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International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761535/the-effect-of-mortality-salience-on-the-attitudes-toward-state-control-the-case-of-russia
#1
Irina S Prusova, Olga A Gulevich
Our study examined the effects of mortality salience (MS) on attitudes toward state control in different domains in Russia. Using the theory of Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition (CMSC) and the Terror Management Theory (TMT), we put forward two alternative hypotheses. Based on the CMSC, MS would enhance the approval of state control in different spheres, while, in line with TMT, the MS effect would be dependent on pre-existing views. The participants in the study were 450 Russian students who completed a questionnaire to measure attitudes toward state control in six spheres of life (the economy, the mass media, political parties, social organisations, science and education)...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706463/father-absence-sociosexual-orientation-and-same-sex-sexuality-in-women-and-men
#2
Satoshi Kanazawa
A recent evolutionary theory of female sexual fluidity suggests that women may not have sexual orientations in the same sense that men do, and that women's apparent sexual orientation may instead be a byproduct of their sociosexual orientation. One developmental factor that has consistently been shown to influence sociosexual orientation is father absence in childhood. Consistent with the prediction of the theory, the analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) data show that father absence significantly increases women's, but not men's, same-sex sexuality in adulthood, whether it is measured by self identity, sexual behaviour, or romantic attraction...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697696/relations-between-maternal-power-assertive-parenting-and-adjustment-in-chinese-children-a-longitudinal-study
#3
Xinpei Xu, Siman Zhao, Wai Ying Vivien Yiu, Dan Li, Junsheng Liu, Shihong Liu, Xinyin Chen
This 1-year longitudinal study examined relations between maternal power-assertive parenting and children's social, academic and psychological adjustment in China. Participants were 316 elementary school children (mean age = 11 years, 153 boys). Maternal power-assertive parenting was assessed using children's self-reports. Data on children's social and school adjustment were obtained from peer evaluations and teacher ratings. In addition, children completed measures of loneliness and depression. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that whereas maternal power-assertive parenting was only related to later academic adjustment, children's adjustment in socioemotional and academic domains contributed to the prediction of later maternal power-assertive parenting...
January 29, 2019: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697692/7-0-that-is-awful-should-i-trust-my-national-team-again-the-role-of-mindsets-in-team-trust
#4
Rogelio Puente-Diaz, Judith Cavazos-Arroyo
This investigation examined the role of mindsets in team trust after a major loss. It is proposed that individuals can believe that personal characteristics are fixed and that there is not much one can do about it (a fixed mindset) or that personal characteristics are malleable and that one can improve (a growth mindset). The participants, self-identified football fans, were shown a picture of a major loss experienced by the Mexican national team and then answered questions that assessed the participants' team trust, intention to provide future support, and mindsets...
January 29, 2019: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30693487/relations-of-child-effortful-control-to-personality-well-being-and-parenting
#5
Helena R Slobodskaya, Evgeniya N Petrenko, Svetlana V Loginova, Olga S Kornienko, Elena A Kozlova
This study examined effortful control and its relations to personality, parenting and well-being in a community sample of Russian preschool children (N = 365, 46% girls) using parent-reported effortful control scale from the very short form of the children's behaviour questionnaire, the inventory of child individual differences-short version, the Alabama parenting questionnaire-preschool revision, the self-reporting questionnaire, and parent and teacher reports on the strengths and difficulties questionnaire...
January 28, 2019: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690747/challenging-anxious-cognitions-or-accepting-them-exploring-the-efficacy-of-the-cognitive-elements-of-cognitive-behaviour-therapy-and-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-in-the-reduction-of-children-s-fear-of-the-dark
#6
Ellin Simon, Sabine Driessen, Ann Lambert, Peter Muris
Anxiety is highly prevalent in pre-adolescent children. Distorted cognitions are characteristic for dysfunctional levels of anxiety. However, applying cognitive elements in pre-adolescent children cannot be fully ascertained, as it is not until adolescence before children can apply logical and abstract reasoning in a sophisticated manner. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) both target distorted cognitions. Whereas CBT encourages children to change the content of negative cognitions by applying cognitive restructuring, ACT stimulates youth to have a more accepting attitude towards these thoughts by applying cognitive defusion...
January 28, 2019: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690731/the-experience-based-format-of-probability-improves-probability-estimates-the-moderating-role-of-individual-differences-in-numeracy
#7
Jakub Traczyk, Agata Sobkow, Adrian Matukiewicz, Dafina Petrova, Rocio Garcia-Retamero
People with low statistical numeracy have difficulties understanding numerical information. For instance, they often misunderstand the probability of experiencing side effects, which could reduce adherence to medical treatments. We investigated whether presenting information about probability using a method based on the direct experience of events influences the accuracy of probability estimates compared to viewing a static numerical description of the same information. Participants completed a numeracy test and were randomly assigned to one of two conditions...
January 28, 2019: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30623410/adolescents-willingness-to-help-with-peer-victimisation-in-taiwan-the-role-of-individual-and-situation-specific-characteristics
#8
Ting-Lan Ma
The purpose of this study is to evaluate adolescent bystanders' willingness to help and specific help responses as predicted by both individual characteristics (e.g., gender, empathy, victimisation experiences) and situation-specific characteristics (i.e., bystander's relationship with the victim and the presence of another bystander). The study used an experimental vignette method with a sample of Taiwanese adolescents. Participants included 730 seventh graders (49% girls, mean age 12.8 years) attending one middle school in a southern city in Taiwan...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30618045/zero-sum-thinking-as-mediator-of-the-relationship-of-national-attitudes-with-un-willingness-to-host-refugees-in-own-country
#9
Jarosław Piotrowski, Joanna Różycka-Tran, Tomasz Baran, Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska
This study examines factors related to willingness to host refugees. We examined the role of national attitudes (patriotism, nationalism), out-group attitudes (classic and modern prejudice), and zero-sum thinking: Belief in a Zero-Sum Game and psychological entitlement in attitudes towards hosting refugees. We proposed including zero-sum thinking as possible mediator between national attitudes and attitudes towards refugees based on assumption that nationalism is a competitive attitude towards out-groups, while patriotism does not...
January 7, 2019: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30592039/does-instrumental-motivation-help-students-with-low-intrinsic-motivation-comparison-between-western-and-confucian-students
#10
Yuan Liu, Kit-Tai Hau, Xin Zheng
The research examines possible differences in the mutual reinforcement (i.e. multiplicative) effect between intrinsic and instrumental motivation on academic performance across different cultures. Eight representative countries and economies from two large-scale databases-the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012-were used, respectively. Results showed that among the Confucian economies, instrumental motivation was more helpful in improving the mathematics performance of students with low intrinsic motivation than for those with high intrinsic motivation...
December 28, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30592038/does-the-mortality-salience-effect-on-worldview-defence-depend-on-the-cultural-orientation-of-chinese-people
#11
Taoran Zeng, Chi-Shing Tse
According to the terror management theory, people tend to favour their worldview and in-group members after being reminded of death (i.e., mortality salience [MS] effect). However, inconsistent findings of the MS effect were found among Chinese people. In the present study, we examined the MS effect with Chinese samples and tested whether the effect would depend on participants' cultural orientation and relational self-esteem. In Studies 1 (N = 227) and 2 (N = 221), we examined the roles of participants' cultural orientations and relational self-esteem in their evaluations on moral transgression and/or perceived regard from people around after being primed with mortality (vs...
December 28, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30585625/the-asymmetric-effect-of-regulatory-fit-on-moral-judgments-of-other-oriented-lies
#12
Song Wu, Tinglanxue Yuan, Shenghua Jin
We examined whether regulatory fit effects are asymmetric-namely, whether they occur only among individuals with a promotion focus or a prevention focus. We adopted a task where individuals make moral judgments of other-oriented lies and conducted three studies. The results indicated that prevention-focused individuals judged other-oriented lies based on a vigilant strategy as more moral than lies based on an eager strategy (Studies 1 and 2). Meanwhile for promotion-focused individuals, there were no differences between eager and vigilant strategies on moral judgments of other-oriented lies...
December 26, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30569526/the-longitudinal-associations-between-personal-belief-in-a-just-world-and-teacher-justice-among-advantaged-and-disadvantaged-school-students
#13
Gözde Kiral Ucar, Claudia Dalbert
The Just World Hypothesis states that people need to believe in a just world in which they get what they deserve and deserve what they get. This study examines the longitudinal associations between personal belief in a just world (BJW), the belief that events in one's own life are just and teacher justice in different status groups. It is posited that the more individuals believe in a personal just world, the more they feel they are treated justly by others, and this should be particularly true for students with a low-status background...
December 20, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30537100/mothering-under-political-violence-post-traumatic-symptoms-observed-maternal-parenting-practices-and-child-externalising-behaviour
#14
Osnat Zamir, Abigail H Gewirtz, Rachel Dekel, Tamar Lavi, Gali Tangir
Using the family stress model as our conceptual framework, we explored whether observed maternal parenting practices (positive and coercive) account for the associations between mothers' post-traumatic stress symptoms and children's externalising behaviours. Mothers' self-reported post-traumatic stress symptoms, observed maternal practices, and reports of children's externalising behaviour were collected from 123 Israeli mothers and their children, who were exposed to ongoing rocket attacks in southern Israel...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30536811/mentoring-beginning-immigrant-teachers-how-culture-may-impact-the-message
#15
Giancarlo Mercado, Elise Trumbull
Beginning immigrant teachers may experience cross-cultural conflicts because their home cultures may differ in important ways from U.S. school culture. In California, mentors are assigned to work with new teachers, many born in other countries, to solve a range of problems-often attributable to cross-cultural conflicts between the culture of the school and the cultures of these teachers. Mentors are veteran teachers, but even those who receive special training as mentors are not educated in theories explaining how culture influences child-rearing and schooling practices...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30536800/a-bias-of-self-reports-among-repressors-examining-the-evidence-for-the-validity-of-self-relevant-and-health-relevant-personal-reports
#16
Zoha Saeedi, Nima Ghorbani, Mahdi R Sarafraz, Tahereh Karami Shoar
Studies have shown that repressors tend to respond to self-report tools in a positive fashion which distorts the findings of studies based on questionnaires. The present study aimed to examine the way repressors respond to "Self-relevant" scales (which assess variables related to adaptive self-function) in comparison to "Health-relevant" scales (which assess physical and psychological health). Iranian university students (N = 271) responded to the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (to differentiate between repressors and self-assured individuals), Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, Self-control Scale, Integrative Self-knowledge Scale and Self-compassion Scale (to measure self-relevant variables), Bartone Symptoms checklist and the Depression and Anxiety Subscales of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Subscale (DASS-21) (to measure health-relevant variables)...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30525182/sleep-competing-behaviours-among-australian-school-attending-youth-associations-with-sleep-mental-health-and-daytime-functioning
#17
David Mellor, David J Hallford, Jeretine Tan, Monique Waterhouse
Sleep problems are highly prevalent among school-attending youth, and impact on school performance and outcomes. Sleep-competing behaviours are likely factors in the inadequate sleep time and related functional outcomes observed in this population. We examined a range of sleep-competing behaviours and their associations with sleep variables in Australian school-attending youth. We also assessed whether these behaviours indirectly affected mental health and daytime functioning through poorer sleep quality. A total of 353 school-attending youth (mean age = 14...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30511434/patterns-of-marijuana-use-and-physical-health-indicators-among-canadian-youth
#18
Megan E Ames, Bonnie J Leadbeater, Gabriel J Merrin, Kara Thompson
We examine how trajectories of marijuana use in Canadian youth (ages 15 to 28) are related to physical health indicators in adolescence and young adulthood. Youth were initially recruited in 2003 (N = 662; 48% male; ages 12 to 18) and followed for six waves. Five trajectories of marijuana use (Abstainers-29%, Occasional users-27%, Decreasers-14%, Increasers-20% and Chronic users-11%) were identified. Chronic users reported more physical symptoms, poorer physical self-concept, less physical activity, poorer eating practices, less sleep, and higher number of sexual partners during adolescence than other classes...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30511423/acculturation-and-adjustment-as-a-function-of-perceived-and-objective-value-congruence
#19
Sharon Glazer, Krystal N Roach, Carmen Rodriguez Carmona, Heather Simonovich
Culture fit has been studied in numerous ways conceptually and methodologically, yielding conflicting results. This study explored it in terms of perceived and objective value congruence in relation to both acculturation and socio-cultural adjustment among 187 international students (or internationals, compared to 138 domestic students or locals) in the USA. First, for 9 out of 10 values, internationals' perceptions of U.S. values significantly differed from locals' actual values. Second, locals perceived greater stimulation and self-direction value congruence (i...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30511384/school-based-prevention-of-anxiety-using-the-my-friends-emotional-resilience-program-six-month-follow-up
#20
Ana Kozina
Anxiety-related problems are common in childhood and adolescence and, if left untreated, may hold short-term and long-term negative consequences for psychosocial functioning and other domains. In addition to having negative individual-level consequences, anxiety-related problems may have a negative impact at the school level. Because almost all children and adolescents attend school, school plays a significant role in development as a socialisation agent and provides an ideal venue for the delivery of prevention and intervention programs...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
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