journal
Journals Current Topics in Microbiology...

Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology

https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695430/sex-difference-in-amebiasis
#21
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Marco Er-Lukowiak, Charlotte Hansen, Hanna Lotter
Infection with the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is much more likely to cause severe, focal liver damage in males than females, although the infection rate is the same in both sexes. The differences in disease susceptibility may be due to modulation of key mechanisms of the innate immune response by sex hormones. Complement-mediated mechanisms and estrogen-dependent activated natural killer T cells lead to early elimination of the parasite in females, whereas a pathological immune axis is triggered in males...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695429/sex-linked-differences-in-malaria-risk-across-the-lifespan
#22
REVIEW
Jessica Briggs, Margaret Murray, Jason Nideffer, Prasanna Jagannathan
Despite the high burden of malaria worldwide, there is surprisingly scarce research on sex-based differences in malaria outside of pregnancy. A more thorough understanding of sexual dimorphism in malaria, and what underlies these sex-based differences, could elucidate the underlying mechanisms driving malaria pathogenesis and has the potential to inform malaria control efforts, including new vaccines. This review summarizes our current understanding of sex-based differences in the epidemiology of malaria across the lifespan, potential sex- or gender-based mechanisms driving these differences, and the knowledge gaps that need to be addressed...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695428/sex-and-gender-differences-in-tuberculosis-pathogenesis-and-treatment-outcomes
#23
REVIEW
Djeneba Dabitao, William R Bishai
Tuberculosis remains a daunting public health concern in many countries of the world. A consistent observation in the global epidemiology of tuberculosis is an excess of cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis among males compared with females. Data from both humans and animals also suggest that males are more susceptible than females to develop active pulmonary disease. Similarly, male sex has been associated with poor treatment outcomes. Despite this growing body of evidence, little is known about the mechanisms driving sex bias in tuberculosis disease...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695427/biological-sex-and-pregnancy-affect-influenza-pathogenesis-and-vaccination
#24
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Patrick S Creisher, Kumba Seddu, Alice L Mueller, Sabra L Klein
Males and females differ in the outcome of influenza A virus (IAV) infections, which depends significantly on age. During seasonal influenza epidemics, young children (< 5 years of age) and aged adults (65+ years of age) are at greatest risk for severe disease, and among these age groups, males tend to suffer a worse outcome from IAV infection than females. Following infection with pandemic strains of IAVs, females of reproductive ages (i.e., 15-49 years of age) experience a worse outcome than their male counterparts...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695426/effects-of-biological-sex-and-pregnancy-on-sars-cov-2-pathogenesis-and-vaccine-outcomes
#25
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Janna R Shapiro, Craig W Roberts, Kasandra Arcovio, Lisa Reade, Sabra L Klein, Santosh Dhakal
SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19 in humans and has resulted in the death of millions of people worldwide. Similar numbers of infections have been documented in males and females; males, however, are more likely than females to be hospitalized, require intensive care unit, or die from COVID-19. The mechanisms that account for this are multi-factorial and are likely to include differential expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 molecules that are required for viral entry into hosts cells and sex differences in the immune response, which are due to modulation of cellular functions by sex hormones and differences in chromosomal gene expression...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695425/sex-differences-in-hiv-infection
#26
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Marcus Altfeld, Eileen P Scully
Biological sex has wide-ranging impacts on HIV infection spanning differences in acquisition risk, the pathogenesis of untreated infection, impact of chronic treated disease and prospects for HIV eradication or functional cure. This chapter summarizes the scope of these differences and discusses several features of the immune response thought to contribute to the clinical outcomes.
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695424/the-influence-of-sex-hormones-and-x-chromosome-in-immune-responses
#27
REVIEW
Nina Anesi, Charles-Henry Miquel, Sophie Laffont, Jean-Charles Guéry
Males and females differ in their susceptibility to develop autoimmunity and allergy but also in their capacity to cope with infections and cancers. Cellular targets and molecular pathways underlying sexual dimorphism in immunity have started to emerge and appeared multifactorial. It became increasingly clear that sex-linked biological factors have important impact on the development, tissue maintenance and effector function acquisition of distinct immune cell populations, thereby regulating multiple layers of innate or adaptive immunity through distinct mechanisms...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695423/genetics-of-sex-differences-in-immunity
#28
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Shani T Gal-Oz, Tal Shay
Women have a stronger immune response and a higher frequency of most autoimmune diseases than men. While much of the difference between men and women is due to the effect of gonadal hormones, genetic differences play a major role in the difference between the immune response and disease frequencies in women and men. Here, we focus on the immune differences between the sexes that are not downstream of the gonadal hormones. These differences include the gene content of the sex chromosomes, the inactivation of chromosome X in women, the consequences of non-random X inactivation and escape from inactivation, and the states that are uniquely met by the immune system of women-pregnancy, birth, and breast feeding...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37106159/lassa-fever-natural-history-and-clinical-management
#29
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Donald S Grant, Robert J Samuels, Robert F Garry, John S Schieffelin
Lassa fever is caused by Lassa virus (LASV), an Old World Mammarenavirus that is carried by Mastomys natalensis and other rodents. It is endemic in Sierra Leone, Nigeria, and other countries in West Africa. The clinical presentation of LASV infection is heterogenous varying from an inapparent or mild illness to a fatal hemorrhagic fever. Exposure to LASV is usually through contact with rodent excreta. After an incubation period of 1-3 weeks, initial symptoms such as fever, headache, and fatigue develop that may progress to sore throat, retrosternal chest pain, conjunctival injection, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36592250/genome-structure-life-cycle-and-taxonomy-of-coronaviruses-and-the-evolution-of-sars-cov-2
#30
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kevin Lamkiewicz, Luis Roger Esquivel Gomez, Denise Kühnert, Manja Marz
Coronaviruses have a broad host range and exhibit high zoonotic potential. In this chapter, we describe their genomic organization in terms of encoded proteins and provide an introduction to the peculiar discontinuous transcription mechanism. Further, we present evolutionary conserved genomic RNA secondary structure features, which are involved in the complex replication mechanism. With a focus on computational methods, we review the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 starting with the 2019 strains. In that context, we also discuss the debated hypothesis of whether SARS-CoV-2 was created in a laboratory...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36592249/mammarenavirus-genetic-diversity-and-its-biological-implications
#31
REVIEW
Manuela Sironi, Diego Forni, Juan C de la Torre
Members of the family Arenaviridae are classified into four genera: Antennavirus, Hartmanivirus, Mammarenavirus, and Reptarenavirus. Reptarenaviruses and hartmaniviruses infect (captive) snakes and have been shown to cause boid inclusion body disease (BIBD). Antennaviruses have genomes consisting of 3, rather than 2, segments, and were discovered in actinopterygian fish by next-generation sequencing but no biological isolate has been reported yet. The hosts of mammarenaviruses are mainly rodents and infections are generally asymptomatic...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36592248/mechanisms-and-consequences-of-genetic-variation-in-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv
#32
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Andrea Galli, Jens Bukh
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important contributor to the global incidence of liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although common for single-stranded RNA viruses, HCV displays a remarkable high level of genetic diversity, produced primarily by the error-prone viral polymerase and host immune pressure. The high genetic heterogeneity of HCV has led to the evolution of several distinct genotypes and subtypes, with important consequences for pathogenesis, and clinical outcomes...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36592247/viral-fitness-population-complexity-host-interactions-and-resistance-to-antiviral-agents
#33
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Esteban Domingo, Carlos García-Crespo, María Eugenia Soria, Celia Perales
Fitness of viruses has become a standard parameter to quantify their adaptation to a biological environment. Fitness determinations for RNA viruses (and some highly variable DNA viruses) meet with several uncertainties. Of particular interest are those that arise from mutant spectrum complexity, absence of population equilibrium, and internal interactions among components of a mutant spectrum. Here, concepts, fitness measurements, limitations, and current views on experimental viral fitness landscapes are discussed...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36592246/plant-virus-adaptation-to-new-hosts-a-multi-scale-approach
#34
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Santiago F Elena, Fernando García-Arenal
Viruses are studied at each level of biological complexity: from within-cells to ecosystems. The same basic evolutionary forces and principles operate at each level: mutation and recombination, selection, genetic drift, migration, and adaptive trade-offs. Great efforts have been put into understanding each level in great detail, hoping to predict the dynamics of viral population, prevent virus emergence, and manage their spread and virulence. Unfortunately, we are still far from this. To achieve these ambitious goals, we advocate for an integrative perspective of virus evolution...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36592245/the-role-of-extensive-recombination-in-the-evolution-of-geminiviruses
#35
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Elvira Fiallo-Olivé, Jesús Navas-Castillo
Mutation, recombination and pseudo-recombination are the major forces driving the evolution of viruses by the generation of variants upon which natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow can act to shape the genetic structure of viral populations. Recombination between related virus genomes co-infecting the same cell usually occurs via template swapping during the replication process and produces a chimeric genome. The family Geminiviridae shows the highest evolutionary success among plant virus families, and the common presence of recombination signatures in their genomes reveals a key role in their evolution...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36592244/virus-evolution-faced-to-multiple-host-targets-the-potyvirus-pepper-case-study
#36
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lucie Tamisier, Séverine Lacombe, Carole Caranta, Jean-Luc Gallois, Benoît Moury
The wealth of variability amongst genes controlling immunity against potyviruses in pepper (Capsicum spp.) has been instrumental in understanding plant-virus co-evolution and major determinants of plant resistance durability. Characterization of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E1 (eIF4E1), involved in mRNA translation, as the basis of potyvirus resistance in pepper initiated a large body of work that showed that recessive resistance to potyviruses and other single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses resulted from mutations in eukaryotic initiation factors in many plant crop species...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36592243/viral-fitness-landscapes-based-on-self-organizing-maps
#37
JOURNAL ARTICLE
M Soledad Delgado, Cecilio López-Galíndez, Federico Moran
The creation of fitness maps from viral populations especially in the case of RNA viruses, with high mutation rates producing quasispecies, is complex since the mutant spectrum is in a very high-dimensional space. In this work, a new approach is presented using a class of neural networks, Self-Organized Maps (SOM), to represent realistic fitness landscapes in two RNA viruses: Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). This methodology has proven to be very effective in the classification of viral quasispecies, using as criterium the mutant sequences in the population...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36592242/virus-evolution-on-fitness-landscapes
#38
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Peter Schuster, Peter F Stadler
The landscape paradigm is revisited in the light of evolution in simple systems. A brief overview of different classes of fitness landscapes is followed by a more detailed discussion of the RNA model, which is currently the only evolutionary model that allows for a comprehensive molecular analysis of a fitness landscape. Neutral networks of genotypes are indispensable for the success of evolution. Important insights into the evolutionary mechanism are gained by considering the topology of sequence and shape spaces...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/35332385/modulation-of-mhc-and-mhc-like-molecules-by-varicella-zoster-virus
#39
REVIEW
Allison Abendroth, Barry Slobedman
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a medically important human herpesvirus that has co-evolved with the human host to become a highly successful and ubiquitous pathogen. Whilst it is clear the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response play key roles in controlling this virus during both primary and reactivated infections, it is also apparent that VZV "fights back" by encoding multiple functions that impair a wide range of immune molecules. This capacity to manipulate the immune response is likely to be important in underpinning the success of VZV as a human pathogen...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34524508/a-guide-to-preclinical-models-of-zoster-associated-pain-and-postherpetic-neuralgia
#40
REVIEW
Benjamin E Warner, William F Goins, Phillip R Kramer, Paul R Kinchington
Reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes herpes zoster (HZ), which is commonly accompanied by acute pain and pruritus over the time course of a zosteriform rash. Although the rash and associated pain are self-limiting, a considerable fraction of HZ cases will subsequently develop debilitating chronic pain states termed postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). How VZV causes acute pain and the mechanisms underlying the transition to PHN are far from clear. The human-specific nature of VZV has made in vivo modeling of pain following reactivation difficult to study because no single animal can reproduce reactivated VZV disease as observed in the clinic...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
journal
journal
21670
2
3
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.