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Nisha K Duggal, Erin M McDonald, James Weger-Lucarelli, Seth A Hawks, Jana M Ritter, Hannah Romo, Gregory D Ebel, Aaron C Brault
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can result in neurological disorders including Congenital Zika Syndrome in infants exposed to the virus in utero. Pregnant women can be infected by mosquito bite as well as by sexual transmission from infected men. Herein, the variants of ZIKV within the male reproductive tract and ejaculates were assessed in inoculated mice. We identified two non-synonymous variants at positions E-V330L and NS1-W98G. These variants were also present in the passage three PRVABC59 isolate and infectious clone relative to the patient serum PRVABC59 sequence...
February 7, 2019: Virology
F J Del Toro, K S Choi, F Rakhshandehroo, E Aguilar, F Tenllado, T Canto
Conditions of elevated temperature and CO2 levels [30 °C and 970 parts-per-million (ppm), respectively] reduced the systemic titers of a potato virus Y (PVY) isolate in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, relative to standard conditions (25 °C, ~405 ppm CO2 ). Under controlled conditions we studied how these growing environments affected the transmission of infection by aphids. Probabilities of transmission of infection by insects that fed on infected donor plants kept at either standard conditions, or at 30 °C and 970 ppm CO2 were both determined and found to positively correlate with titers in donor leaves, independently of the ambient conditions in which recipient plantlets would grow...
February 4, 2019: Virology
Jie Zhang, Hong Guo, Fuxian Zhang, Qingxiu Chen, Mingxian Chang, Qin Fang
Aquareoviruses contain an 11-segmented double-stranded RNA genome. Previous studies indicated that NS38, a virus-encoded putative single-stranded RNA binding protein, interacts with NS80 in viral inclusion bodies (VIBs). However, the role of NS38 in aquareovirus infection remained unclear. Here, we found that NS38 interacts with inner-capsid proteins (VP1-VP4 and VP6) and the NS80-RNA complex in both transfected and infected cells. Knockdown of NS38 by siRNAs-115/219 clearly reduced viral infection, with decreased mRNA and protein yields...
February 1, 2019: Virology
Daniela Dana Dünn-Kittenplon, Inna Kalt, Jean-Paul Moshe Lellouche, Ronit Sarid
Herpesvirus capsid assembly involves cleavage and packaging of the viral genome. The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) open reading frame 43 (orf43) encodes a putative portal protein. The portal complex functions as a gate through which DNA is packaged into the preformed procapsids, and is injected into the cell nucleus upon infection. The amino acid sequence of the portal proteins is conserved among herpesviruses. Here, we generated an antiserum to ORF43 and determined late expression kinetics of ORF43 along with its nuclear localization...
February 1, 2019: Virology
Ling'En Yang, Zihan Zhao, Guobin Hou, Chang Zhang, Jun Liu, Lin Xu, Wei Li, Zhizhou Tan, Changchun Tu, Biao He
Ticks are medically-important arthropods that maintain and transmit numerous emerging viruses. China suffers severely from tick-borne viral diseases such as tick-borne encephalitis and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), but the background of tick-borne viruses is very limited. Here we report the virome profiling of ticks and goat sera from SFTS-epidemic areas, and serological investigation of SFTS virus (SFTSV) and Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV). Results revealed divergent viruses in ticks and goat sera, including SFTSV and NSDV...
January 30, 2019: Virology
Gérald Theillet, Jérôme Martinez, Christophe Steinbrugger, Dimitri Lavillette, Bruno Coutard, Nicolas Papageorgiou, Pascal Dalbon, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Frédéric Bedin
The incidence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has increased dramatically in recent decades. Effective diagnostic methods must be available to optimize patient management. IgM-capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (MAC-ELISA) is routinely used for the detection of specific CHIKV IgM. This method requires inactivated CHIKV viral lysate (VL). The use of viral bioparticles such as Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) and Pseudotyped-Particles (PPs) could represent an alternative to VL. Bioparticles performances were established by MAC-ELISA; physico-chemical characterizations were performed by field-flow fractionation (HF5) and confirmed by electron microscopy...
January 30, 2019: Virology
Juliana F Germano, Savannah Sawaged, Hannaneh Saadaeijahromi, Allen M Andres, Ralph Feuer, Roberta A Gottlieb, Jon Sin
Coxsackievirus B is a significant human pathogen and is a leading cause of myocarditis. We and others have observed that certain enteroviruses including coxsackievirus B cause infected cells to shed extracellular vesicles containing infectious virus. Recent reports have shown that vesicle-bound virus can infect more efficiently than free virus. Though microRNAs are differentially regulated in cells following infection, few have been associated with the vesicles shed from infected cells. Here we report exclusive trafficking of specific microRNAs into viral vesicles compared to vesicles from non-infected cells...
January 30, 2019: Virology
Ryosuke Suzuki, Mami Matsuda, Takashi Shimoike, Koichi Watashi, Hideki Aizaki, Takanobu Kato, Tetsuro Suzuki, Masamichi Muramatsu, Takaji Wakita
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was shown to activate protein kinase R (PKR), which inhibits expression of interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated genes by controlling the translation of newly transcribed mRNAs. However, it is unknown exactly how HCV activates PKR. To address the molecular mechanism(s) of PKR activation mediated by HCV infection, we examined the effects of viral proteins on PKR activation. Here, we show that expression of HCV NS5B strongly induced PKR and eIF2α phosphorylation, and attenuated MHC class I expression...
January 29, 2019: Virology
Aditi S Kesari, C Matthew Sharkey, David Avram Sanders
Variants of Ross River virus (RRV) that bind to heparan sulfate (HS) were previously selected by serial passaging in cell culture. To explore the effects of mutations that convey HS utilization, we pseudotyped Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), with the RRV envelope. We substituted amino-acid residues 216 and 218 on RRV-E2-envelope glycoprotein with basic amino-acid residues, because these mutations confer affinity for HS upon RRV. However, T216R-RRV- and N218R-RRV-pseudotyped viruses possessed lower transduction titers, and we demonstrated that HS-affinity impeded release of pseudotyped virus from producer cells...
January 29, 2019: Virology
Melvin W King, Joshua Munger
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes substantial disease in neonates and immunocompromised individuals. Reverse genetic analysis of the HCMV genome is a powerful tool to dissect the roles that various viral genes play during infection. However, genetic engineering of HCMV is hampered by both the large size of the HCMV genome and HCMV's slow replication cycle. Currently, most laboratories that genetically engineer HCMV employ Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) mediated recombineering, which is a relatively lengthy process...
January 26, 2019: Virology
Andrew J Bennett, Trenton Bushmaker, Kenneth Cameron, Alain Ondzie, Fabien R Niama, Henri-Joseph Parra, Jean-Vivien Mombouli, Sarah H Olson, Vincent J Munster, Tony L Goldberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2019: Virology
Arifa S Khan, Jochen Bodem, Florence Buseyne, Antoine Gessain, Welkin Johnson, Jens H Kuhn, Jacek Kuzmak, Dirk Lindemann, Maxine L Linial, Martin Löchelt, Magdalena Materniak-Kornas, Marcelo A Soares, William M Switzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2019: Virology
Takahiro Sanada, Fumihiko Yasui, Tomoko Honda, Mohammad Enamul Hoque Kayesh, Jun-Ichiro Takano, Yumiko Shiogama, Yasuhiro Yasutomi, Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara, Michinori Kohara
Avian-origin influenza viruses like H5N1 and H7N9 often cause severe symptoms with high mortality in humans. Animal models are useful for clarification of the mechanisms of pathogenicity of these infections. In this study, to expand the potential utility of the Northern tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) for influenza virus infection, we assessed the pathogenicity of H5N1 and H7N9 avian influenza viruses in tupaia. Infectious virus was detected continuously from nasal, oral, tracheal, and conjunctival swab samples in the animals infected with these viruses...
January 19, 2019: Virology
Huixin Gao, Yuxia Lin, Junfang He, Shili Zhou, Mujiao Liang, Changbai Huang, Xiaobo Li, Chao Liu, Ping Zhang
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus and its infection associates with neurologic diseases. Whether heparan sulfate (HS), an attachment factor for many viruses, plays a role in the ZIKV infection remains controversial. Our study generated several HS biosynthesis-deficient cell clones by disrupting SLC35B2, B3GAT3, or B4GALT7 gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The HS deficiency did not affect the viral attachment and internalization of ZIKV, but reduced the attachment of Dengue virus (DENV) 2. The early RNA and protein levels of ZIKV and DENV2 were impaired in the HS deficient cells, while the viral yields were not accordingly reduced...
January 18, 2019: Virology
Katharina Hipp, Kerstin Zikeli, Gabi Kepp, Lena Schmid, Robert L Shoeman, Tomasz P Jurkowski, Tatjana Kleinow, Holger Jeske
One geminiviral gene encodes the capsid protein (CP), which can appear as several bands after electrophoresis depending on virus and plant. African cassava mosaic virus-Nigeria CP in Nicotiana benthamiana, however, yielded one band (~ 30 kDa) in total protein extracts and purified virions, although its expression in yeast yielded two bands (~ 30, 32 kDa). Mass spectrometry of the complete protein and its tryptic fragments from virions is consistent with a cleaved start M1, acetylated S2, and partial phosphorylation at T12, S25 and S62...
January 17, 2019: Virology
Jun-Ting Huang, Jian-Ning Chen, Li-Ping Gong, Yuan-Hua Bi, Jing Liang, Lu Zhou, Dan He, Chun-Kui Shao
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of non-coding RNA molecules in eukaryotic organisms that have potentially important roles in gene regulation. Nevertheless, whether viruses can encode circRNA is still uncertain. To examine whether large genome DNA viruses can generate circRNA during the infection of human cells, we performed RNA sequencing of ribosomal RNA-depleted total RNA from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cell lines, including SNU-719, AGS-EBV, C666-1 and Akata. We identified an EBV-encoded circRNA, ebv_circ_RPMS1, that consists of the head-to-tail splicing of exons 2-4 from the RPMS1 gene...
January 16, 2019: Virology
Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Sol Jeong, Sun-Hak Lee, Yu-Jin Kim, Seong-Su Yuk, Dong-Hun Lee, You-Chan Bae, Seok-Chan Park, Kyung-Hyun Lee, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Yu-Na Lee, Youn-Jeong Lee, Chang-Seon Song
H5Nx clade highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been disseminated to wide geographic regions since 2014. In 2016, five distinct genotypes (C-1 to C-5) of clade H5N6 HPAIVs were detected in South Korea. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity, susceptibility to infection, and transmissibility of the two strains representing the C-1 and C-4 genotypes of the H5N6 viruses, which have different PA and NS gene, in domestic ducks. Although the susceptibility to infection of domestic ducks to the two strains was similar, the C-4 genotype virus induced higher mortality in ducks than C-1 genotype virus...
January 15, 2019: Virology
Young-Tae Lee, Ki-Hye Kim, Eun-Ju Ko, Min-Chul Kim, Yu-Na Lee, Hye-Suk Hwang, Youri Lee, Yu-Jin Jung, Yu Jin Kim, Jefferson Santos, Daniel R Perez, Sang-Moo Kang
Current influenza vaccines including live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) provide suboptimal protection against drift and potential pandemic strains. We hypothesized that supplementing LAIV with a highly conserved antigenic target M2 ectodomain (M2e) would confer cross-protection by inducing humoral and cellular immune responses to conserved antigenic targets. Intranasal vaccination with LAIV (A/Netherlands/602/09, H1N1) supplemented with tandem repeat M2e containing virus-like particles (M2e5x VLP) induced M2e- and virus-specific antibodies...
January 15, 2019: Virology
Amit C Sukal, Dawit B Kidanemariam, James L Dale, Robert M Harding, Anthony P James
The genus Badnavirus is characterized by members that are genetically and serologically heterogeneous which presents challenges for their detection and characterization. The presence of integrated badnavirus-like sequences in some host species further complicates detection using PCR-based protocols. To address these challenges, we have assessed and optimized various RCA protocols including random-primed RCA (RP-RCA), primer-spiked random-primed RCA (primer-spiked RP-RCA), directed RCA (D-RCA) and specific-primed RCA (SP-RCA)...
January 15, 2019: Virology
Zhizhou Tan, Huiju Yu, Lin Xu, Zihan Zhao, Peisheng Zhang, Yonggang Qu, Biao He, Changchun Tu
Rodents, as the most diverse and widest distributed mammals, are a natural reservoir of many zoonotic viruses. However, little is known about the viral diversity harbored by rodents in China. Here we performed viral metagenomic analyses of 314 wild rodents covering 7 species, sampled in North-western China. We also conducted a systematic virological characterization of a new Wenzhou virus (WENV) isolate, QARn1, from a brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Full genomic and phylogenetic analyses showed that QARn1 is a previously unidentified strain of Wenzhou mammarenavirus and forms a new branch within the Asian clade...
January 14, 2019: Virology
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