Journals Current Topics in Microbiology...

Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Mitchell B Cohen
The human challenge model permits an estimate of the vaccine protection against moderate and severe cholera. It eliminates the difficulty in setting up a vaccine study in endemic area including uncertainties about the incidence of cholera and the logistic arrangements for capturing those who do/do not become ill. Valuable information from small groups of subjects can be obtained in a short period. Under proper precautions and study design, the challenge model is safe and efficient. Although the model has evolved since it was introduced over 50 years ago, it has been used extensively to test vaccine efficacy...
April 5, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Susan Jackson, Helen McShane
Controlled human infection models (CHIMs) have provided pivotal scientific advancements, contributing to the licensure of new vaccines for many pathogens. Despite being one of the world's oldest known pathogens, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge surrounding the immunobiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). Furthermore, the only licensed vaccine, BCG, is a century old and demonstrates limited efficacy in adults from endemic areas. Despite good global uptake of BCG, tuberculosis (TB) remains a silent epidemic killing 1...
March 25, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Megan G Lloyd, Jennifer F Moffat
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human-restricted virus, which raises obstacles to research. The strict human tropism limits knowledge about its pathogenesis and creates challenges for evaluating antiviral treatments and vaccines. The development of humanized mouse models was driven by the need to address these challenges. Here, we summarize the humanized mouse models with xenografts of thymus/liver organoids, skin, dorsal root ganglia, and lung tissues. These models revealed VZV ORFs involved in cell tropism and pathogenesis in differentiated tissues, and made it possible to evaluate antiviral compounds in a mammalian system...
March 16, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Andreea Waltmann, Joseph A Duncan, Gerald B Pier, Colette Cywes-Bentley, Myron S Cohen, Marcia M Hobbs
Gonorrhea rates and antibiotic resistance are both increasing. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) is an exclusively human pathogen and is exquisitely adapted to its natural host. Ng can subvert immune responses and undergoes frequent antigenic variation, resulting in limited immunity and protection from reinfection. Previous gonococcal vaccine efforts have been largely unsuccessful, and the last vaccine to be tested in humans was more than 35 years ago. Advancing technologies and the threat of untreatable gonorrhea have fueled renewed pursuit of a vaccine as a long-term sustainable solution for gonorrhea control...
March 5, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Richard McKendry, Nana-Marie Lemm, Loukas Papargyris, Christopher Chiu
Coronavirus infections have been known to cause disease in animals since as early as the 1920s. However, only seven coronaviruses capable of causing human disease have been identified thus far. These Human Coronaviruses (HCoVs) include the causes of the common cold, but more recent coronaviruses that have emerged (i.e. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) are associated with much greater morbidity and mortality. HCoVs have been relatively under-studied compared to other common respiratory infections, as historically they have presented with mild symptoms...
February 19, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Myron J Levin, Adriana Weinberg
The live attenuated varicella vaccine is intended to mimic the tempo and nature of the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to varicella infection. To date, two doses of varicella vaccine administered in childhood have been very effective in generating varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immune responses that prevent natural infection for at least several decades. After primary infection, the infecting VZV establishes latency in sensory and cranial nerve ganglia with the potential to reactivate and cause herpes zoster...
February 1, 2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
E Fagone, M Fruciano, E Gili, G Sambataro, Carlo Vancheri
A number of different experimental models using both non-selective and selective PI3K inhibitors have shown that many pathogenic steps of respiratory disorders, such as bronchial asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Lung Cancer (LC) are, at least in part, regulated by the PI3K signaling pathway, suggesting that the inhibition of PI3K could represent an ideal therapeutic target for the treatment of respiratory diseases...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Daniel J Smit, Manfred Jücker
Over the past years, targeted therapies have received tremendous attention in cancer therapy. One of the most frequently targeted pathways is the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway that regulates crucial cellular processes including proliferation, survival, and migration. In a wide variety of cancer entities, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was found to be a critical driver of disease progression, indicating a noteworthy target in cancer therapy. This chapter focuses on targeted therapies against AKT, which is a key enzyme within the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Hye Na Kim, Heather Ogana, Vanessa Sanchez, Cydney Nichols, Yong-Mi Kim
Despite the therapeutic progress, relapse remains a major problem in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Most leukemia cells that survive chemotherapy are found in the bone marrow (BM), thus resistance to chemotherapy and other treatments may be partially attributed to pro-survival signaling to leukemic cells mediated by leukemia cell-microenvironment interactions. Adhesion of leukemia cells to BM stromal cells may lead to cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) mediating intracellular signaling changes that support survival of leukemia cells...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Jake Scott, Lauren Rees, Awen Gallimore, Sarah N Lauder
Improving the anti-tumour T cell response as a consequence of immunotherapy can result in eradication of tumour burden, however, the majority of patients fail with current treatment regimens and so novel immunotherapies with greater efficacy and improved tolerability are needed. The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) family members that are directly involved in cell signalling comprise PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ, with the latter two isoforms expressed primarily by leukocytes. The survival and optimal function of regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is dependent on PI3Kδ, whereas tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs), use PI3Kγ...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Zayd Ahmad, Payaningal R Somanath
AKT is a protein kinase that exists in three isoforms: AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3. Though similar in structure, these isoforms display different effects. AKT is activated downstream of PI3K, and together, this signaling pathway helps regulate cellular processes including cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, survival, and apoptosis. Disruption in these pathways has been associated with disorders including cardiovascular diseases, developmental disorders, inflammatory responses, autoimmune diseases, neurologic disorders, type 2 diabetes, and several cancers...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Stephen G Ward
Aberrant overactivation of the immune system can give rise to chronic and persistent self-attack, culminating in autoimmune disease. This is currently managed therapeutically using potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory drugs. Class I phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3Ks) have been identified as ideal therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases given their wide-ranging roles in immunological processes. Although progress has been hampered by issues such as poor drug tolerance and drug resistance, several PI3K inhibitors have now received regulatory approval with many others in development, including several intended to suppress the immune response in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Giovanni Solinas, Barbara Becattini
The PI3K/AKT signaling module is recruited by several receptors implicated in maintaining tissue and metabolic homeostasis and signaling pathways controlling immune responses. Constitutive activation of PI3K/AKT signaling leads to tissue overgrowth and is frequently observed in cancer cells, whereas reduced PI3K/AKT signaling is associated with diabetes and growth defects. Thus, a critical roadblock to effective PI3K-targeted therapy comes from the crucial role of PI3K/AKT signaling in systemic metabolic homeostasis...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Daniela Carnevale, Giuseppe Lembo, Sara Perrotta
Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death around the world. Hypertension and atherosclerosis, along with their sequalae and consequent target organ damage, constitute the main vascular risk factors contributing to the onset of cardiovascular disease. Disturbances in the homeostatic relationship established among the various components of the vascular milieu-namely endothelial and smooth muscle cells, adventitia, immune cells, and fibers of the autonomic nervous system-trigger the development of these arterial pathologies...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Waltraud C Schrottmaier, Marion Mussbacher, Manuel Salzmann, Julia B Kral-Pointner, Alice Assinger
Platelets are unique anucleated blood cells that constantly patrol the vasculature to seal and prevent injuries in a process termed haemostasis. Thereby they rapidly adhere to the subendothelial matrix and recruit further platelets, resulting in platelet aggregates. Apart from their central role in haemostasis, they also kept some of their features inherited by their evolutionary ancestor-the haemocyte, which was also involved in immune defences. Together with leukocytes, platelets fight pathogenic invaders and guide many immune processes...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Elissa K Deenick, Julia Bier, Anthony Lau
Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3K) control many aspects of cellular activation and differentiation and play an important role in B cells biology. Three different classes of PI3K have been described, all of which are expressed in B cells. However, it is the class IA PI3Ks, and the p110δ catalytic subunit in particular, which seem to play the most critical role in B cells. Here we discuss the important role that class IA PI3K plays in B cell development, activation and differentiation, as well as examine what is known about the other classes of PI3Ks in B cells...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Pankaj Gaur, Mikayel Mkrtichyan, Vivek Verma, Nazli Jafarzadeh, Mariana Hattar, Seema Gupta, Samir N Khleif
CD8+ T cells are an essential part of the immune system and play a vital role in defending against tumors and infections. The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), especially class I, is involved in numerous interrelated signaling pathways which control CD8+ T cell development, maturation, migration, activation, and differentiation. While CD8+ T lymphocytes express all class I PI3K isoforms (PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, PI3Kδ, and PI3Kγ), isoform-specific functions, especially for PI3Kα and PI3Kβ have not been fully elucidated...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Benjamin Cameron, Syed Aymaan Zaheer, Margarita Dominguez-Villar
The phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is a highly conserved intracellular signaling pathway involving numerous key effectors which, in response to diverse extracellular stimuli, modulate the phenotype and function of most mammalian cell types in a pleiotropic manner. PI3K signaling plays a critical role in the development, activation, and differentiation of lymphocytes. In particular, the PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ isoforms have been shown to carry out essential, non-redundant roles in T cells, and therefore, tight regulation of the PI3K pathway is important to maintain the balance between immune tolerance and inflammation...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Ioanna Lapi, Maria G Daskalaki, Konstantinos Axarlis, Eleni Paflioti, Philip N Tsichlis, Eleni Vergadi, Christos Tsatsanis
Macrophages display an array of activation phenotypes depending on the activation signal and the cellular microenvironment. The type and magnitude of the response depend on signaling molecules as well as on the epigenetic and metabolic status of the cells at the time of activation. The AKT family of kinases consists of three isoforms encoded by independent genes possessing similar functions and structures. Generation of research tools such as isoform-specific gene deletion mutant mice and cells and isoform-specific antibodies has allowed us to understand the role of each kinase isoform in macrophage activation and homeostasis...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Izabela Galvão, Lirlândia P Sousa, Mauro M Teixeira, Vanessa Pinho
Phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3Ks) are enzymes involved in signalling and modification of the function of all mammalian cells. These enzymes phosphorylate the 3-hydroxyl group of the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol, resulting in lipid products that act as second messengers responsible for coordinating many cellular functions, including activation, chemotaxis, proliferation and survival. The identification of the functions that are mediated by a specific PI3K isoform is complex and depends on the specific cell type and inflammatory context...
2022: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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