Journals Current Topics in Microbiology...

Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
M Soledad Delgado, Cecilio López-Galíndez, Federico Moran
The creation of fitness maps from viral populations especially in the case of RNA viruses, with high mutation rates producing quasispecies, is complex since the mutant spectrum is in a very high-dimensional space. In this work, a new approach is presented using a class of neural networks, Self-Organized Maps (SOM), to represent realistic fitness landscapes in two RNA viruses: Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). This methodology has proven to be very effective in the classification of viral quasispecies, using as criterium the mutant sequences in the population...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Peter Schuster, Peter F Stadler
The landscape paradigm is revisited in the light of evolution in simple systems. A brief overview of different classes of fitness landscapes is followed by a more detailed discussion of the RNA model, which is currently the only evolutionary model that allows for a comprehensive molecular analysis of a fitness landscape. Neutral networks of genotypes are indispensable for the success of evolution. Important insights into the evolutionary mechanism are gained by considering the topology of sequence and shape spaces...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Allison Abendroth, Barry Slobedman
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a medically important human herpesvirus that has co-evolved with the human host to become a highly successful and ubiquitous pathogen. Whilst it is clear the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response play key roles in controlling this virus during both primary and reactivated infections, it is also apparent that VZV "fights back" by encoding multiple functions that impair a wide range of immune molecules. This capacity to manipulate the immune response is likely to be important in underpinning the success of VZV as a human pathogen...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Benjamin E Warner, William F Goins, Phillip R Kramer, Paul R Kinchington
Reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes herpes zoster (HZ), which is commonly accompanied by acute pain and pruritus over the time course of a zosteriform rash. Although the rash and associated pain are self-limiting, a considerable fraction of HZ cases will subsequently develop debilitating chronic pain states termed postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). How VZV causes acute pain and the mechanisms underlying the transition to PHN are far from clear. The human-specific nature of VZV has made in vivo modeling of pain following reactivation difficult to study because no single animal can reproduce reactivated VZV disease as observed in the clinic...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Lilia I Melnik
Lassa Fever (LF) is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa. LF begins with flu-like symptoms that are difficult to distinguish from other common endemic diseases such as malaria, dengue, and yellow fever making it hard to diagnose clinically. Availability of a rapid diagnostic test and other serological and molecular assays facilitates accurate diagnosis of LF. Lassa virus therapeutics are currently in different stages of preclinical development. Arevirumab, a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies, demonstrates a great safety and efficacy profile in non-human primates...
October 18, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Pete Dayananda, Christopher Chiu, Peter Openshaw
Despite considerable momentum in the development of RSV vaccines and therapeutics, there remain substantial barriers to the development and licensing of effective agents, particularly in high-risk populations. The unique immunobiology of RSV and lack of clear protective immunological correlates has held back RSV vaccine development, which, therefore, depends on large and costly clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy. Studies involving the deliberate infection of human volunteers offer an intermediate step between pre-clinical and large-scale studies of natural infection...
June 16, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
J S Oxford, A Catchpole, A Mann, A Bell, N Noulin, D Gill, J R Oxford, A Gilbert, Shobana Balasingam
Venetian quarantine 400 years ago was an important public health measure. Since 1900 this has been refined to include "challenge" or deliberate infection with pathogens be they viruses, bacteria, or parasites. Our focus is virology and ranges from the early experiments in Cuba with Yellow Fever Virus to the most widespread pathogen of our current times, COVID-19. The latter has so far caused over four million deaths worldwide and 190 million cases of the disease. Quarantine and challenge were also used to investigate the Spanish Influenza of 1918 which caused over 100 million deaths...
June 16, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Elizabeth Kibwana, Melissa Kapulu, Philip Bejon
Controlled human infection studies have contributed significantly to the understanding of pathogeneses and treatment of infectious diseases. In malaria, deliberately infecting humans with malaria parasites was used as a treatment for neurosyphilis in the early 1920s. More recently, controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) has become a valuable, cost-effective tool to fast-track the development and evaluation of new anti-malarial drugs and/or vaccines. CHMI studies have also been used to define host/parasite interactions and immunological correlates of protection...
June 16, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Megan Steain, Barry Slobedman, Allison Abendroth
Like other herpesviruses, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) evolved a wide range of functions to modulate a broad array of host defences, presumably as a means to provide a survival advantage to the virus during infection. In addition to control of components of the adaptive immune response, VZV also modulates a range of innate responses. In this context, it has become increasingly apparent that VZV encodes specific functions that interfere with programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. This review will overview the current understanding of VZV-mediated control of PCD pathways, focussing on the three most well-defined PCD pathways: apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis...
May 28, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Nandini Sen, Ann M Arvin
Host-pathogen interactions involve complex inside-out and outside-in signal transmission through critical cellular networks that dictate disease outcomes. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is a pivotal junction that regulates several cell functions, and phospho-Akt (pAkt) is often found to be constitutively active in cancer cells, similar to phospho-STAT3. In this chapter, we discuss the regulation of PI3K/Akt pathway in VZV infected cells and of other pathways including p53 which, unlike pAkt and pSTAT3, directs cells towards apoptosis...
May 28, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Kristen A Clarkson, Chad K Porter, Kawsar R Talaat, Melissa C Kapulu, Wilbur H Chen, Robert W Frenck, A Louis Bourgeois, Robert W Kaminski, Laura B Martin
Shigella-controlled human infection models (CHIMs) are an invaluable tool utilized by the vaccine community to combat one of the leading global causes of infectious diarrhea, which affects infants, children and adults regardless of socioeconomic status. The impact of shigellosis disproportionately affects children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) resulting in cognitive and physical stunting, perpetuating a cycle that must be halted. Shigella-CHIMs not only facilitate the early evaluation of enteric countermeasures and up-selection of the most promising products but also provide insight into mechanisms of infection and immunity that are not possible utilizing animal models or in vitro systems...
May 27, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Mitchell B Cohen
The human challenge model permits an estimate of the vaccine protection against moderate and severe cholera. It eliminates the difficulty in setting up a vaccine study in endemic area including uncertainties about the incidence of cholera and the logistic arrangements for capturing those who do/do not become ill. Valuable information from small groups of subjects can be obtained in a short period. Under proper precautions and study design, the challenge model is safe and efficient. Although the model has evolved since it was introduced over 50 years ago, it has been used extensively to test vaccine efficacy...
April 5, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Susan Jackson, Helen McShane
Controlled human infection models (CHIMs) have provided pivotal scientific advancements, contributing to the licensure of new vaccines for many pathogens. Despite being one of the world's oldest known pathogens, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge surrounding the immunobiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Furthermore, the only licensed vaccine, BCG, is a century old and demonstrates limited efficacy in adults from endemic areas. Despite good global uptake of BCG, tuberculosis (TB) remains a silent epidemic killing 1...
March 25, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Megan G Lloyd, Jennifer F Moffat
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human-restricted virus, which raises obstacles to research. The strict human tropism limits knowledge about its pathogenesis and creates challenges for evaluating antiviral treatments and vaccines. The development of humanized mouse models was driven by the need to address these challenges. Here, we summarize the humanized mouse models with xenografts of thymus/liver organoids, skin, dorsal root ganglia, and lung tissues. These models revealed VZV ORFs involved in cell tropism and pathogenesis in differentiated tissues, and made it possible to evaluate antiviral compounds in a mammalian system...
March 16, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Andreea Waltmann, Joseph A Duncan, Gerald B Pier, Colette Cywes-Bentley, Myron S Cohen, Marcia M Hobbs
Gonorrhea rates and antibiotic resistance are both increasing. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) is an exclusively human pathogen and is exquisitely adapted to its natural host. Ng can subvert immune responses and undergoes frequent antigenic variation, resulting in limited immunity and protection from reinfection. Previous gonococcal vaccine efforts have been largely unsuccessful, and the last vaccine to be tested in humans was more than 35 years ago. Advancing technologies and the threat of untreatable gonorrhea have fueled renewed pursuit of a vaccine as a long-term sustainable solution for gonorrhea control...
March 5, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Richard McKendry, Nana-Marie Lemm, Loukas Papargyris, Christopher Chiu
Coronavirus infections have been known to cause disease in animals since as early as the 1920s. However, only seven coronaviruses capable of causing human disease have been identified thus far. These Human Coronaviruses (HCoVs) include the causes of the common cold, but more recent coronaviruses that have emerged (i.e. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) are associated with much greater morbidity and mortality. HCoVs have been relatively under-studied compared to other common respiratory infections, as historically they have presented with mild symptoms...
February 19, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Myron J Levin, Adriana Weinberg
The live attenuated varicella vaccine is intended to mimic the tempo and nature of the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to varicella infection. To date, two doses of varicella vaccine administered in childhood have been very effective in generating varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immune responses that prevent natural infection for at least several decades. After primary infection, the infecting VZV establishes latency in sensory and cranial nerve ganglia with the potential to reactivate and cause herpes zoster...
February 1, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
E Fagone, M Fruciano, E Gili, G Sambataro, Carlo Vancheri
A number of different experimental models using both non-selective and selective PI3K inhibitors have shown that many pathogenic steps of respiratory disorders, such as bronchial asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Lung Cancer (LC) are, at least in part, regulated by the PI3K signaling pathway, suggesting that the inhibition of PI3K could represent an ideal therapeutic target for the treatment of respiratory diseases...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Daniel J Smit, Manfred Jücker
Over the past years, targeted therapies have received tremendous attention in cancer therapy. One of the most frequently targeted pathways is the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway that regulates crucial cellular processes including proliferation, survival, and migration. In a wide variety of cancer entities, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was found to be a critical driver of disease progression, indicating a noteworthy target in cancer therapy. This chapter focuses on targeted therapies against AKT, which is a key enzyme within the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Hye Na Kim, Heather Ogana, Vanessa Sanchez, Cydney Nichols, Yong-Mi Kim
Despite the therapeutic progress, relapse remains a major problem in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Most leukemia cells that survive chemotherapy are found in the bone marrow (BM), thus resistance to chemotherapy and other treatments may be partially attributed to pro-survival signaling to leukemic cells mediated by leukemia cell-microenvironment interactions. Adhesion of leukemia cells to BM stromal cells may lead to cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) mediating intracellular signaling changes that support survival of leukemia cells...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.