journal
Journals Current Topics in Microbiology...

Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology

https://read.qxmd.com/read/37563336/programmed-necrosis-in-host-defense
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Edward S Mocarski
Host control over infectious disease relies on the ability of cells in multicellular organisms to detect and defend against pathogens to prevent disease. Evolution affords mammals with a wide variety of independent immune mechanisms to control or eliminate invading infectious agents. Many pathogens acquire functions to deflect these immune mechanisms and promote infection. Following successful invasion of a host, cell autonomous signaling pathways drive the production of inflammatory cytokines, deployment of restriction factors and induction of cell death...
August 11, 2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37100973/lassa-virus-structural-biology-and-replication
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Robert F Garry
Lassa virus (LASV) is the causative agent of Lassa fever, an often-fatal hemorrhagic fever that is endemic in West Africa. LASV virions are enveloped and contain two single-stranded RNA genome segments. Both segments are ambisense and encode two proteins. The nucleoprotein associates with viral RNAs forming ribonucleoprotein complexes. The glycoprotein complex mediates viral attachment and entry. The Zinc protein serves as the matrix protein. Large is a polymerase that catalyzes viral RNA transcription and replication...
April 27, 2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36964212/chapter-controlled-human-infection-with-bordetella-pertussis
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
H de Graaf, D Gbesemete, R C Read
Bordetella pertussis, a slow-growing Gram-negative coccobacillus and the causative agent of whooping cough, is one of the leading causes of vaccine-preventable death and morbidity globally. A state of asymptomatic human carriage has not yet been demonstrated by population studies but is likely to be an important reservoir for community transmission of infection. Such a carriage state may be a target for future vaccine strategies. This chapter presents a short summary of the characteristics of B. pertussis, which should be taken into account when developing a human challenge model and any future experimental medicine interventions...
March 25, 2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38231223/clinical-management-of-gastric-cancer-treatment-regimens
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Juliette Boilève, Yann Touchefeu, Tamara Matysiak-Budnik
Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated death in the world. Endoscopic resection can be the treatment in selected cases of very early gastric cancer. Surgery is recommended for tumors that do not meet the criteria for endoscopic resection or for tumors with lymph node invasion but without distant metastases. Gastrectomy should include D2 lymphadenectomy without splenectomy. Perioperative or adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival and is recommended in locally advanced gastric cancer (>T1 and/or with lymph nodes positive)...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38231222/bacterial-proteases-in-helicobacter-pylori-infections-and-gastric-disease
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Silja Wessler, Gernot Posselt
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) proteases have become a major focus of research in recent years, because they not only have an important function in bacterial physiology, but also directly alter host cell functions. In this review, we summarize recent findings on extracellular H. pylori proteases that target host-derived substrates to facilitate bacterial pathogenesis. In particular, the secreted H. pylori collagenase (Hp0169), the metalloprotease Hp1012, or the serine protease High temperature requirement A (HtrA) are of great interest...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38231221/impact-of-the-helicobacter-pylori-oncoprotein-caga-in-gastric-carcinogenesis
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Masanori Hatakeyama
Helicobacter pylori CagA is the first and only bacterial oncoprotein etiologically associated with human cancer. Upon delivery into gastric epithelial cells via bacterial type IV secretion, CagA acts as a pathogenic/pro-oncogenic scaffold that interacts with and functionally perturbs multiple host proteins such as pro-oncogenic SHP2 phosphatase and polarity-regulating kinase PAR1b/MARK2. Although H. pylori infection is established during early childhood, gastric cancer generally develops in elderly individuals, indicating that oncogenic CagA activity is effectively counteracted at a younger age...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38231220/gastric-epithelial-barrier-disruption-inflammation-and-oncogenic-signal-transduction-by-helicobacter-pylori
#7
REVIEW
Michael Naumann, Lorena Ferino, Irshad Sharafutdinov, Steffen Backert
Helicobacter pylori exemplifies one of the most favourable bacterial pathogens worldwide. The bacterium colonizes the gastric mucosa in about half of the human population and constitutes a major risk factor for triggering gastric diseases such as stomach cancer. H. pylori infection represents a prime example of chronic inflammation and cancer-inducing bacterial pathogens. The microbe utilizes a remarkable set of virulence factors and strategies to control cellular checkpoints of inflammation and oncogenic signal transduction...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38231219/helicobacter-pylori-induced-host-cell-dna-damage-and-genetics-of-gastric-cancer-development
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Steffen Backert, Bodo Linz, Nicole Tegtmeyer
Gastric cancer is a very serious and deadly disease worldwide with about one million new cases every year. Most gastric cancer subtypes are associated with genetic and epigenetic aberrations caused by chromosome instability, microsatellite instability or Epstein-Barr virus infection. Another risk factor is an infection with Helicobacter pylori, which also triggers severe alterations in the host genome. This pathogen expresses an extraordinary repertoire of virulence determinants that take over control of important host cell signaling functions...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38231218/gastric-cancer-the-microbiome-beyond-helicobacter-pylori
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Melissa Mendes-Rocha, Joana Pereira-Marques, Rui M Ferreira, Ceu Figueiredo
Gastric cancer remains an important global health burden. Helicobacter pylori is the major etiological factor in gastric cancer, infecting the stomach of almost half of the population worldwide. Recent progress in microbiome research offered a new perspective on the complexity of the microbial communities of the stomach. Still, the role of the microbiome of the stomach beyond H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis is not well understood and requires deeper investigation. The gastric bacterial communities of gastric cancer patients are distinct from those of patients without cancer, but the microbial alterations that occur along the process of gastric carcinogenesis, and the mechanisms through which microorganisms influence cancer progression still need to be clarified...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38231217/pathogenomics-of-helicobacter-pylori
#10
REVIEW
Yoshio Yamaoka, Batsaikhan Saruuljavkhlan, Ricky Indra Alfaray, Bodo Linz
The human stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of gastritis, ulcers and adenocarcinoma, possesses very high genetic diversity. H. pylori has been associated with anatomically modern humans since their origins over 100,000 years ago and has co-evolved with its human host ever since. Predominantly intrafamilial and local transmission, along with genetic isolation, genetic drift, and selection have facilitated the development of distinct bacterial populations that are characteristic for large geographical areas...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38231216/immune-biology-and-persistence-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-gastric-diseases
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sonja Fuchs, Ruolan Gong, Markus Gerhard, Raquel Mejías-Luque
Helicobacter pylori is a prevalent pathogen, which affects more than 40% of the global population. It colonizes the human stomach and persists in its host for several decades or even a lifetime, if left untreated. The persistent infection has been linked to various gastric diseases, including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and an increased risk for gastric cancer. H. pylori infection triggers a strong immune response directed against the bacterium associated with the infiltration of innate phagocytotic immune cells and the induction of a Th1/Th17 response...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38231215/mitochondrial-function-in-health-and-disease-responses-to-helicobacter-pylori-metabolism-and-impact-in-gastric-cancer-development
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Javier Torres, Eliette Touati
Mitochondria are major cellular organelles that play an essential role in metabolism, stress response, immunity, and cell fate. Mitochondria are organized in a network with other cellular compartments, functioning as a signaling hub to maintain cells' health. Mitochondrial dysfunctions and genome alterations are associated with diseases including cancer. Mitochondria are a preferential target for pathogens, which have developed various mechanisms to hijack cellular functions for their benefit. Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the major risk factor for gastric cancer development...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38231214/clinical-pathogenesis-molecular-mechanisms-of-gastric-cancer-development
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lydia E Wroblewski, Richard M Peek
The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for gastric disease and cancer, and gastric cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death across the globe. Carcinogenic mechanisms associated with H. pylori are multifactorial and are driven by bacterial virulence constituents, host immune responses, environmental factors such as iron and salt, and the microbiota. Infection with strains that harbor the cytotoxin-associated genes (cag) pathogenicity island, which encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) confer increased risk for developing more severe gastric diseases...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38231213/gastric-stem-cell-biology-and-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#14
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jonas Wizenty, Michael Sigal
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric mucosa and persists lifelong. An interactive network between the bacteria and host cells shapes a unique microbial niche within gastric glands that alters epithelial behavior, leading to pathologies such as chronic gastritis and eventually gastric cancer. Gland colonization by the bacterium initiates aberrant trajectories by inducing long-term inflammatory and regenerative gland responses, which involve various specialized epithelial and stromal cells. Recent studies using cell lineage tracing, organoids and scRNA-seq techniques have significantly advanced our knowledge of the molecular "identity" of epithelial and stromal cell subtypes during normal homeostasis and upon infection, and revealed the principles that underly stem cell (niche) behavior under homeostatic conditions as well as upon H...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37804350/correction-to-sex-differential-and-non-specific-effects-of-vaccines-over-the-life-course
#15
Laura A St Clair, Sabal Chaulagain, Sabra L Klein, Christine Stabell Benn, Katie L Flanagan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695432/immunology-of-pregnancy-and-systemic-consequences
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Fiona M Menzies
Pregnancy is an immunological paradox, with renowned Nobel Prize winning transplantation biologist Sir Peter Brian Medawar being the first to introduce this concept back in 1953. This concept considers how the maternal immune system can tolerate the developing fetus, which is 50% antigenically foreign to the uterus. There have been significant advances in our understanding of the immune system in regulating fertility, pregnancy and in complications of these, and what was once considered a paradox can be seen as a highly evolved system...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695431/sex-differential-and-non-specific-effects-of-vaccines-over-the-life-course
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Laura A St Clair, Sabal Chaulagain, Sabra L Klein, Christine Stabell Benn, Katie L Flanagan
Biological sex and age have profound effects on immune responses throughout the lifespan and impact vaccine acceptance, responses, and outcomes. Mounting evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and animal model studies show that males and females respond differentially to vaccination throughout the lifespan. Within age groups, females tend to produce greater vaccine-induced immune responses than males, with sex differences apparent across all age groups, but are most pronounced among reproductive aged individuals...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695430/sex-difference-in-amebiasis
#18
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Marco Er-Lukowiak, Charlotte Hansen, Hanna Lotter
Infection with the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is much more likely to cause severe, focal liver damage in males than females, although the infection rate is the same in both sexes. The differences in disease susceptibility may be due to modulation of key mechanisms of the innate immune response by sex hormones. Complement-mediated mechanisms and estrogen-dependent activated natural killer T cells lead to early elimination of the parasite in females, whereas a pathological immune axis is triggered in males...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695429/sex-linked-differences-in-malaria-risk-across-the-lifespan
#19
REVIEW
Jessica Briggs, Margaret Murray, Jason Nideffer, Prasanna Jagannathan
Despite the high burden of malaria worldwide, there is surprisingly scarce research on sex-based differences in malaria outside of pregnancy. A more thorough understanding of sexual dimorphism in malaria, and what underlies these sex-based differences, could elucidate the underlying mechanisms driving malaria pathogenesis and has the potential to inform malaria control efforts, including new vaccines. This review summarizes our current understanding of sex-based differences in the epidemiology of malaria across the lifespan, potential sex- or gender-based mechanisms driving these differences, and the knowledge gaps that need to be addressed...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695428/sex-and-gender-differences-in-tuberculosis-pathogenesis-and-treatment-outcomes
#20
REVIEW
Djeneba Dabitao, William R Bishai
Tuberculosis remains a daunting public health concern in many countries of the world. A consistent observation in the global epidemiology of tuberculosis is an excess of cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis among males compared with females. Data from both humans and animals also suggest that males are more susceptible than females to develop active pulmonary disease. Similarly, male sex has been associated with poor treatment outcomes. Despite this growing body of evidence, little is known about the mechanisms driving sex bias in tuberculosis disease...
2023: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
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