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Journals Cortex; a Journal Devoted to t...

Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior

https://read.qxmd.com/read/38875737/selective-cancellation-of-reactive-or-anticipated-movements-differences-in-speed-of-action-reprogramming-but-not-stopping
#1
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Simon Weber, Sauro E Salomoni, Mark R Hinder
The ability to inhibit movements is an essential component of a healthy executive control system. Two distinct but commonly used tasks to assess motor inhibition are the stop signal task (SST) and the anticipated response inhibition (ARI) task. The SST and ARI tasks are similar in that they both require cancelation of a prepotent movement; however, the SST involves cancelation of a speeded reaction to a temporally unpredictable signal, while the ARI task involves cancelation of an anticipated response that the participant has prepared to enact at a wholly predictable time...
June 1, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38865762/an-interhemispheric-frontoparietal-network-supports-hypnotic-states
#2
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Maria Niedernhuber, Aninka Charlotte Schroeder, Céline Lercher, Mike Bruegger, Nuno Miguel Prates de Matos, Valdas Noreika, Bigna Lenggenhager
Understanding the neural substrate of altered conscious states is an important cultural, scientific, and clinical endeavour. Although hypnosis causes strong shifts in conscious perception and cognition, it remains largely unclear how hypnosis affects information processing in cortical networks. Here we manipulated the depth of hypnotic states to study information processing between cortical regions involved in attention and awareness. We used high-density Electroencephalography (EEG) to record resting-state cortical activity from 30 hypnosis experts during two hypnotic states with different depth...
June 1, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38875735/keeping-up-with-ourselves-multimodal-processes-underlying-body-ownership-across-the-lifespan
#3
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Marieke L Weijs, Marte Roel Lesur, Moritz M Daum, Bigna Lenggenhager
The sense of a bodily self is thought to depend on adaptive weighting and integration of bodily afferents and prior beliefs. While the physical body changes in shape, size, and functionality across the lifespan, the sense of body ownership remains relatively stable. Yet, little is known about how multimodal integration underlying such sense of ownership is altered in ontogenetic periods of substantial physical changes. We aimed to study this link for the motor and the tactile domain in a mixed-realty paradigm where participants ranging from 7 to 80 years old saw their own body with temporally mismatching multimodal signals...
May 31, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38875736/undoubtedly-unaware-of-homonymous-hemianopia-the-contribution-of-overconfidence-to-anosognosia-of-hemianopia
#4
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Julian Klingbeil, Martin Mühlig, Emma Bahr, Florian Welle, Tim Ritter, Anika Stockert, Max Wawrzyniak, Dorothee Saur
A new functional deficit caused by a stroke can be understood as a situation of uncertainty that has to prompt deficit discovery and subsequent incorporation into an altered self-perception. Anosognosia for visual field deficits is frequent after stroke. For hemiplegia, patients' performance in a riddle test provided evidence that the inability to generate and adjust beliefs in face of uncertainty contributes to anosognosia for hemiplegia. In this prospective study, the same riddles are used in patients with homonymous hemianopia due to a first-ever stroke in the posterior cerebral artery territory and in an age-matched control cohort...
May 29, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38848652/alpha-and-theta-rhythm-support-perceptual-and-attentional-sampling-in-vision
#5
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jessica Gallina, Luca Ronconi, Gianluca Marsicano, Caterina Bertini
The visual system operates rhythmically, through timely coordinated perceptual and attentional processes, involving coexisting patterns in the alpha range (7-13 Hz) at ∼10 Hz, and theta (3-6 Hz) range, respectively. Here we aimed to disambiguate whether variations in task requirements, in terms of attentional demand and side of target presentation, might influence the occurrence of either perceptual or attentional components in behavioral visual performance, also uncovering possible differences in the sampling mechanisms of the two cerebral hemispheres...
May 29, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38843567/late-recovery-from-acquired-sociopathy-in-a-boy-with-a-left-frontopolar-injury
#6
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza, Jorge Moll, Roland Zahn, Paul Eslinger
The long-term outcome of acquired sociopathy with preservation of cognition is still unknown. Here, we present the long-term outcome of a severe antisocial change in personality that followed a traumatic left frontopolar injury in a previously gentle, loving, and introverted adolescent. Nine years after the accident, antisocial behaviors gradually became sporadic, while, at the same time, the patient's sense of responsibility and care for his family increased. He became more extroverted and assertive, yet flexible enough to deal with the hardships of his poor socioeconomic background...
May 29, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38865761/the-effect-of-context-on-pointer-allocation-in-visual-working-memory
#7
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Shani Friedman, Trafton Drew, Roy Luria
Visual working memory (VWM) can hold a limited amount of visual information and manipulate it. It encodes this information and forms representations of each one of the relevant objects. When an object changes, VWM can either update or reset its representation to account for this change. To access a specific representation VWM relies on a pointer system associating each representation with the corresponding object in the environment. While previous studies described these processes as reacting to a change in the object status, this study investigated the adaptability of the pointer system to the task context...
May 28, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38861776/concurrent-response-and-action-effect-representations-across-the-somatomotor-cortices-during-novel-task-preparation
#8
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ana F Palenciano, Carlos González-García, Jan De Houwer, Baptist Liefooghe, Marcel Brass
Instructions allow us to fulfill novel and complex tasks on the first try. This skill has been linked to preparatory brain signals that encode upcoming demands in advance, facilitating novel performance. To deepen insight into these processes, we explored whether instructions pre-activated task-relevant motoric and perceptual neural states. Critically, we addressed whether these representations anticipated activity patterns guiding overt sensorimotor processing, which could reflect that internally simulating novel tasks facilitates the preparation...
May 28, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38852224/how-variable-are-the-classic-erp-effects-during-sentence-processing-a-systematic-resampling-analysis-of-the-n400-and-p600-effects
#9
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Albert E Kim, Shannon M McKnight, Akira Miyake
Although event-related potential (ERP) research on language processing has capitalized on key, theoretically influential components such as the N400 and P600, their measurement properties-especially the variability in their temporal and spatial parameters-have rarely been examined. The current study examined the measurement properties of the N400 and P600 effects elicited by semantic and syntactic anomalies, respectively, during sentence processing. We used a bootstrap resampling procedure to randomly draw many thousands of resamples varying in sample size and stimulus count from a larger sample of 187 participants and 40 stimulus sentences of each type per condition...
May 28, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38833819/is-processing-superiority-a-universal-trait-for-all-threats-divergent-impacts-of-fearful-angry-and-disgusted-faces-on-attentional-capture
#10
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Shuaixia Li, Yihan Zhang, Hui Li, Bin Hao, Weiqi He, Wenbo Luo
Fearful, angry, and disgusted facial expressions are evolutionarily salient and convey different types of threat signals. However, it remains unclear whether these three expressions impact sensory perception and attention in the same way. The present ERP study investigated the temporal dynamics underlying the processing of different types of threatening faces and the impact of attentional resources employed during a perceptual load task. Participants were asked to judge the length of bars superimposed over faces presented in the center of the screen...
May 28, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38824804/the-role-of-frontal-cortex-in-novel-word-learning-and-consolidation-evidence-from-focal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#11
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Steffen Riemann, Jil van Lück, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Agnes Flöel, Marcus Meinzer
Previous studies have demonstrated that conventional transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance novel-word learning. However, because of the widespread current that is induced by these setups and lack of appropriate control conditions, little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. In the present double-blinded and sham-tDCS controlled study, we investigated for the first time if regionally precise focal tDCS targeting two key nodes of the novel-word learning network at different time points would result in regionally and temporally distinct effects...
May 28, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38875734/delusions-in-postpartum-psychosis-implications-for-cognitive-theories
#12
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Michael H Connors, Jessica Gibbs, Matthew M Large, Peter W Halligan
Postpartum psychosis is a rare but serious condition that can affect women after childbirth. We present a case study of an individual with no comorbidities or psychiatric history who developed postpartum psychosis characterised by prominent misidentification delusions whilst admitted to hospital. The woman recovered quickly with medication and showed no evidence of relapse over the following three years. Whilst still symptomatic and after recovery, the patient was able to provide a detailed description of her experiences...
May 24, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38838559/moral-decision-making-in-context-behavioral-and-neural-processes-underlying-allocations-based-on-need-merit-and-equality
#13
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Peter Vavra, Elijah P Galván, Alan G Sanfey
How to fairly allocate goods is a key issue of social decision-making. Extensive research demonstrates that people do not selfishly maximize their own benefits, but instead also consider how others are affected. However, most accounts of the psychological processes underlying fairness-related behavior implicitly assume that assessments of fairness are somewhat stable. In this paper, we present results of a novel task, the Re-Allocation Game, in which two players receive an allocation determined by the computer and, on half of the trials, one player has the subsequent possibility to change this allocation...
May 24, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38848651/on-the-neural-networks-of-self-and-other-bias-and-their-role-in-emergent-social-interactions
#14
REVIEW
Chad E Forbes
Extensive research has documented the brain networks that play an integral role in bias, or the alteration and filtration of information processing in a manner that fundamentally favors an individual. The roots of bias, whether self- or other-oriented, are a complex constellation of neural and psychological processes that start at the most fundamental levels of sensory processing. From the millisecond information is received in the brain it is filtered at various levels and through various brain networks in relation to extant intrinsic activity to provide individuals with a perception of reality that complements and satisfies the conscious perceptions they have for themselves and the cultures in which they were reared...
May 22, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38838560/alterations-of-tactile-and-anatomical-spatial-representations-of-the-hand-after-stroke
#15
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lucile Dupin, Eloïse Gerardin, Maxime Térémetz, Sonia Hamdoun, Guillaume Turc, Marc A Maier, Jean-Claude Baron, Påvel G Lindberg
Stroke often causes long-term motor and somatosensory impairments. Motor planning and tactile perception rely on spatial body representations. However, the link between altered spatial body representations, motor deficit and tactile spatial coding remains unclear. This study investigates the relationship between motor deficits and alterations of anatomical (body) and tactile spatial representations of the hand in 20 post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Anatomical and tactile spatial representations were assessed from 10 targets (nails and knuckles) respectively cued verbally by their anatomical name or using tactile stimulations...
May 21, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38821014/pupillometry-reveals-resting-state-alpha-power-correlates-with-individual-differences-in-adult-auditory-language-comprehension
#16
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jarrad A G Lum, Michael P Barham, Aron T Hill
Although individual differences in adult language processing are well-documented, the neural basis of this variability remains largely unexplored. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by examining the relationship between resting state alpha activity and individual differences in auditory language comprehension. Alpha oscillations modulate cortical excitability, facilitating efficient information processing in the brain. While resting state alpha oscillations have been tied to individual differences in cognitive performance, their association with auditory language comprehension is less clear...
May 21, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38796921/the-late-positive-event-related-potential-component-is-time-locked-to-the-decision-in-recognition-memory-tasks
#17
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jie Sun, Adam F Osth, Daniel Feuerriegel
Two event-related potential (ERP) components are commonly observed in recognition memory tasks: the Frontal Negativity (FN400) and the Late Positive Component (LPC). These components are widely interpreted as neural correlates of familiarity and recollection, respectively. However, the interpretation of LPC effects is complicated by inconsistent results regarding the timing of ERP amplitude differences. There are also mixed findings regarding how LPC amplitudes covary with decision confidence. Critically, LPC effects have almost always been measured using fixed time windows relative to memory probe stimulus onset, yet it has not been determined whether LPC effects are time locked to the stimulus or the recognition memory decision...
May 21, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38811277/corrigendum-to-strategy-based-motor-learning-decreases-the-post-movement-%C3%AE-power-cortex%C3%A2-166%C3%A2-2023-43-58
#18
Betina Korka, Matthias Will, Izel Avci, Fabio Dukagjini, Max-Philipp Stenner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38805783/super-selective-injection-of-propofol-into-the-intracranial-arteries-enables-patient-s-self-evaluation-of-expected-neurological-deficit
#19
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Shin-Ichiro Osawa, Kyoko Suzuki, Kazushi Ukishiro, Kazuo Kakinuma, Makoto Ishida, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Yoshiteru Shimoda, Hana Kikuchi, Ryuzaburo Kochi, Kazutaka Jin, Yasushi Matsumoto, Mitsugu Uematsu, Nobukazu Nakasato, Hidenori Endo, Teiji Tominaga
INTRODUCTION: It is hard to realize the extent of the expected postoperative neurological deficit for patients themselves. The provision of appropriate information can contribute not only to examining surgical indications but also to filling the gap between patient and expert expectations. We hypothesized that propofol infusion into the intracranial arteries (ssWada) could induce focal neurological symptoms with preserved wakefulness, enabling the patients to evaluate the postsurgical risk subjectively...
May 19, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/38805784/youth-like-brain-activation-linked-with-greater-cognitive-training-gains-in-older-adults-insights-from-the-actop-study
#20
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lynn Valeyry Verty, Samira Mellah, Samantha Maltezos, Arnaud Boujut, Maxime Lussier, Louis Bherer, Sylvie Belleville
This study investigates the relationship between inter-individual neurofunctional differences in older adults and cognitive training efficacy, with a specific focus on the association between youth-like task-related brain activation and improvements in working memory (WM) training. The data is part of the Attentional Control Training for Older People (ACTOP) study, 30 older adults completed 12 half-hour WM training sessions. The WM performance slope, assessed at the conclusion of sessions 1 through 6 and sessions 7 to 12, determined early- and late-stage training gains, respectively...
May 17, 2024: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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