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Water Research

Nuzahat Habibul, Jie-Jie Chen, Yan-Yun Hu, Yi Hu, Hao Yin, Guo-Ping Sheng, Han-Qing Yu
The unique properties of ionic liquids make them attractive for a wide range of industrial applications, which makes it easy to be released into the environment and cause water or soil pollution. Phytoremediation of organic contaminants is a safe and important process for removing persistent pollutants from the environment. However, due to they are very chemically stable and potentially toxic to plants, whether they can be removed, assimilated and metabolized by plants remains unknown during phytoremediation process...
March 17, 2019: Water Research
Jin Hyung Noh, Hanna Choi, Han Yong Kim, Soohoon Choi, Sung Kyu Maeng
Bacterial aerosols resulting from membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes, which require excessive aeration in a confined space, are important to investigate because of their possible adverse effects on human health. This study investigated the influence of solid retention time (SRT) on bacterial aerosols from MBRs. Moreover, powdered activated carbon (PAC) and calcium were used to attenuate bacterial aerosol emissions from MBRs. The particulate matter (PM) emitted from the MBRs was reduced by 30.5 and 25.2% at SRTs of 20 and 80 d, respectively, compared to the level emitted at an SRT of 10 d...
March 16, 2019: Water Research
Katharina Heye, Thorsten Lotz, Arne Wick, Jörg Oehlmann
The toxicity of contaminants in freshwater ecosystems can increase in combination with environmental stress, leading to a potential underestimation of risk in conventional assessments. The number of multiple-stress experiments in ecotoxicology is growing constantly, but pharmaceuticals have mostly been disregarded. As an omnipresent pharmaceutical in the water cycle, the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) was chosen as test substance for our 28-day binary stress experiments with the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius...
March 15, 2019: Water Research
Tom G L Vandekerckhove, Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof, Chaïm De Mulder, Siegfried E Vlaeminck, Nico Boon
Nitrification and denitrification, the key biological processes for thermophilic nitrogen removal, have separately been established in bioreactors at 50 °C. A well-characterized set of kinetic parameters is essential to integrate these processes while safeguarding the autotrophs performing nitrification. Knowledge on thermophilic nitrifying kinetics is restricted to isolated or highly enriched batch cultures, which do not represent bioreactor conditions. This study characterized the stoichiometry and kinetics of two thermophilic (50 °C) nitrifying communities...
March 14, 2019: Water Research
Shaked Stein, Yoseph Yechieli, Eyal Shalev, Roni Kasher, Orit Sivan
Over the past few decades, seawater desalination has become a necessity for freshwater supply in many countries worldwide, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. One potentially high-quality feed water for desalination is saline groundwater (SGW) from coastal aquifers, which has lower fouling propensity than seawater. This study examines the effect of pumping SGW from a phreatic coastal aquifer on fresh groundwater, particularly on the dynamics of the fresh-saline water interface (FSI). Initially, we constructed a 3D finite-element model of a phreatic coastal aquifer by using the FEFLOW software, which solves the coupled variable density groundwater flow and solute transport equations...
March 13, 2019: Water Research
Mariusz Tomaszewski, Grzegorz Cema, Slawomir Ciesielski, Dariusz Łukowiec, Aleksandra Ziembińska-Buczyńska
Because of its energy efficiency, the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process has been recognized as the most promising biological nitrogen removal process, but its implementation in mainstream wastewater treatment plants is limited by its relatively high optimal temperature (30 °C). Recently, it was shown that during short-term batch experiments, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) displayed accelerated reaction activity at low temperatures (10-15 °C). In this study, the long-term effects of RGO on the low-temperature anammox process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), are studied for the first time, including different methods of interaction...
March 12, 2019: Water Research
Meghan O'Connor, Samantha R Helal, Douglas E Latch, William A Arnold
The organic matter present in wastewater effluents (EfOM), is likely to have different properties than the organic matter present in the receiving water. The properties of EfOM will affect the fate of contaminants of emerging concern because EfOM is a source of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (PPRIs) capable of transforming contaminants. Effluent water samples were taken seasonally from sixteen wastewater treatment plants in Minnesota and two effluent dominated rivers in California and Arizona...
March 12, 2019: Water Research
Shaofang Sun, Jin Jiang, Liping Qiu, Suyan Pang, Juan Li, Caihong Liu, Lihong Wang, Mang Xue, Jun Ma
Very recently, several studies have found that homogeneous reducing agents (e.g., sodium thiosulfate (Na2 S2 O3 ), and sodium sulfite (Na2 SO3 )) can activate ferrate to enhance the degradation of selected contaminants. In this work, it was found that heterogeneous carbon nanotube (CNT) could accelerate ferrate (Fe(VI)) for the degradation of bromophenols (BrPs) of environmental concerns and alleviate the appearance of undesired by-products in effluent. Fe(VI) could react with BrPs over a wide pH range of 6-10 with apparent second-order rate constants of 1...
March 11, 2019: Water Research
Vegard Nilsen, Ekaterina Christensen, Mette Myrmel, Arve Heistad
Microorganism removal efficiencies in deep bed filters vary with time and depth in the filter bed as the filter collects particles. Improved knowledge of such dynamics is relevant for the design, operation and microbial risk assessment of filtration processes for drinking water treatment. Here we report on a high-resolution spatio-temporal characterization of virus and bacteria removal in a pilot-scale dual-media filter, operated in contact-filtration mode. Microorganisms investigated were bacteriophage Salmonella typhimurium 28B (plaque assay, n=154)), fRNA phage MS2 (plaque assay/RT-qPCR, n=87) and E...
March 5, 2019: Water Research
Zeynep Cetecioglu, Jan Dolfing, Jessica Taylor, Kevin J Purdy, Özge Eyice
Anaerobic digestion of organic matter is the major route of biomethane production. However, in the presence of sulfate, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) typically outcompete methanogens, which may reduce or even preclude methane production from sulfate-containing wastewaters. Although sulfate-reduction and methanogenesis can occur simultaneously, our limited understanding of the microbiology of anaerobic digesters treating sulfate-containing wastewaters constrains improvements in the production of methane from these systems...
March 4, 2019: Water Research
Zhiguo Yuan, Gustaf Olsson, Rachel Cardell-Oliver, Kim van Schagen, Angela Marchi, Ana Deletic, Christian Urich, Wolfgang Rauch, Yanchen Liu, Guangming Jiang
Instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) are currently applied throughout the urban water system at water treatment plants, in water distribution networks, in sewer networks, and at wastewater treatment plants. However, researchers and practitioners specialising in respective urban water sub-systems do not frequently interact, and in most cases to date the application of ICA has been achieved in silo. Here, we review start-of-the-art ICA throughout these sub-systems, and discuss the benefits achieved in terms of performance improvement, cost reduction, and more importantly, the enhanced capacity of the existing infrastructure to cope with increased service demand caused by population growth and continued urbanisation...
March 3, 2019: Water Research
Xia Shen, Ran Li, Ben R Hodges, Jingjie Feng, Huanjie Cai, Xiaoyi Ma
Total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) downstream caused by spill discharge from high dams can easily cause fish to suffer from gas bubble disease (GBD). One potential approach to mitigate the impact of TDGS is at the confluence of a downstream tributary, where the introduction of low-TDG water might provide refuge space for fish. In this study, we carried out a series of flume experimental cases and established a three-dimensional TDGS model at confluences. The formula of the dissipation coefficient of TDGS had been obtained by parts of experiment cases...
March 2, 2019: Water Research
Albert A Koelmans, Nur Hazimah Mohamed Nor, Enya Hermsen, Merel Kooi, Svenja M Mintenig, Jennifer De France
Microplastics have recently been detected in drinking water as well as in drinking water sources. This presence has triggered discussions on possible implications for human health. However, there have been questions regarding the quality of these occurrence studies since there are no standard sampling, extraction and identification methods for microplastics. Accordingly, we assessed the quality of fifty studies researching microplastics in drinking water and in its major freshwater sources. This includes an assessment of microplastic occurrence data from river and lake water, groundwater, tap water and bottled drinking water...
February 28, 2019: Water Research
Danny R de Graaff, Simon Felz, Thomas R Neu, Mario Pronk, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Yuemei Lin
Sialic acids have been discovered in the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of seawater-adapted aerobic granular sludge (AGS). Sialic acids are a group of monosaccharides with a nine-carbon backbone, commonly found in mammalian cells and pathogenic bacteria, and frequently described to protect EPS molecules and cells from attack by proteases or glycosidases. In order to further understand the role of these compounds in AGS, lectin staining, genome analysis of the dominant bacterial species, and shielding tests were done...
February 28, 2019: Water Research
Johan Lundqvist, Anna Andersson, Anders Johannisson, Elin Lavonen, Geeta Mandava, Henrik Kylin, David Bastviken, Agneta Oskarsson
Disinfection of drinking water using chlorine can lead to the formation of genotoxic by-products when chlorine reacts with natural organic matter (NOM). A vast number of such disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been identified, making it almost impossible to routinely monitor all DBPs with chemical analysis. In this study, a bioanalytical approach was used, measuring oxidative stress (Nrf2 activity), genotoxicity (micronucleus test), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation to evaluate an innovative water treatment process, including suspended ion exchange, ozonation, in-line coagulation, ceramic microfiltration, and granular activated carbon...
February 28, 2019: Water Research
Fernando Freitas de Oliveira, René Peter Schneider
Control of the organic substrate pool that determines the microbial growth potential (MGP) of feedwater in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a challenge unresolved in conventional or advanced membrane pretreatment. Slow sand filtration (SSF) combines filtration with biodegradation, but its capability of reducing MGP, proteins and carbohydrates on seawater feeds is not known. Two SSF, one constructed with new media (newSSF) and one from a previous filtration run (oldSSF), reduced MGP as measured in a growth assay with the marine organism Pseudoalteromonas songiae by one order of magnitude after maturation periods of 76 and 61 days, respectively...
February 27, 2019: Water Research
Jui-Yen Lin, Agnes Raharjo, Li-Hsin Hsu, Yu-Jen Shih, Yao-Hui Huang
Tetrafluoroborate anion (BF4 - ) is found in the streams of flue-gas desulfurization and borosilicate glasses etching which deteriorates water quality through slow hydrolysis into boric acid and fluoride. Decomposition and electrocoagulation (EC) of BF4 - were studied using metallic aluminum as the sacrificial electrode. The dissolved Al(III) from the anode could efficiently decompose BF4 - in forms of fluoroaluminate complexes, and the derived boric acid and fluoride ion were removed by sweep flocculation...
February 27, 2019: Water Research
Michael Gonsior, Leanne C Powers, Ernest Williams, Allen Place, Feng Chen, Alexander Ruf, Norbert Hertkorn, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin
Algal-derived dissolved organic matter (ADOM) originating from lysed Microcystis aeruginosa cells was investigated as precursor material to form disinfection by-products upon disinfection with free chlorine. Non-targeted ultrahigh resolution 12 T negative mode electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) revealed high molecular diversity in solid-phase extracted and ionizable components of Microcystis aeruginosa ADOM. The toxin microcystin LR was effectively degraded by free chlorine, which was expected...
February 27, 2019: Water Research
E Ballesté, M Pascual-Benito, J Martín-Díaz, A R Blanch, F Lucena, M Muniesa, J Jofre, C García-Aljaro
Recent studies have shown that crAssphage is abundant in human faecal samples worldwide. It has thus been postulated as a potential microbial source tracking (MST) marker to detect human faecal pollution in water. However, an effective implementation of crAssphage in water management strategies will depend on an understanding of its environmental dynamics. In this work, the abundance and temporal distribution of crAssphage was analysed in the effluent of wastewater treatment plants using different sewage treatments, and in two rivers (water and sediments) that differ in pollution impact and flow regime...
February 27, 2019: Water Research
Ziyi Yang, Wen Wang, Chao Liu, Ruihong Zhang, Guangqing Liu
The effect of bioaugmentation with different microorganisms on anaerobic digestion to mitigate the ammonia inhibition problem was investigated. Seven pure strains of microorganisms (including obligate aceticlastic methanogen, facultative aceticlastic methanogen, hydrogenotrophic methanogen, syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) were selected and thirteen bioaugmentation approaches were tested. Bioaugmentation with hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanobrevibacter smithii (MBS) and SAOB Syntrophaceticu schinkii together was the optimal choice, methane production (MP) was 71...
February 27, 2019: Water Research
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