural blood patching...
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709478/postoperative-spine-what-the-surgeon-wants-to-know
#4
REVIEW
Laura Eisenmenger, Aaron J Clark, Vinil N Shah
Imaging of the postoperative spine is commonly obtained but is often challenging to interpret. Accurate and clinically relevant interpretation requires a strong understanding of the preoperative spinal pathologic condition, the surgical procedure performed, and the expected imaging appearance of postoperative changes. This article reviews common surgical approaches to the degenerative spine, the most appropriate imaging modalities to use, how to optimize imaging protocols, and how to interpret those images...
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709477/imaging-of-acute-low-back-pain
#5
REVIEW
Scott M Johnson, Lubdha M Shah
Acute low back pain, defined as less than 6 weeks in duration, does not require imaging in the absence of "red flags" that may indicate a cause, such as fracture, infection, or malignancy. When imaging is indicated, it is important to rule out a host of abnormalities that may be responsible for the pain and any associated symptoms. A common mnemonic VINDICATE can help ensure a thorough consideration of the possible causes.
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709476/spine-oncology-imaging-and-intervention
#6
REVIEW
Wende N Gibbs, Kambiz Nael, Amish H Doshi, Lawrence N Tanenbaum
Osseous metastases are the most common spine tumor and increasingly prevalent as advances in cancer treatments allow patients to live longer with their disease. Evidence-based algorithms derive the majority of their data from imaging studies and reports; the radiologist should understand the most current treatments and report in the language of the treatment team for efficient and effective communication and patient care. Advanced imaging techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI are increasingly used for diagnosis and problem solving...
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709475/spinal-marrow-imaging-clues-to-disease
#7
REVIEW
Richard L Leake, Megan K Mills, Christopher J Hanrahan
Benign and malignant as well as focal and diffuse disease processes can involve the spinal marrow. This is a review of the commonly encountered spinal marrow abnormalities and the distinguishing magnetic resonance features that may provide clues to disease.
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709474/imaging-of-intraspinal-tumors
#8
REVIEW
Luke N Ledbetter, John D Leever
Nonosseous spinal tumors are rare and encompass a wide range of benign and malignant masses. Compartmental localization of the mass to the intramedullary, intradural extramedullary, or extradural spaces can narrow the differential of possibilities. Ependymomas and astrocytomas are the most common intramedullary masses. Nerve sheath tumors and meningiomas are the most common intradural extramedullary tumors, and nerve sheath tumors dominate the nonosseous extradural tumors. These tumors and other less common masses are described in this article through a space-based approach...
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709473/mr-imaging-for-assessing-injury-severity-and-prognosis-in-acute-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#9
REVIEW
Jason F Talbott, John Russell Huie, Adam R Ferguson, Jacqueline C Bresnahan, Michael S Beattie, Sanjay S Dhall
T2-weighted (T2W) imaging is the most important sequence for detection of acute traumatic spinal cord pathology in clinical practice. Intramedullary hemorrhage on T2W imaging is associated with some component of irreversible injury and arguably the most robust MR imaging predictor of injury severity. The MR imaging appearance of the injured spinal cord in the early stages of injury is highly dynamic, and the time delay from injury to imaging must be considered in image interpretation. Diffusion imaging offers promise as specific tool for interrogating spinal cord integrity, although well-designed, prospective clinical studies validating its application remain limited...
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709472/imaging-of-vascular-disorders-of-the-spine
#10
REVIEW
Miriam E Peckham, Troy A Hutchins
Vascular disorders of the spine are more rare than cerebral vascular entities but can result in significant morbidity. These lesions frequently demonstrate distinguishing characteristics by imaging that are imperative for the radiologist to recognize to properly guide diagnosis and treatment. We review distinguishing imaging characteristics for spinal vascular malformations, spinal emergencies, and spinal vascular masses.
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709471/spinal-manifestations-of-systemic-disease
#11
REVIEW
Sean C Dodson, Nicholas A Koontz
The spine is frequently involved in systemic diseases, including those with neuropathic, infectious, inflammatory, rheumatologic, metabolic, and neoplastic etiologies. This article provides an overview of systemic disorders that may affect the spine, which can be subdivided into disorders predominantly involving the musculoskeletal system (including bones, joints, disks, muscles, and tendons) versus those predominantly involving the nervous system. By identifying the predominant pattern of spine involvement, a succinct, appropriate differential diagnosis can be generated...
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709470/imaging-approach-to-myelopathy-acute-subacute-and-chronic
#12
REVIEW
Peter G Kranz, Timothy J Amrhein
Myelopathy refers to any pathologic process that involves the spinal cord, and can be caused by a variety of different diseases. MR imaging is the primary modality for evaluating the patient presenting with myelopathy. The first step must be the exclusion of spinal cord compression. Although the MR features of many causes of myelopathy overlap, careful attention to the time course of presentation, knowledge of common and uncommon causes of myelopathy, and identification of specific imaging patterns and features can help narrow the differential diagnosis or establish a definitive diagnosis...
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709469/pearls-and-pitfalls-of-spine-imaging
#13
REVIEW
Ulrich Rassner
There are many ways to image the spine. Although there is not one correct and many incorrect ways, the choice of sequences and parameters allows optimization of the protocol to the particular question that is to be answered and also to the particular preferences of the Radiologist.
March 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454821/cardiovascular-computed-tomography
#14
EDITORIAL
Suhny Abbara, Prabhakar Rajiah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454820/computed-tomography-in-adult-congenital-heart-disease
#15
REVIEW
Praveen Ranganath, Satinder Singh, Suhny Abbara, Prachi P Agarwal, Prabhakar Rajiah
The prevalence of adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) is increasing due to advances in surgical techniques, anesthesia, and perioperative care. Imaging plays an important role, not only in the surveillance of ACHD, but also in the initial evaluation of cases that have escaped detection early in life and present with symptoms later in adulthood. In this article, we review the role of computed tomography in the comprehensive evaluation of ACHD.
January 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454819/computed-tomography-imaging-of-cardiac-masses
#16
REVIEW
Phillip M Young, Thomas A Foley, Philip A Araoz, Eric E Williamson
Although not considered a first-line modality for assessing cardiac masses, computed tomography (CT) can provide clinically useful information and is underused for this purpose. In addition to characterizing masses with insights about presence of fat or calcification and the perfusion characteristics of a mass, CT produces high-resolution four-dimensional images depicting the mass and its relationship to chambers, valves, and coronaries. This is combined with imaging of the chest, abdomen, or coronaries. Advances in CT technology, such as dual-energy CT, dynamic perfusion imaging, and three-dimensional printing for preoperative planning, will increase the role of CT in assessment of cardiac masses...
January 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454818/nonischemic-cardiomyopathies
#17
REVIEW
Eric R Flagg, Ana Paula Santos Lima, Kimberly G Kallianos, Karen G Ordovas
Computed tomography of the heart can characterize and differentiate various forms of nonischemic cardiomyopathy, which are covered individually in this article. With its excellent spatial and ever-improving temporal resolution, computed tomography scanning can delineate cardiac function, anatomy, and myocardial tissue characterization. Various cardiac computed tomography techniques can be tailored to the relevant clinical question, as discussed in the article. Although cardiac computed tomography scanning is not often the primary modality for myocardial evaluation, decreasing radiation doses and emerging applications make this fast and relatively economical examination a useful tool in the evaluation of the patient with cardiomyopathy...
January 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454817/chronic-infarcts-and-mimickers-of-infarcts
#18
REVIEW
Alastair Moore, Harold Goerne, Prabhakar Rajiah, Yuki Tanabe, Sachin Saboo, Suhny Abbara
This article reviews the imaging manifestations of chronic myocardial infarction (MI) on computed tomography (CT) and the common mimickers of MI, clinically and on imaging. Several examples of the appearance of chronic MI, its complications, and mimickers of MI are shown on both routine and cardiac CT.
January 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454816/acute-myocardial-infarct
#19
REVIEW
Alastair Moore, Harold Goerne, Prabhakar Rajiah, Yuki Tanabe, Sachin Saboo, Suhny Abbara
This article reviews the imaging manifestations of acute myocardial infarction (MI) on computed tomography (CT) accompanied by case examples and illustrations. This is preceded by a review of the pathophysiology of MI (acute and chronic), a summary of its clinical presentation, and a brief synopsis of the technical aspects of cardiac CT. Several examples of the appearance of acute MI and its complications are shown on routine and cardiac tailored CT, and a sample of the latest advances in imaging technique, including dual-energy CT, are introduced...
January 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30454815/acute-coronary-and-acute-aortic-syndromes
#20
REVIEW
Avanti Gulhane, Harold Litt
Multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) can provide crucial information and rapid triage of emergency department patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or acute aortic syndrome (AAS). Coronary computed tomography angiography has high negative predictive value to rule out ACS, and MDCT is diagnostic for AAS and its variants. Optimization of acquisition technique and up-to-date knowledge of the pathophysiology of these conditions can improve study and interpretation quality for diagnosis of ACS or AAS...
January 2019: Radiologic Clinics of North America
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