Xiaodi Yang, Siyu Tian, Zhujiang Min, Emanuela Garbarino, Jingjing Ma, Junli Jia, Huamin Tang, Lingyun Li
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a cellular energy sensor regulating metabolic homeostasis. In this study, we investigated the role of AMPK in response to human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) infection. We show that HHV-6A infection significantly downregulates the active phosphorylated state of AMPK in infected T cells. Pharmacological activation of AMPK highly attenuated HHV-6A propagation. Mechanistically, we found that the activation of AMPK by AICAR blocked HHV-6-induced glycolysis by inhibiting glucose metabolism and lactate secretion, as well as decreasing expressions of key glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes...
April 9, 2024: Virology
Shiori Ueno, Sodbayasgalan Amarbayasgalan, Yoshiro Sugiura, Tatsuki Takahashi, Kenta Shimizu, Keisuke Nakagawa, Reika Kawabata-Iwakawa, Wataru Kamitani
Coronavirus disease 19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enveloped virus with a single-stranded positive-sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome. The CoV non-structural protein (nsp) 1 is a multifunctional protein that undergoes translation shutoff, messenger RNA (mRNA) cleavage, and RNA binding. The C-terminal region is involved in translational shutoff and RNA cleavage. The N-terminal region of SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 is highly conserved among isolated SARS-CoV-2 variants. However, the I-004 variant, isolated during the early SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, lost eight amino acids in the nsp1 region...
April 8, 2024: Virology
Jorge G Gomez-Gutierrez, Xia-Mei Rao, Heshan Sam Zhou, Kelly M McMasters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2024: Virology
Yunfei Guo, Yaoyao Jiang, Mila Wu, Aizhu Tu, Jingliang Yin, Jian Yang
WRKY transcription factors are widely involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there is currently a limited understanding of the regulation of viral infection by WRKY transcription factors in wheat (Triticum aestivum). The WRKY transcription factor TaWRKY50 in group IIb wheat exhibited a significant response to Chinese wheat mosaic virus infection. TaWRKY50 is localized in the nucleus and is an activating transcription factor. Interestingly, we found that silencing TaWRKY50 induces cell death following inoculation with CWMV...
April 5, 2024: Virology
Yuhao Zhang, Saranika Talukder, Md Safiul Alam Bhuiyan, Lei He, Subir Sarker
Parvoviruses are known to be significant viral pathogens that infect a wide range of species globally. However, little is known about the parvoviruses circulating in Australian birds, including yellow canaries. Here, we present four parvoviral sequences including three novel parvoviruses detected from 10 yellow canaries (Crithagra flaviventris), named canary chaphamaparvovirus 1 and -2 (CaChPV1 and CaChPV2), canary dependoparvovirus 1 and -2 (CaDePV1 and CaDePV2). The whole genome sequences of CaChPV1, CaChPV2, CaDePV1, and CaDePV2 showed the highest identity with other parvoviruses at 76...
April 4, 2024: Virology
Amalie Ehlers Bedsted, Thomas Bruun Rasmussen, Laura D Martinenghi, Anette Bøtner, Hans Nauwynck, Graham J Belsham
Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) was initially detected in Europe, and later in the United States of America (US), in the 1980s. In this study we obtained and compared PRCV sequences from Europe and the US, and investigated how these are related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) sequences. The whole genome sequences of Danish (1/90-DK), Italian (PRCV15087/12 III NPTV Parma), and Belgian PRCV (91V44) strains are presented. These sequences were aligned with nine other PRCV sequences from Europe and the US, and 43 TGEV sequences...
April 2, 2024: Virology
Kelsey Briggs, Klaudia Chrzastek, Karen Segovia, Jongsuk Mo, Darrell R Kapczynski
Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a constant threat to animal health with recent global outbreaks resulting in the death of hundreds of millions of birds with spillover into mammals. Myxovirus-resistance (Mx) proteins are key mediators of the antiviral response that block virus replication. Mouse (Mu) Mx (Mx1) is a strong antiviral protein that interacts with the viral nucleoprotein to inhibit polymerase function. The ability of avian Mx1 to inhibit AIV is unclear. In these studies, Mu Mx1 was stably introduced into chicken DF1 cells to enhance the immune response against AIV...
March 31, 2024: Virology
Phil-Sun Oh, Yeon-Hee Han, SeokTae Lim, Berwin Singh Swami Vetha, Hwan-Jeong Jeong
This experimental study aimed to evaluate the antiviral and synergistic effects of photoenergy irradiation on human herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) infection. We assessed viral replication, plaque formation, and relevant viral gene expression to examine the antiviral and synergistic effects of blue light (BL) with acyclovir treatment. Our results showed that daily BL (10 J/cm2 ) irradiation inhibited plaque-forming ability and decreased viral copy numbers in HSV-1-infected monkey kidney epithelial Vero cells and primary human oral keratinocyte (HOK) cells...
March 31, 2024: Virology
Purnima Tyagi, Ankita Singh, Jitendra Kumar, Belal Ahmad, Aparna Bahuguna, Perumal Vivekanandan, Shiv Kumar Sarin, Vijay Kumar
Nucleot(s)ide analogues, the current antiviral treatments against chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection, are non-curative due to their inability to eliminate covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) from the infected hepatocytes. Preclinical studies have shown that coumarin derivatives can effectively reduce the HBV DNA replication. We evaluated the antiviral efficacy of thirty new coumarin derivatives in cell culture models for studying HBV. Furanocoumarins Fc-20 and Fc-31 suppressed the levels of pre-genomic RNA as well as cccDNA, and reduced the secretion of virions, HBsAg and HBeAg...
March 24, 2024: Virology
Long Xu, Jingjing Ren, Lingxia Li, Mengyi Wang, Guoqiang Zhu, Haixue Zheng, Qiaoying Zeng, Youjun Shang, Dan Li
The Peste des petits ruminant virus (PPRV) is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family and is classified into the genus Measles virus. PPRV predominantly infects small ruminants, leading to mortality rates of nearly 100%, which have caused significant economic losses in developing countries. Host proteins are important in virus replication, but the PPRV nucleocapsid (N) protein-host interacting partners for regulating PPRV replication remain unclear. The present study confirmed the interaction between PPRV-N and the host protein vimentin by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization experiments...
March 24, 2024: Virology
Junyi Pu, Yan Zhang, Dengke Zhong, Qiusheng Chen
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the main cause of viral diarrhea in dogs. CPV became a global disease in 1978 and was endemic all over the world. CPV-2 was the first strain to be identified, but with genetic mutations, new genotypes such as CPV-2a/2b/2c/new-2a/new-2b have emerged. In this study, 128 fecal samples of stray dogs suspected of CPV-2 infection were collected from January to March 2021 in Shanghai, China. All samples were screened by PCR and further analyzed by VP2 gene. The positive rate of CPV-2 was 9...
March 23, 2024: Virology
Melanie Regney, Simona Kraberger, Joy M Custer, Adele E Crane, Michelle R Shero, Roxanne S Beltran, Amy L Kirkham, Koenraad Van Doorslaer, Anne C Stone, Michael E Goebel, Jennifer M Burns, Arvind Varsani
Papillomaviruses (family Papillomaviridae) are non-enveloped, circular, double-stranded DNA viruses known to infect squamous and mucosal epithelial cells. In the family Papillomaviridae there are 53 genera and 133 viral species whose members infect a variety of mammalian, avian, reptilian, and fish species. Within the Antarctic context, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been identified in Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae, 2 PVs), Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, 7 PVs), and emerald notothen (Trematomus bernacchii, 1 PV) in McMurdo Sound and Ross Island in eastern Antarctica...
March 21, 2024: Virology
Franco Ferilli, Guglielmo Lione, Paolo Gonthier, Massimo Turina, Marco Forgia
Gnomoniopsis castaneae is an ascomycetous fungus mainly known as a major pathogen of chestnut causing nut rots, although it is often found as an endophyte in chestnut tissues. To date, no virus has been reported as associated with to this fungus. Here, a collection of G. castaneae isolates from several European countries was screened to detect mycoviruses infecting the fungus: for the first time we report the identification and prevalence of mitovirus Gnomoniopsis castaneae mitovirus 1 (GcMV1) and the chrysovirus Gnomoniopsis castaneae chrysovirus 1 (GcCV1)...
March 20, 2024: Virology
Qianwen Wu, Xing Liu, Jingyu Wang, Sijia Xu, Fanliang Zeng, Ling Chen, Guihong Zhang, Heng Wang
Viral diarrhea is the predominant digestive tract sickness in piglings, resulting in substantial profit losses in the porcine industry. Porcine rotavirus A (PoRVA) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are the main causes of grave gastroenteritis and massive dysentery, especially in piglets. PoRVA and PEDV have high transmissibility, exhibit similar clinical symptoms, and frequently co-occur. Therefore, to avoid financial losses, a quick, highly efficient, objective diagnostic test for the prevention and detection of these diseases is required...
March 20, 2024: Virology
Feng Lin, Dedao Jing, Jiayuan Zhang, Yue Sun, Linlin Du, Chenyang Li, Ying Lan, Tong Zhou
Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus disease (SRBSDVD) is the most destructive viral disease in rice. In order to breeding resistant cultivars, Insertion-Deletion (InDel) markers were developed linked to OsAP47, the first isolated major resistance gene against SRBSDVD. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) was conducted to introduce this gene into the commercial variety. A rice line carrying homozygous resistance allele of OsAP47 was selected and named Kanghei No. 201 (KH201). Evaluated by artificial inoculation, KH201 showed significantly higher resistance than the recurrent parent Suxiu No...
March 19, 2024: Virology
Van Nam Le, Van Nguyen Bang Le, Xuan Son Hoang, Van Duyet Le
HPV16, with typical mutations that differ in geographical distribution and carcinogenic potency, has implications for cervical cancer screening, clinical diagnosis, and treatment. DNASTAR and MEGA were used to identify HPV16 variants and construct a phylogenetic tree. The most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV16 (63.9%), HPV18 (26.7%), and other HPV (6.9%). HPV16 alterations were found in all E6, E7, and L1 genes, including 15 missense and 18 synonymous mutations. Missense mutations include R10G, Q14H, D25E, H78Y, L83V (E6); M29V, R35K, L78R, L95P (E7); H73Y, T176 N, N178T, T317P, T386S, L472F/I (L1)...
March 16, 2024: Virology
Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim, Modra Murovska, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Vikram N Vakharia, William C Wilson, Douglas P Gladue, Matthew D Moore, Covadonga Alonso, Sayed F Abdelwahab, Marietjie Venter, Yashpal S Malik, Shi Zhengli, Shailendra K Saxena, Anupam Varma, Richard J Kuhn
The Second International Conference of the World Society for Virology (WSV), hosted by Riga Stradiņš University, was held in Riga, Latvia, on June 15-17th, 2023. It prominently highlighted the recent advancements in different disciplines of virology. The conference had fourteen keynote speakers covering diverse topics, including emerging virus pseudotypes, Zika virus vaccine development, herpesvirus capsid mobility, parvovirus invasion strategies, influenza in animals and birds, West Nile virus and Marburg virus ecology, as well as the latest update in animal vaccines...
March 15, 2024: Virology
Yuan Chen, Shiping Guo, Lianqiang Jiang, Fangfang Yan, Kaiqiang Hao, Zhiping Wang, Mengnan An, Zihao Xia, Fangfang Li, Xueping Zhou, Yuanhua Wu
The occurrence of geminiviruses causes significant economic losses in many economically important crops. In this study, a novel geminivirus isolated from tobacco in Sichuan province of China, named tomato leaf curl Chuxiong virus (TLCCxV), was characterized by small RNA-based deep sequencing. The full-length of TLCCxV genome was determined to be 2744 nucleotides (nt) encoding six open reading frames. Phylogenetic and genome-wide pairwise identity analysis revealed that TLCCxV shared less than 91% identities with reported geminiviruses...
March 15, 2024: Virology
Cong Thanh Nguyen, Misako Nakayama, Hirohito Ishigaki, Yoshinori Kitagawa, Akemi Kakino, Marumi Ohno, Masashi Shingai, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Tatsuya Sawamura, Hiroshi Kida, Yasushi Itoh
SARS-CoV-2 infection causes activation of endothelial cells (ECs), leading to dysmorphology and dysfunction. To study the pathogenesis of endotheliopathy, the activation of ECs in lungs of cynomolgus macaques after SARS-CoV-2 infection and changes in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism in ECs were investigated, with a focus on the CD38 molecule, which degrades NAD in inflammatory responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Activation of ECs was seen from day 3 after SARS-CoV-2 infection in macaques, with increases of intravascular fibrin and NAD metabolism-associated enzymes including CD38...
March 14, 2024: Virology
Liang Zhang, Hui Yang, Xujie Duan, Huiping Li, Siriguleng Xu, Hui Chen, Jinlin Wang, Yu Wang, Shuying Liu
Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA), caused by the jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), is a chronic, progressive, and contagious lung tumor that seriously affects sheep production. It also represents a valuable animal model for several human lung adenocarcinomas. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in OPA tumorigenesis. Here, Western blotting combined with transmission electron microscopy examination and Cyto-ID dye staining was employed for evaluation of changes of autophagic levels. The results of the present study showed that expression of the autophagy marker proteins Beclin-1 and LC3 was decreased in OPA lung tissues, as well as in cells overexpressing the envelope glycoprotein of JSRV (JSRV Env)...
March 13, 2024: Virology
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