Kaiyue Zheng, Ruihao Zhang, Qionglian Wan, Ge Zhang, Yuwen Lu, Hongying Zheng, Fei Yan, Jiejun Peng, Jian Wu
Virions are responsible for the long-distance transport of many viruses, such as Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV). Emerging evidence indicates viral traffic in the form of ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP), yet comprehensive analysis is scarce. In this study, we inoculated plants with PMMoV-GFP, both with and without the coding sequence for the coat protein (CP). PMMoV-GFP was detected in systemic leaves, even in the absence of the CP, despite the presence of much smaller infection areas. Moreover, using leaf extracts from PMMoV-infected plants to perform a root-irrigation experiment, we confirmed that PMMoV can infect plants through root transmission...
September 9, 2023: Virology
Hélène Sanfaçon, Syed Benazir Alam, Basudev Ghoshal, Kankana Ghoshal, Elizabeth Hui, Andrew O Jackson, Kishore Kakani, T Jack Morris, Peter D Nagy, Anne E Simon, Tim L Sit, Thomas J Smith, K Andrew White, Yu Xiang
D'Ann Rochon passed away on November 29th 2022. She is remembered for her outstanding contributions to the field of plant virology, her strong commitment to high quality science and her dedication to the training and mentorship of the next generation of scientists. She was a research scientist for Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and an Adjunct Professor for the University of British Columbia. Her research program provided new insights on the infection cycle of tombusviruses and related viruses, including ground-breaking research on the structure of virus particles, the mechanisms of virus transmission by fungal zoospores, and the complexity of plant-virus interactions...
September 8, 2023: Virology
Sai Niu, Yilin Guo, Xueying Wang, Zixuan Wang, Limeng Sun, Hanchuan Dai, Guiqing Peng
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes hemorrhagic fever in domestic and wild pigs. The continued spread of the virus in Africa, Europe and Asia threatens the global pig industry. The lack of an effective vaccine limits disease control. ASFV has evolved a variety of encoded immune escape proteins and can evade host adaptive immunity, inducing cellular inflammation, autophagy, or apoptosis in host cells. Frequent persistent infections hinder the development of a viral vaccine and impose technical barriers. Currently, knowledge of the virulence-related genes, main pathogenic genes and immunoregulatory mechanism of ASFV is not comprehensive...
September 7, 2023: Virology
Haoyuan Yu, Guohui Chen, Tao Zhang, Xin Huang, YaBin Lu, Maolin Li, Shuxian Li, Caiying Wang, Baoyu Li, Yunhang Zhang, Guangliang Liu, Yuguang Fu
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) can infect all ages of pigs, particularly newborn piglets with a mortality almost reaching to 80-100%, causing significant economic losses to the global pig industry. The mucosal immune response is crucial for PEDV prevention, in which specific dendritic cells (DCs) and differentiated T cells play vital roles. In this study, CD103+ DCs were differentiated successfully with retinoic acid (RA) treatment in vitro. PEDV could not replicate efficiently in differentiated CD103+ DCs but could promote maturation of CD103+ DCs by up-regulating the expression of SLA-DR, CD1a, CD86, and cytokines of IL-1β and IL-10...
September 7, 2023: Virology
Yue Wang, Panpan Qin, Chenxu Zhao, Yaqin Li, Shuai Li, Fangfang Fan, Dongliang Li, Huimin Huang, Hong Duan, Xia Yang, Wenjuan Du, Yongtao Li
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has catastrophic impacts on the global pig industry. However, there remains no effective drugs for PEDV infection. Ivermectin is an FDA-approved anthelmintic drug used to treat worm infections. In this study, we reported the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of Ivermectin in vitro. Ivermectin can inhibit PEDV infections of different genotypes. Avermectin derivatives can also inhibit PEDV infections. A time of addition assay showed that Ivermectin exhibited potent anti-PEDV activity when added simultaneously with or post virus infection...
September 4, 2023: Virology
Krishnan Nagendran, Shweta Kumari, Sudhakar Pandey, Pradip Karmakar, Tribhuvan Chaubey, Rajesh Kumar, S Vignesh, Gandhi Karthikeyan, Tusar Kanti Behera
Totally 102 symptomatic samples of cucurbitaceous vegetables showing yellowing were collected from fields of Uttar Pradesh and screened by RT-PCR assay for the presence of Crinivirus and Polerovirus. Among them, Crinivirus (16%) and Polerovirus (23%) were tested positive with the universal primer pairs. Based on the sequence analysis of amplified product, two Crinivirus (Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus - CCYV and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus - CYSDV) and two Polerovirus (Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus - CABYV and Luffa aphid-borne yellows virus - LABYV) species were characterized...
September 2, 2023: Virology
Wenlong Wang, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Jun Han, Xin Guo, Yongning Zhang, Hanchun Yang
Porcine enteric alphacoronavirus (PEAV) is a newly emerging swine enteropathogen that poses a threat to the swine industry. To understand the PEAV genome evolution, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the codon usage patterns in fifty-nine PEAV strains currently available. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PEAV can be divided into six lineages. Effective number of codons analysis demonstrated that the PEAV genome exhibits a low codon usage bias (CUB). Nucleotide composition analysis indicated that the PEAV genome has the most abundant nucleotide U content, with GC content (39...
September 1, 2023: Virology
Devendra Nath Tewari, Asim Biswas, Alok Kumar Chakrabarti, Shanta Dutta
Differential regulation of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), which is considered the rate-limiting enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, has been reported in case of infection with many viruses. In our study, we have found that influenza virus infection decreases total cellular cholesterol level which is directly related to the downregulation of HMGCR protein. We found that HMGCR is degraded through ubiquitination and proteasomal-mediated pathway upon viral infection. Upregulation of Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor (AMFR), which is an E3-ubiquitin ligase of HMGCR, was also observed...
August 31, 2023: Virology
Shanshan Li, Wenbin Guo, Chen Wang, Yao Tang, Lulu Li, Hehong Zhang, Yanjun Li, Zhongyan Wei, Jianping Chen, Zongtao Sun
Alternative splicing (AS) is an important form of post transcriptional modification present in both animals and plants. However, little information was obtained about AS events in response to plant virus infection. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis on AS change in rice infected by a devastating virus, Rice stripe virus (RSV). KEGG analysis was performed on the differentially expressed (DE) genes and differentially alternative spliced (DAS) genes. The results showed that DE genes were significantly enriched in the pathway of interaction with plant pathogens...
August 28, 2023: Virology
Il-Hwan Kim, Jin Sun No, Jeong-Ah Kim, Ae Kyung Park, HyeokJin Lee, Jeong-Min Kim, Nam-Joo Lee, Chi-Kyeong Kim, Chae Young Lee, SangHee Woo, Jaehee Lee, JeeEun Rhee, Eun-Jin Kim
The Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA) has been conducting national genomic surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). To monitor and characterize circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants in South Korea, 102,873 oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab samples collected from patients with confirmed COVID-19 were sequenced, assigned lineages, and phylogenetically analyzed. Each wave followed a pattern of variants emerging first abroad and then spreading domestically. In 2020, B...
August 26, 2023: Virology
Baswaraj Raigond, Shruti Pathania, Gaurav Verma, Pooja Bhardwaj, Tarvinder Kochhar, S K Chakrabarti
Reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for detection of groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) causing potato stem necrosis disease. The isothermal temperatures, reaction periods and concentrations of reaction mixture were optimized where, the assay worked well at 65 °C for 50 min, 6 U of WarmStart Bst 2.0 DNA polymerase, 1.4 mM dNTPs and 2.0 mM MgSO4. The optimized assay proved to be specific to GBNV with no cross reactivity to other viruses infecting potato in India...
August 26, 2023: Virology
Callum Le Lay, Matthew B Stott, Mang Shi, Sabrina Sadiq, Edward C Holmes
Little is known about the diversity of RNA viruses in geothermal systems. We generated total RNA sequencing data from two hot springs in Kuirau Park, Rotorua, New Zealand. In one data set, from a 71.8 °C pool, we observed a microbial community that was 98.5% archaea. The second data set, representing a cooler 36.8 °C geothermal hot spring, had a more diverse microbial profile: 58% bacteria, 34.5% eukaryotes and 7.5% archaea. Within this latter pool, we detected sequences likely representing 23 RNA viruses from the families Astroviridae, Tombusviridae, Polycipiviridae, Discistroviridae, Partitiviridae, and Mitoviridae, as well as from unclassified clades of the orders Tolivirales, Picornavirales, and Ghabrivirales...
August 24, 2023: Virology
Dating Han, Wanpeng Yin, Xiaodi Zhang, Xiangyun Lu, Nanping Wu
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection affects expression profiles of microRNA. miR-181 is found negatively correlated with HIV-1 viral load. This study aimed to explain that miR-181 targets DDX3X, a host factor involved in HIV-1 nuclear export, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 replication. METHODS: To verify our hypothesis, first, the relationship between miR-181 expression, DDX3X expression, and HIV-1 viral load was analyzed. Second, miR-181 mimics were transfected into Jurkat cells infected with wild pNL4-3 strain or H9-IIIB cells with HIV-1 replication-competent for HIV-1 viral protein P24(Gag) detection...
August 22, 2023: Virology
Nicole A Jandick, Cathy L Miller
Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) is an oncolytic virus that has been tested in over 30 clinical trials. Increased clinical success has been achieved when MRV is used in combination with other onco-immunotherapies. This has led the field to explore the creation of recombinant MRVs which incorporate immunotherapeutic sequences into the virus genome. This work focuses on creation and characterization of a recombinant MRV, S1/HER2nhd, which encodes a truncated σ1 protein fused in frame with three human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) peptides (E75, AE36, and GP2) known to induce HER2 specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells...
August 19, 2023: Virology
Subaya Manzoor, Sajad Un Nabi, Virendra K Baranwal, Mahendra K Verma, Shugufta Parveen, Tariq Rasool Rather, Wasim H Raja, Mansoor Shafi
Apple mosaic is widely distributed disease throughout the apple growing regions leading to the major adverse effects both qualitatively and quantitatively. Earlier the apple mosaic virus-ApMV was regarded as the only causal agent of the disease, but recently a novel virus apple necrotic mosaic virus-ApNMV have been reported as the causal pathogen from various apple growing countries. Accurate diagnosis of disease and detection of ApMV and ApNMV are of utmost importance, because without this ability we can neither understand nor control this disease...
August 11, 2023: Virology
Miyuki Kimura, Risa Matsuoka, Satoshi Taniguchi, Junki Maruyama, Slobodan Paessler, Saori Oka, Atsushi Yamashita, Takasuke Fukuhara, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Hideki Tani
Lujo virus (LUJV), which belongs to Mammarenavirus, family Arenaviridae, has emerged as a pathogen causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality. Currently, there are no effective treatments for arenaviruses, including LUJV. Here, we screened chemical compound libraries of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs and G protein-coupled receptor-associated drugs to identify effective antivirals against LUJV targeting cell entry using a vesicular stomatitis virus-based pseudotyped virus bearing the LUJV envelope glycoprotein (GP)...
August 10, 2023: Virology
Ai-Li Shiau, Kuan-Hsien Lee, Hsin-Yen Cho, Tzu-Hsien Chuang, Meng-Cheng Yu, Chao-Liang Wu, Sheng-Nan Wu
Molnupiravir (MOL) is a ribonucleoside prodrug for oral treatment of COVID-19. Common adverse effects of MOL are headache, diarrhea, and nausea, which may be associated with altered sodium channel function. Here, we investigated the effect of MOL on voltage-gated Na+ current (INa ) in pituitary GH3 cells. We show that MOL had distinct effects on transient and late INa , in combination with decreased time constant in the slow component of INa inactivation. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values of MOL for suppressing transient and late INa were 26...
August 7, 2023: Virology
Lok R Joshi, Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Diego G Diel
Orf virus (ORFV) has been used as a vaccine delivery vector for multiple animal species. Several strategies are being used to improve the immunogenicity and efficacy of ORFV vectors, including the use of poxviral promoter(s) with strong early and late activity capable of driving the expression of the heterologous genes for a prolonged time and eliciting a potent immune response. Here, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) approach to analyze the transcriptome of ORFV during infection in primary ovine cells. Based on the transcriptional profile of individual ORFV genes, we identified ORFV promoters with strong early and late activity and have shown that they can be used to express heterologous genes in ORFV vectors...
August 6, 2023: Virology
Hamada R Knany, Sherif A Elsabbagh, Moustafa A Shehata, Wagdy M Eldehna, Adnan A Bekhit, Tamer M Ibrahim
In the current medical era, there is an urgent necessity to identify new effective drugs to enrich the COVID-19's therapeutic arsenal. The SARS-COV-2 NSP13/helicase enzyme has been identified as a potential target for developing novel COVID-19 inhibitors. In this work, we aimed at endorsing effective natural products with potential inhibitory action towards the NSP13 through the virtual screening of 1012 natural products of botanical and marine origin from the South African Natural Compounds Database (SANCDB)...
August 5, 2023: Virology
Yao Chen, Hang Wu, Jiang Li, Zhihong Hu, Manli Wang, Huanyu Zhang
The open reading frame 109 (ac109) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is one of the 38 core baculovirus genes. Ac109 was shown to be essential for the production of infectious budded virions (BV), envelopment of the nucleocapsid, and embedding of occlusion-derived virions (ODVs) into occlusion bodies (OBs). Herein, the roles of five cysteines with high conservation (C3, C116, C128, C250, and C325) in Ac109 function were investigated. AcMNPV bacmids lacking ac109 or containing single-mutated ac109 were generated...
August 4, 2023: Virology
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