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Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771622/statistical-learning-of-speech-regularities-can-occur-outside-the-focus-of-attention
#1
Laura J Batterink, Ken A Paller
Statistical learning, the process of extracting regularities from the environment, plays an essential role in many aspects of cognition, including speech segmentation and language acquisition. A key component of statistical learning in a linguistic context is the perceptual binding of adjacent individual units (e.g., syllables) into integrated composites (e.g., multisyllabic words). A second, conceptually dissociable component of statistical learning is the memory storage of these integrated representations...
January 28, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763809/remodelling-the-attentional-system-after-left-hemispheric-stroke-effect-of-leftward-prismatic-adaptation
#2
Sonia Crottaz-Herbette, Isabel Tissieres, Eleonora Fornari, Pierre-André Rapin, Stephanie Clarke
Left hemispheric stroke is known to be associated with right neglect and/or not lateralized attentional deficits. The former appears to respond favourably to leftward prismatic adaptation (L-PA), as reported in a case of a large left stroke. In normal subjects, brief exposure to L-PA was shown to enhance the representation of the right visual field within the right inferior parietal lobule, emphasizing thus right hemispheric dominance within the ventral attentional system. We have investigated whether L-PA does the same in left hemispheric stroke by comparing neural responses to left, central and right stimuli before and after a brief exposure to L-PA...
January 24, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738999/abnormal-fronto-striatal-intrinsic-connectivity-reflects-executive-dysfunction-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#3
Caterina Galandra, Gianpaolo Basso, Marina Manera, Chiara Crespi, Ines Giorgi, Giovanni Vittadini, Paolo Poggi, Nicola Canessa
The neural bases of cognitive impairment(s) in alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been explained either with the specific involvement of frontal regions mostly affected by alcohol neurotoxic effects, or with a global brain damage underlying different neuro-cognitive alterations. Novel insights into this issue might come from the analysis of resting-state brain activity, representing a baseline level of intrinsic connectivity within and between the networks underlying cognitive performance. We thus addressed the neural bases of cognitive impairment(s) in 22 AUD patients, compared with 18 healthy controls, by coupling resting-state fMRI with an in-depth neuropsychological assessment of the main cognitive domains...
January 23, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738997/the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-weighting-expectations-during-inference-under-uncertainty
#4
Francesco Rigoli, Jochen Michely, Karl J Friston, Raymond J Dolan
Making inference under uncertainty requires an optimal weighting of prior expectations and observations. How this weighting is realized in the brain remains elusive. To investigate this, we recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants estimated a number based on noisy observations. Crucially, the prior expectation about the variability of observations (an expected variability) was manipulated. Consistent with normative models, when novel observations were characterized by higher expected or observed variability, participants' estimates relied more on expectations than novel observations and were characterized by higher stochasticity...
January 23, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738998/communicative-misalignment-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Harshali Wadge, Rebecca Brewer, Geoffrey Bird, Ivan Toni, Arjen Stolk
Communication deficits are a defining feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), manifest during social interactions. Previous studies investigating communicative deficits have largely focused on the perceptual biases, social motivation, cognitive flexibility, or mentalizing abilities of isolated individuals. By embedding autistic individuals in live non-verbal interactions, we characterized a novel cause for their communication deficits. Adults with ASD matched neurotypical individuals in their ability and propensity to generate and modify intelligible behaviors for a communicative partner...
January 22, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738569/handedness-in-monkeys-reflects-hemispheric-specialization-within-the-central-sulcus-an-in-vivo-mri-study-in-right-and-left-handed-olive-baboons
#6
Konstantina Margiotoudi, Damien Marie, Nicolas Claidière, Olivier Coulon, Muriel Roth, Bruno Nazarian, Romain Lacoste, William D Hopkins, Sandra Molesti, Pauline Fresnais, Jean-Luc Anton, Adrien Meguerditchian
Handedness, one of the most prominent expressions of laterality, has been historically considered unique to human. This noteworthy feature relates to contralateral inter-hemispheric asymmetries in the motor hand area following the mid-portion of the central sulcus. However, within an evolutionary approach, it remains debatable whether hand preferences in nonhuman primates are associated with similar patterns of hemispheric specialization. In the present study conducted in Old world monkeys, we investigate anatomical asymmetries of the central sulcus in a sample of 86 olive baboons (Papio anubis) from in vivo T1 anatomical magnetic resonance images (MRI)...
January 14, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735844/left-hemispatial-neglect-and-overt-orienting-in-naturalistic-conditions-role-of-high-level-and-stimulus-driven-signals
#7
Davide Nardo, Maria De Luca, Francesca Rotondaro, Barbara Spanò, Marco Bozzali, Fabrizio Doricchi, Stefano Paolucci, Emiliano Macaluso
Deficits of visuospatial orienting in brain-damaged patients affected by hemispatial neglect have been extensively investigated. Nonetheless, spontaneous spatial orienting in naturalistic conditions is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role played by top-down and stimulus-driven signals in overt spatial orienting of neglect patients during free-viewing of short videos portraying everyday life situations. In Experiment 1, we assessed orienting when meaningful visual events competed on the left and right side of space, and tested whether sensory salience on the two sides biased orienting...
January 14, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716612/ventromedial-frontal-lobe-damage-affects-interpretation-not-exploration-of-emotional-facial-expressions
#8
Avinash R Vaidya, Lesley K Fellows
Recognizing and distinguishing the emotional states of those around us is crucial for adaptive social behavior. Previous work has shown that damage to the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF) impairs recognition of subtle emotional facial expressions and affects fixation patterns to face stimuli. However, whether this relates to deficits in acquiring or interpreting facial expression information remains unclear. We tested 37 patients with frontal lobe damage, including 17 subjects with VMF lesions, in a series of emotion recognition tasks with different gaze manipulations...
January 14, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716611/effect-of-prism-adaptation-on-neglect-hemianesthesia
#9
Alessio Facchin, Elena Sartori, Chiara Luisetti, Anna De Galeazzi, Nicoletta Beschin
Prism adaptation (PA) has proven to be effective in alleviating many signs of unilateral spatial neglect (USN). Generally, the principal improvement after PA treatment was found to be in the high-level cognitive function. Nevertheless, some evidence has also been found for it in somatosensory function. We have aimed to test the influence of PA on neglect hemianesthesia, a condition in which the high-level neglect-related deficit mimics hemianesthesia. Twenty-one USN patients were enrolled in the study. Each patient performed two sessions of PA, one with neutral glasses and one with prism glasses using a cross-over design...
January 14, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716610/exploring-distinct-default-mode-and-semantic-networks-using-a-systematic-ica-approach
#10
Rebecca L Jackson, Lauren L Cloutman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
Resting-state networks (RSNs; groups of regions consistently co-activated without an explicit task) are hugely influential in modern brain research. Despite this popularity, the link between specific RSNs and their functions remains elusive, limiting the impact on cognitive neuroscience (where the goal is to link cognition to neural systems). Here we present a series of logical steps to formally test the relationship between a coherent RSN with a cognitive domain. This approach is applied to a challenging and significant test-case; extracting a recently-proposed semantic RSN, determining its relation with a well-known RSN, the default mode network (DMN), and assessing their roles in semantic cognition...
January 14, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716609/intentional-inhibition-but-not-source-memory-is-related-to-hallucination-proneness-and-intrusive-thoughts-in-a-university-sample
#11
Ben Alderson-Day, David Smailes, Jamie Moffatt, Kaja Mitrenga, Peter Moseley, Charles Fernyhough
Proneness to unusual perceptual states - such as auditory or visual hallucinations - has been proposed to exist on a continuum in the general population, but whether there is a cognitive basis for such a continuum remains unclear. Intentional cognitive inhibition (the ability to wilfully control thoughts and memories) is one mechanism that has been linked to auditory hallucination susceptibility, but most evidence to date has been drawn from clinical samples only. Moreover, such a link has yet to be demonstrated over and above relations to other cognitive skills (source monitoring) and cognitive states (intrusive thoughts) that often correlate with both inhibition and hallucinations...
January 14, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30711854/strategy-dependent-modulation-of-cortical-pain-circuits-for-the-attenuation-of-pain
#12
Enrico Schulz, Anne Stankewitz, Viktor Witkovský, Anderson M Winkler, Irene Tracey
The effectiveness of cognitive strategies to attenuate pain has been reported in various behavioural studies, however the underlying neuronal mechanisms are only now beginning to be understood. Using a 7 T fMRI, we investigated three different pain attenuation strategies in 20 healthy subjects via: (a) non-imaginal distraction by counting backwards in steps of seven; (b) imaginal distraction by imagining a safe place; and (c) reinterpretation of the pain valence (reappraisal). Although we found considerable variability in the performances, all strategies exhibited a significant relief of pain compared to an unmodulated pain condition...
January 4, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686526/neuroimaging-s-19th-century-debts
#13
O Parker Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685062/evidence-for-the-world-as-an-external-memory-a-trade-off-between-internal-and-external-visual-memory-storage
#14
Rosyl S Somai, Martijn J Schut, Stefan Van der Stigchel
We use visual working memory (VWM) to maintain the visual features of objects in our world. Although the capacity of VWM is limited, it is unlikely that this limit will pose a problem in daily life, as visual information can be supplemented with input from our external visual world by using eye movements. In the current study, we influenced the trade-off between eye movements and VWM utilization by introducing a cost to a saccade. Higher costs were created by adding a delay in stimulus availability to a copying task...
January 3, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30677619/beta-oscillations-precede-joint-attention-and-correlate-with-mentalization-in-typical-development-and-autism
#15
Patricia Soto-Icaza, Lorena Vargas, Francisco Aboitiz, Pablo Billeke
A precursor of adult social functioning is joint attention (JA), which is the capacity to share attention on an object with another person. JA precedes the development of the capacity to attribute mental states to others (i.e., mentalization or theory of mind). The neural mechanisms involved in the development of mentalization are not fully understood. Electroencephalographic recordings were made of children while they watched stimuli on a screen and their interaction with the experimenter was assessed. We tested whether neuronal activity preceding JA correlates with mentalization in typically developing (TD) children and whether this activity is impaired in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) who evidence deficits in JA and mentalization skills...
January 2, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30685578/the-co-occurrence-of-pitch-and-rhythm-disorders-in-congenital-amusia
#16
Marie-Élaine Lagrois, Isabelle Peretz
The most studied form of congenital amusia is characterized by a difficulty with detecting pitch anomalies in melodies, also referred to as pitch deafness. Here, we tested for the presence of associated deficits in rhythm processing, beat in particular, in pitch deafness. In Experiment 1, participants performed beat perception and production tasks with musical excerpts of various genres. The results show a beat finding disorder in six of the ten assessed pitch-deaf participants. In order to remove a putative interference of pitch variations with beat extraction, the same participants were tested with percussive rhythms in Experiment 2 and showed a similar impairment...
December 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661735/right-hemisphere-superiority-for-executive-control-of-attention
#17
Alfredo Spagna, Tae Hyeong Kim, Tingting Wu, Jin Fan
Over forty years have passed since the first evidence showing the unbalanced attentional allocation of humans across the two visual fields, and since then, a wealth of behavioral, neurophysiological, and clinical data increasingly showed a right hemisphere dominance for orienting of attention. However, inconsistent evidence exists regarding the right-hemisphere dominance for executive control of attention, possibly due to a lack of consideration of its dynamics with the alerting and orienting functions. In this study, we used a version of the Attentional Network Test with lateralized presentation of the stimuli to the left visual field (processed by the right hemisphere, RH) and right visual field (processed by the left hemisphere, LH) to examine visual field differences in executive control of attention under alerting and orienting of attention...
December 29, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683323/spontaneous-representation-of-numerosity-in-typical-and-dyscalculic-development
#18
Guido Marco Cicchini, Giovanni Anobile, David C Burr
Animals including humans are endowed with a remarkable capacity to estimate rapidly the number of items in a scene. Some have questioned whether this ability reflects a genuine sense of number, or whether numerosity is derived indirectly from other covarying attributes, such as density and area. In previous work we have demonstrated that adult observers are more sensitive to changes in numerosity than to area or density, particularly changes that leave numerosity constant, pointing to a spontaneous sensitivity to numerosity, not attributable to area and density...
December 28, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30665711/must-replication-attempts-be-battlegrounds
#19
Hannah Hobson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30642569/reliability-starts-with-the-experimental-tools-employed
#20
Matthew B Wall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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