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Annual Review of Genetics

Benjamin Czech, Marzia Munafò, Filippo Ciabrelli, Evelyn L Eastwood, Martin H Fabry, Emma Kneuss, Gregory J Hannon
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and their associated PIWI clade Argonaute proteins constitute the core of the piRNA pathway. In gonadal cells, this conserved pathway is crucial for genome defense, and its main function is to silence transposable elements. This is achieved through posttranscriptional and transcriptional gene silencing. Precursors that give rise to piRNAs require specialized transcription and transport machineries because piRNA biogenesis is a cytoplasmic process. The ping-pong cycle, a posttranscriptional silencing mechanism, combines the cleavage-dependent silencing of transposon RNAs with piRNA production...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Nancy M Bonini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
András Szabó, Roberto Mayor
Neural crest cells are a transient embryonic cell population that migrate collectively to various locations throughout the embryo to contribute a number of cell types to several organs. After induction, the neural crest delaminates and undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition before migrating through intricate yet characteristic paths. The neural crest exhibits a variety of migratory behaviors ranging from sheet-like mass migration in the cephalic regions to chain migration in the trunk. During their journey, neural crest cells rely on a range of signals both from their environment and within the migrating population for navigating through the embryo as a collective...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Thomas Prossliner, Kristoffer Skovbo Winther, Michael Askvad Sørensen, Kenn Gerdes
Protein synthesis consumes a large fraction of available resources in the cell. When bacteria encounter unfavorable conditions and cease to grow, specialized mechanisms are in place to ensure the overall reduction of costly protein synthesis while maintaining a basal level of translation. A number of ribosome-associated factors are involved in this regulation; some confer an inactive, hibernating state of the ribosome in the form of 70S monomers (RaiA; this and the following are based on Escherichia coli nomenclature) or 100S dimers (RMF and HPF homologs), and others inhibit translation at different stages in the translation cycle (RsfS, YqjD and paralogs, SRA, and EttA)...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Luis Aragón
Smc5 and Smc6, together with the kleisin Nse4, form the heart of the enigmatic and poorly understood Smc5/6 complex, which is frequently viewed as a cousin of cohesin and condensin with functions in DNA repair. As novel functions for cohesin and condensin complexes in the organization of long-range chromatin architecture have recently emerged, new unsuspected roles for Smc5/6 have also surfaced. Here, I aim to provide a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge of the Smc5/6 complex, including its long-established function in genome stability, its multiple roles in DNA repair, and its recently discovered connection to the transcription inhibition of hepatitis B virus genomes...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Jason G Wallace, Eli Rodgers-Melnick, Edward S Buckler
Understanding the quantitative genetics of crops has been and will continue to be central to maintaining and improving global food security. We outline four stages that plant breeding either has already achieved or will probably soon achieve. Top-of-the-line breeding programs are currently in Breeding 3.0, where inexpensive, genome-wide data coupled with powerful algorithms allow us to start breeding on predicted instead of measured phenotypes. We focus on three major questions that must be answered to move from current Breeding 3...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Rafael Galupa, Edith Heard
In somatic nuclei of female therian mammals, the two X chromosomes display very different chromatin states: One X is typically euchromatic and transcriptionally active, and the other is mostly silent and forms a cytologically detectable heterochromatic structure termed the Barr body. These differences, which arise during female development as a result of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), have been the focus of research for many decades. Initial approaches to define the structure of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) and its relationship to gene expression mainly involved microscopy-based approaches...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
R Stefan Isaac, Erik McShane, L Stirling Churchman
Together, the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes encode the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes that reside in the mitochondrial inner membrane and enable aerobic life. Mitochondria maintain their own genome that is expressed and regulated by factors distinct from their nuclear counterparts. For optimal function, the cell must ensure proper stoichiometric production of OXPHOS subunits by coordinating two physically separated and evolutionarily distinct gene expression systems. Here, we review our current understanding of mitonuclear coregulation primarily at the levels of transcription and translation...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Sigrid Nachtergaele, Chuan He
Investigations over the past eight years of chemical modifications on messenger RNA (mRNA) have revealed a new level of posttranscriptional gene regulation in eukaryotes. Rapid progress in our understanding of these modifications, particularly, N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A), has revealed their roles throughout the life cycle of an mRNA transcript. m6 A methylation provides a rapid mechanism for coordinated transcriptome processing and turnover that is important in embryonic development and cell differentiation...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Scott Cameron, A Kimberley McAllister
Synapse formation is mediated by a surprisingly large number and wide variety of genes encoding many different protein classes. One of the families increasingly implicated in synapse wiring is the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). IgSF molecules are by definition any protein containing at least one Ig-like domain, making this family one of the most common protein classes encoded by the genome. Here, we review the emerging roles for IgSF molecules in synapse formation specifically in the vertebrate brain, focusing on examples from three classes of IgSF members: ( a) cell adhesion molecules, ( b) signaling molecules, and ( c) immune molecules expressed in the brain...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Lei Zhang, Jan Vijg
DNA mutations as a consequence of errors during DNA damage repair, replication, or mitosis are the substrate for evolution. In multicellular organisms, mutations can occur in the germline and also in somatic tissues, where they are associated with cancer and other chronic diseases and possibly with aging. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing have made it relatively easy to study germline de novo mutations, but in somatic cells, the vast majority of mutations are low-abundant and can be detected only in clonal lineages, such as tumors, or single cells...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Comzit Opachaloemphan, Hua Yan, Alexandra Leibholz, Claude Desplan, Danny Reinberg
Eusocial insects live in societies in which distinct family members serve specific roles in maintaining the colony and advancing the reproductive ability of a few select individuals. Given the genetic similarity of all colony members, the diversity of morphologies and behaviors is surprising. Social communication relies on pheromones and olfaction, as shown by mutants of orco, the universal odorant receptor coreceptor, and through electrophysiological analysis of neuronal responses to pheromones. Additionally, neurohormonal factors and epigenetic regulators play a key role in caste-specific behavior, such as foraging and caste switching...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Olga V Sedelnikova, Thomas E Hughes, Jane A Langdale
One of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution is the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis, an event that occurred on over 60 independent occasions. The evolution of C4 is particularly noteworthy because of the complexity of the developmental and metabolic changes that took place. In most cases, compartmentalized metabolic reactions were facilitated by the development of a distinct leaf anatomy known as Kranz. C4 Kranz anatomy differs from ancestral C3 anatomy with respect to vein spacing patterns across the leaf, cell-type specification around veins, and cell-specific organelle function...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Titia de Lange
For more than a decade, it has been known that mammalian cells use shelterin to protect chromosome ends. Much progress has been made on the mechanism by which shelterin prevents telomeres from inadvertently activating DNA damage signaling and double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. Shelterin averts activation of three DNA damage response enzymes [the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) kinases and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)], blocks three DSB repair pathways [classical nonhomologous end joining (c-NHEJ), alternative (alt)-NHEJ, and homology-directed repair (HDR)], and prevents hyper-resection at telomeres...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Jerome Mertens, Dylan Reid, Shong Lau, Yongsung Kim, Fred H Gage
Age-associated neurological diseases represent a profound challenge in biomedical research as we are still struggling to understand the interface between the aging process and the manifestation of disease. Various pathologies in the elderly do not directly result from genetic mutations, toxins, or infectious agents but are primarily driven by the many manifestations of biological aging. Therefore, the generation of appropriate model systems to study human aging in the nervous system demands new concepts that lie beyond transgenic and drug-induced models...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Andrew Seeber, Michael H Hauer, Susan M Gasser
Recent advances in both the technologies used to measure chromatin movement and the biophysical analysis used to model them have yielded a fuller understanding of chromatin dynamics and the polymer structure that underlies it. Changes in nucleosome packing, checkpoint kinase activation, the cell cycle, chromosomal tethers, and external forces acting on nuclei in response to external and internal stimuli can alter the basal mobility of DNA in interphase nuclei of yeast or mammalian cells. Although chromatin movement is assumed to be necessary for many DNA-based processes, including gene activation by distal enhancer-promoter interaction or sequence-based homology searches during double-strand break repair, experimental evidence supporting an essential role in these activities is sparse...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
José Vicente Gomes-Filho, Michael Daume, Lennart Randau
Advances in genome-wide sequence technologies allow for detailed insights into the complexity of RNA landscapes of organisms from all three domains of life. Recent analyses of archaeal transcriptomes identified interaction and regulation networks of noncoding RNAs in this understudied domain. Here, we review current knowledge of small, noncoding RNAs with important functions for the archaeal lifestyle, which often requires adaptation to extreme environments. One focus is RNA metabolism at elevated temperatures in hyperthermophilic archaea, which reveals elevated amounts of RNA-guided RNA modification and virus defense strategies...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Raika Pancaroglu, Filip Van Petegem
Ion channels are membrane proteins responsible for the passage of ions down their electrochemical gradients and across biological membranes. In this, they generate and shape action potentials and provide secondary messengers for various signaling pathways. They are often part of larger complexes containing auxiliary subunits and regulatory proteins. Channelopathies arise from mutations in the genes encoding ion channels or their associated proteins. Recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy have resulted in an explosion of ion channel structures in multiple states, generating a wealth of new information on channelopathies...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Sabrina Y Stanley, Karen L Maxwell
The battle for survival between bacteria and bacteriophages (phages) is an arms race where bacteria develop defenses to protect themselves from phages and phages evolve counterstrategies to bypass these defenses. CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems represent a widespread mechanism by which bacteria protect themselves from phage infection. In response to CRISPR-Cas, phages have evolved protein inhibitors known as anti-CRISPRs. Here, we describe the discovery and mechanisms of action of anti-CRISPR proteins. We discuss the potential impact of anti-CRISPRs on bacterial evolution, speculate on their evolutionary origins, and contemplate the possible next steps in the CRISPR-Cas evolutionary arms race...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
Frederick M Ausubel
My trajectory to becoming a plant biologist was shaped by a complex mix of scientific, political, sociological, and personal factors. I was trained as a microbiologist and molecular biologist in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a time of political upheaval surrounding the Vietnam War. My political activism taught me to be wary of the potential misuses of scientific knowledge and to promote the positive applications of science for the benefit of society. I chose agricultural science for my postdoctoral work. Because I was not trained as a plant biologist, I devised a postdoctoral project that took advantage of my microbiological training, and I explored using genetic technologies to transfer the ability to fix nitrogen from prokaryotic nitrogen-fixing species to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with the ultimate goal of engineering crop plants...
November 23, 2018: Annual Review of Genetics
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