Journals Advances in Experimental Medic...

Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Thudzelani Takalani Austin Malise, Ekene Emmanuel Nweke, Mutsa M Takundwa, Pascaline Fonteh Fru, Deepak B Thimiri Govinda Raj
In the past few years, development of approved drug candidates has improved the disease management of multiple myeloma (MM). However, due to drug resistance, some of the patients do not respond positively, while some of the patients acquire drug resistance, thereby these patients eventually relapse. Hence, there are no other therapeutic options for multiple myeloma patients. Therefore, this necessitates a precision-based approach to multiple myeloma therapy. The use of patient's samples to test drug sensitivity to increase efficacy and reduce treatment-related toxicities is the goal of functional precision medicine...
May 28, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Phat Duc Huynh, Phuc Van Pham, Ngoc Bich Vu
INTRODUCTION: Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are crucial mediators of the paracrine effects as well as tissue repair and have promising clinical applications. They enhance tissue regeneration by reducing inflammatory responses, enhancing proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, and stimulating angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the mechanism of angiogenesis supported by exosomes derived from MSCs. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated via ultracentrifugation of a conditioned medium collected from human umbilical cord MSC (hUCMSC) cultures...
April 5, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hue Thi Doan, Phuc Van Pham, Ngoc Bich Vu
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have demonstrated that adipose tissue-derived stem cell (ADSC) transplantation could promote neoangiogenesis in various ischemic diseases. However, as whole cells, ADSCs have some disadvantages, such as shipping and storage issues, high costs, and controversies related to the fates of grafted cells in the recipients. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of intravenously infused exosomes purified from human ADSCs on ischemic disease in a murine hindlimb ischemia model...
March 30, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Syahidatulamali Che Shaffi, Norashikin Zakaria, Nur Shuhaidatul Sarmiza Abdul Halim, Anan A Ishtiah, Azim Ab Patar, Badrul Hisham Yahaya
INTRODUCTION: The lung is a complex organ composed of numerous cell types. Exposure to air pollutants, cigarette smoke, bacteria, viruses, and many others may cause injury to the epithelial cells that line the conducting airways and alveoli. Organoids are the 3D self-organising structures grown from stem cells and generated from adult stem and progenitor cells. Lung organoids are fascinating tools to investigate human lung development in vitro. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid method for generating lung organoids with a direct culture strategy...
March 30, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Saroj Sharma, Vaishali Kaushik, Mukta Kulshrestha, Vishvanath Tiwari
Several infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), as well as bloodstream, skin, and soft tissue infections, are caused by Acinetobacter baumannii, a nosocomial pathogen and Gram-negative coccobacillus. Due to its resistance to a variety of medications, multidrug therapy, and occasionally pan therapies, this bacterium is a huge public health concern. Drug resistance is a big worry not only in A. baumannii, but it is also a major challenge in many other diseases. Antibiotic resistance, biofilm development, and genetic alterations are all linked to variables like the efflux pump...
March 28, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ilaria Stramazzo, Silvia Capriello, Simone Filardo, Marco Centanni, Camilla Virili
Studies analyzing the relationship between microbiota composition and the thyroid have been increasing rapidly in recent years, and evidence has recently come to light about the involvement of the gut microbiota in various aspects of thyroid pathology. Recently, besides studies analyzing the microbiota composition of different biological niches (salivary microbiota or thyroid tumor microenvironment) in patients with thyroid disorders, some studies have been carried out in peculiar subcategories of patients (pregnant women or obese)...
March 28, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Toshifumi Yamashiro, Toshihiro Kushibiki, Yoshine Mayumi, Masato Tsuchiya, Miya Ishihara, Ryuichi Azuma
Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) promotes wound healing by applying negative pressure to the wound surface. A quarter of a century after its introduction, NPWT has been used in various clinical conditions, although molecular biological evidence is insufficient due to delay in basic research. Here, we have summarized the history of NPWT, its mechanism of action, what is currently known about it, and what is expected to be known in the future. Particularly, attention has shifted from the four main mechanisms of NPWT to the accompanying secondary effects, such as effects on various cells, bacteria, and surgical wounds...
March 16, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Vibha Bhardwaj
Taxus wallichiana Zucc. or the Himalayan yew is a gymnosperm growing along the Himalayan region of India and adjacent countries. Traditionally, this plant was extensively used by indigenous people for folk medicines for treating various diseases such as fever, headache, diarrhoea, fractures, problems of the nervous system etc. It is also practiced in the Unani system of medicine. The plant is rich in various bio-organic compounds and natural products, such as hydrocarbons, glycosides, flavonoids, phenol, tannins, terpenoids etc...
March 16, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Akshaya Upadhyay, Uyen M N Cao, Arvind Hariharan, Akram Almansoori, Simon D Tran
The salivary glands, exocrine glands in our body producing saliva, can be easily damaged by various factors. Radiation therapy and Sjogren's syndrome (a systemic autoimmune disease) are the two main causes of salivary gland damage, leading to a severe reduction in patients' quality of life. Gene transfer to the salivary glands has been considered a promising approach to treating the dysfunction. Gene therapy has long been applied to cure multiple diseases, including cancers, and hereditary and infectious diseases, which are proven to be safe and effective for the well-being of patients...
February 25, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Akram Abdo Almansoori, Arvind Hariharan, Uyen M N Cao, Akshaya Upadhyay, Simon D Tran
Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia following pathological conditions like Sjogren's syndrome or head and neck radiotherapy usually lead to tremendous impairment of oral health, speech, and swallowing. The use of systemic drugs to alleviate the symptoms of these conditions has been associated with various adverse effects. Techniques of local drug delivery to the salivary gland have grown enormously to address this problem properly. The techniques include intraglandular and intraductal injections. In this chapter, we will provide a review of the literature for both techniques while incorporating our lab experience in using them...
February 22, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ayça Aslan, Selcen Arı Yuka
Stem cells, which can self-renew and differentiate into different cell types, have become the keystone of regenerative medicine due to these properties. With the achievement of superior clinical results in the therapeutic approaches of different diseases, the applications of these cells in the treatment of genetic diseases have also come to the fore. Foremost, conventional approaches of stem cells to genetic diseases are the first approaches in this manner, and they have brought safety issues due to immune reactions caused by allogeneic transplantation...
February 4, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Meryem Osum, Rasime Kalkan
Cancer stem cells (CSC) have unique characteristics which include self-renewal, multi-directional differentiation capacity, quiescence/dormancy, and tumor-forming capability. These characteristics are referred to as the "stemness" properties. Tumor microenvironment contributes to CSC survival, function, and remaining them in an undifferentiated state. CSCs can form malignant tumors with heterogeneous phenotypes mediated by the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, the crosstalk between CSCs and tumor microenvironment can modulate tumor heterogeneity...
January 24, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Krishna Kumar Haridhasapavalan, Atreyee Borthakur, Rajkumar P Thummer
Advances in cellular reprogramming articulated the path for direct cardiac lineage conversion, bypassing the pluripotent state. Direct cardiac reprogramming attracts major attention because of the low or nil regenerative ability of cardiomyocytes, resulting in permanent cell loss in various heart diseases. In the field of cardiology, balancing this loss of cardiomyocytes was highly challenging, even in the modern medical world. Soon after the discovery of cell reprogramming, direct cardiac reprogramming also became a promising alternative for heart regeneration...
January 21, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ozlem Aybuke Isik, Onur Cizmecioglu
The plasma membrane is not a uniform phospholipid bilayer; it has specialized membrane nano- or microdomains called lipid rafts. Lipid rafts are small cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich plasma membrane islands. Although their existence was long debated, their presence in the plasma membrane of living cells is now well accepted with the advent of super-resolution imaging techniques. It is interesting to note that lipid rafts function to compartmentalize receptors and their regulators and substantially modulate cellular signaling...
January 18, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Andrew C Hausrath, Megan M McEvoy
Metal ions can be both essential components of cells as well as potential toxins if present in excess. Organisms utilize a variety of protein systems to maintain the concentration of metal ions within the appropriate range for cellular function, and to avoid concentrations where cellular damage can occur. In bacteria, numerous proteins contribute to copper homeostasis, including copper transporters, chelators, and redox enzymes. The genes that encode these proteins are often found in clusters, thus providing modular components that work together to achieve homeostasis...
January 14, 2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lin Wang, Youchun Wang, Hui Zhuang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important but understudied virus that has been the major cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. In recent decades, our understanding of this neglected virus has changed greatly: novel forms of viral proteins and their functions have been discovered; HEV can transmit via blood transfusion and organ transplantation; HEV can infect many animal species and the number is still increasing; HEV can induce chronic hepatitis and extra-hepatic manifestations. However, we are short of effective treatment measures to counter the virus...
2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jun Zhang, Zizheng Zheng, Ningshao Xia
The hepatitis E has been increasingly recognized as an underestimated global disease burden in recent years. Subpopulations with more serious infection associated damage or death include pregnant women, patients with basic liver diseases, and elderly persons. Vaccine would be the most effective means for prevention of HEV infection. The lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV makes the development of classic inactive or attenuated vaccine infeasible. Hence, the recombinant vaccine approaches are explored deeply...
2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Wei Hui, Linlin Wei
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are the most common cause of acute hepatitis, but they can also take a chronic course. There is no specific therapy for acute hepatitis, and current treatment is supportive. Choosing ribavirin as the first-line therapy for chronic HEV is advisable, especially immunosuppressed individuals. Moreover, ribavirin therapy in the acute phase of infection provides major benefits for those at high risk of acute liver failure (ALF)/acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Pegylated interferon α has been used successfully for treatment of hepatitis E but is associated with major side effects...
2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Chenyan Zhao, Youchun Wang
Serological and nucleic acid tests for detecting hepatitis E virus (HEV) have been developed for both epidemiologic and diagnostic purposes. The laboratory diagnosis of HEV infection depends on the detection of HEV antigen or HEV RNA in the blood, stool, and other body fluids, and serum antibodies against HEV (immunoglobulin [Ig]A, IgM, and IgG). Anti-HEV IgM antibodies and low avidity IgG can be detected during the acute phase of the illness and can last approximately 12 months, representing primary infection, whereas anti-HEV IgG antibodies can last more than several years, representing remote exposure...
2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shaoli You, Bing Zhu, Shaojie Xin
The clinical manifestations of hepatitis E are similar to those of other types of viral hepatitis. While acute hepatitis E is usually self-limited, pregnant women and chronic liver disease patients suffering from acute hepatitis E usually present with severe clinical manifestations that may develop into fulminant hepatic failure. Chronic HEV infection is typically seen in organ transplant patients; most HEV cases are asymptomatic and rarely display jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, or ascites...
2023: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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