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Pediatric Research

Louise Montalva, Lina Antounians, Augusto Zani
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a severe birth defect that is characterized by pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension (PHTN). PHTN secondary to CDH is a result of vascular remodeling, a structural alteration in the pulmonary vessel wall that occurs in the fetus. Factors involved in vascular remodeling have been reported in several studies, but their interactions remain unclear. To help understand PHTN pathophysiology and design novel preventative and treatment strategies, we have conducted a systematic review of the literature and comprehensively analyzed all factors and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular remodeling secondary to CDH in the nitrofen model...
February 19, 2019: Pediatric Research
Sujoy Banerjee, Ramon Fernandez, Grenville F Fox, Kevin C W Goss, Helen Mactier, Peter Reynolds, Charles C Roehr, David G Sweet
Our aim is to develop consensus recommendations from United Kingdom (UK) neonatal specialists on the use of surfactant for the management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants.
February 19, 2019: Pediatric Research
Qian Wang, Soumyaroop Bhattacharya, Jared A Mereness, Christopher Anderson, Jacquelyn A Lillis, Ravi S Misra, Stephen Romas, Heidie Huyck, Amanda Howell, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Kathy Donlon, Jason R Myers, John Ashton, Gloria S Pryhuber, Thomas J Mariani
BACKGROUND: Current in vitro human lung epithelial cell models derived from adult tissues may not accurately represent all attributes that define homeostatic and disease mechanisms relevant to the pediatric lung. METHODS: We report methods for growing and differentiating primary Pediatric Human Lung Epithelial (PHLE) cells from organ donor infant lung tissues. We use immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, quantitative RT-PCR, and single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) analysis to characterize the cellular and transcriptional heterogeneity of PHLE cells...
February 18, 2019: Pediatric Research
Itay Zamir, Elisabeth Stoltz Sjöström, Anna-Karin Edstedt Bonamy, Lilly-Ann Mohlkert, Mikael Norman, Magnus Domellöf
BACKGROUND: Adverse developmental programming by early-life exposures might account for higher blood pressure (BP) in children born extremely preterm. We assessed associations between nutrition, growth and hyperglycemia early in infancy, and BP at 6.5 years of age in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Data regarding perinatal exposures including nutrition, growth and glycemia status were collected from the Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS), a population-based cohort including infants born <27 gestational weeks during 2004-2007...
February 18, 2019: Pediatric Research
Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Timm Intemann, Idoia Labayen, Enrique G Artero, Celia Alvarez-Bueno, Joaquin Sanchís-Moysi, Pedro J Benito, María Reyes Beltran-Valls, Alejandro Pérez-Bey, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Pere Palou, Germán Vicente-Rodríguez, Luis A Moreno, Francisco B Ortega
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has become a major health problem in children under the age of 5 years. Providing reference standards would help paediatricians to detect and/or prevent health problems related to both low and high levels of body mass and to central adiposity later in life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of different weight status categories and to provide sex- and age-specific anthropometry reference standards for Spanish preschool children...
February 18, 2019: Pediatric Research
Regan Giesinger, Amy Stanford, Danielle Rios, Shazia Bhombal, Maria Fraga, Victor Levy, Patrick McNamara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2019: Pediatric Research
Afif El Khuffash, Philip T Levy, Matthias Gorenflo, Ivan D Frantz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Pediatric Research
Thea Tagliaferro, Deepak Jain, Silvia Vanbuskirk, Eduardo Bancalari, Nelson Claure
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy complication characterized by an anti-angiogenic environment. This can affect fetal pulmonary vascular and alveolar development but data of the impact of PE on respiratory outcome in extremely premature infants are inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To determine if PE is associated with an increased risk for severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants. METHODS: Prospectively collected single center data from a cohort of infants born at 23-28 w gestational age between January 2005 and December 2015 were analyzed...
February 15, 2019: Pediatric Research
Albin Jeanne, Revital Rattenbach, Itschak Lamensdorf, Laurent Martiny, Celine Martin, Stéphane Dedieu
The authors "Revital Rattenbach", "ltschak Lamensdorf", and "Celine Martin" were not included in the author list of this published article however should be considered to be authors since they contributed substantially to the work. The updated author list of this article can be found in the associated correction.
February 14, 2019: Pediatric Research
Helen Ward
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2019: Pediatric Research
Luigi Gagliardi, Olga Basso
OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between maternal hypertension (chronic and gestational, MH) and mortality in very preterm singletons and twins, focusing on how estimates depend on gestational age (GA) and size at birth. METHODS: We estimated relative risks of in-hospital death in 12,320 singletons (MH: 22.4%) and 4381 twins (MH: 10.6%) born at 23-29 weeks in the Italian Neonatal Network (89 hospitals, 2008-2016). RESULTS: Babies with MH had higher GA and were more frequently small-for-gestational age (SGA), especially singletons...
February 14, 2019: Pediatric Research
Shahana Perveen, Kamesh Ayyasola, Nahla Zagloul, Hardik Patel, Kanta Ochani, David Orner, Helene Benveniste, Michael Salerno, Paul Vaska, Zhang Zuo, Yousef Alabed, Mansoor Nasim, Edmund J Miller, Mohamed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a complex birth anomaly with significant mortality and morbidity. Lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) limit survival in CDH. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a key regulator of innate immunity, is involved in hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling and PPHN. We hypothesized that antenatal inhibition of MIF in CDH fetuses, would reduce vascular remodeling, and improve angiogenesis and lung development...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Research
Maria Chalia, Laura A Dempsey, Robert J Cooper, Chuen-Wai Lee, Adam P Gibson, Jeremy C Hebden, Topun Austin
BACKGROUND: Perinatal stroke is a potentially debilitating injury, often under-diagnosed in the neonatal period. We conducted a pilot study investigating the role of the portable, non-invasive brain monitoring technique, diffuse optical tomography (DOT), as an early detection tool for infants with perinatal stroke. METHODS: Four stroke-affected infants were scanned with a DOT system within the first 3 days of life and compared to four healthy control subjects. Spectral power, correlation, and phase lag between interhemispheric low frequency (0...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Research
Deepak Jain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2019: Pediatric Research
Sina Waldherr, Alexander Fichtner, Bernd Beedgen, Thomas Bruckner, Franz Schaefer, Burkhard Tönshoff, Johannes Pöschl, Timm H Westhoff, Jens H Westhoff
BACKGROUND: Serum creatinine (SCr)- or urine output-based definitions of acute kidney injury (AKI) have important limitations in neonates. This study evaluates the diagnostic value of urinary biomarkers in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants receiving indomethacin for closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). METHODS: Prospective cohort study in 14 indomethacin-treated VLBW infants and 18 VLBW infants without indomethacin as controls. Urinary biomarkers were measured before, during, and after indomethacin administration...
February 11, 2019: Pediatric Research
Colin P Hawkes, Adda Grimberg, Louise C Kenny, Mairead Kiely, Jonathan O B Hourihane, Alan D Irvine, Michael J McPhaul, Michael P Caulfield, Babette S Zemel, Deirdre M Murray
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II play an important role in prenatal growth. During the first 2 months from birth, body fat doubles, and rapid weight gain during this time increases future risk of cardiometabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether IGF measurements at birth associate with body composition and the trajectory of its changes in the first 2 months. METHODS: Umbilical cord IGF-I and -II concentrations were measured in term infants...
February 11, 2019: Pediatric Research
Tate Gisslen, Garima Singh, Michael K Georgieff
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a major cause of preterm birth and often results in a fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS). Preterm infants with FIRS have a higher childhood incidence of neurodevelopmental disability than preterm infants without FIRS. The mechanisms connecting FIRS to neurodevelopmental disability in formerly preterm infants are not fully understood, but the effect on premature gray matter may have an important role. METHODS: Fetal rats were exposed to intra-amniotic (i...
February 11, 2019: Pediatric Research
Tuan Anh Nguyen, Timothy Chow, Wayne Riggs, Dan Rurak
BACKGROUND: Approximately 1/3 of newborns exposed antenatally to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) exhibit poor neonatal adaptation. Although several potential mechanisms have been proposed, the actual mechanism has not been elucidated. METHODS: We investigated outcomes in neonatal lambs exposed prenatally or postnatally to fluoxetine (FX). Daily FX injections (50 mg) were given intravenously (i.v.) to five pregnant ewes via implanted catheters beginning at 131-132 days gestation (term = 147 days) for 2 weeks...
February 9, 2019: Pediatric Research
Amanda Benavides, Andrew Metzger, Alexander Tereshchenko, Amy Conrad, Edward F Bell, John Spencer, Shannon Ross-Sheehy, Michael Georgieff, Vince Magnotta, Peg Nopoulos
In the original article, the legend within Fig. 3 incorrectly read as '*p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p > 0.01'. This has now been changed to '*p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01'. This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article. The authors would like to apologise for this error.
February 8, 2019: Pediatric Research
Max J Coppes, John M Maris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Pediatric Research
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