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Kazuko Iwamoto, Shinichi Matsumura, Yuri Yoshioka, Ayami Yamamoto, Shohei Makino, Tatsuya Moriyama, Nobuhiro Zaima
Accumulation of amyloid-β peptide is associated with Alzheimer's dementia. Previously, we reported that sesamin and sesamolin inhibited β-secretase activity in vitro, and each was transported to the serum and brain in mice after oral administration. However, the bioavailability of sesamin and sesamolin was poor in mice. In this study, we aimed to improve the bioavailability of sesamin and sesamolin. We found that the levels of sesamin and sesamolin in mouse serum and brain were higher after the administration of a mixture of sesame extract and turmeric oil (MST) than those after administering sesame extract alone...
April 17, 2019: Lipids
Katherine M Ranard, Matthew J Kuchan, John W Erdman
Of the antioxidant vitamin E isoforms, α-tocopherol (αT) and γ-tocopherol (γT) are the most abundant in the human diet, and αT is consumed from both natural and synthetic sources. αT and γT may differentially impact inflammation and influence cardiovascular outcomes, in part by modulating gene expression. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of natural αT, synthetic αT, and γT on gene expression in two human cell lines. Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) and endothelial cells (HAEC) were either: (1) treated with 25 μM tocopherols alone, or (2) pretreated with tocopherols prior to a pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNF-α) stimulation...
April 16, 2019: Lipids
Celestina Lopes, Joana Barbosa, Elisabete Maciel, Elisabete da Costa, Eliana Alves, Fernando Ricardo, Pedro Domingues, Sónia Mendo, M Rosário M Domingues
Bacillus licheniformis I89 is a Gram-positive bacterium, a producer of the lantibiotic lichenicidin. No information is available on its fatty acid (FA) composition. Bacillus species are rich in branched FA (BrFA), claimed to be beneficial to human health and to treat diseases. Herein, the FA profile of B. licheniformis I89 was evaluated under different growth conditions: at two growth temperatures (37 and 50 °C) and at different growth phases (lag, exponential, and stationary), using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
April 8, 2019: Lipids
Joel L Ramirez, Greg J Zahner, Kimberly A Spaulding, Sukaynah A Khetani, Nancy K Hills, Warren J Gasper, William S Harris, Beth E Cohen, S Marlene Grenon
Population-based data suggest that individuals who consume large dietary amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have lower odds of peripheral artery disease (PAD); however, clinical studies examining n-3 PUFA levels in patients with PAD are sparse. The objective of this study is to compare erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FA) content between patients with PAD and controls. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 179 vascular surgery outpatients (controls, 34; PAD, 145). A blood sample was drawn and the erythrocyte FA content was assayed using capillary gas chromatography...
March 18, 2019: Lipids
Jana Breitfeld, Norman Wiele, Beate Gutsmann, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Markus Scholz, Peter Kovacs, Anke Tönjes
VASPIN, visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin, is an adipokine ameliorating insulin resistance in obesity. Here, we investigated the role of VASPIN and its genetic variants in lipid metabolism. We measured serum VASPIN concentrations by ELISA in 823 metabolically well-characterized Caucasian subjects (Sorbs from Germany). Furthermore, we genotyped 30 representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in two independent cohorts with metabolic phenotyping, the Sorbs (N = 823) and Leipzig (N = 919), and conducted genotype-phenotype association analyses...
March 18, 2019: Lipids
Meli'sa Crawford, Corrie Whisner, Layla Al-Nakkash, Karen L Sweazea
Energy-dense foods can alter gut microbial diversity. However, the physiological effects of diet-induced microbial changes on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain debatable. We hypothesized that high-fat intake for 6 weeks would promote intestinal dysbiosis by increasing gram-positive bacteria, inducing the intestinal production of proinflammatory cytokines and subsequent hepatic lipid infiltration in young male rats. Six-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and fed either a standard rodent chow or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks...
March 12, 2019: Lipids
Tomáš Řezanka, Lucia Gharwalová, Gabriela Nováková, Irena Kolouchová, Ondřej Uhlík, Karel Sigler
Four bacterial isolates, which produced polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were isolated from water samples of radioactive springs collected from Jáchymov spa. Jáchymov (Sankt Joachimsthal) is a city in northwestern Bohemia, where Marie and Pierre Curie isolated radium in 1898 from the mineral uraninite. To date, four springs (Agricola, Behounek, C1, and Curie) have been used for spa purposes, that is for the treatment of nervous and rheumatic disorders by constantly produced radioactive gas radon (222 Rn) dissolved in the water...
March 6, 2019: Lipids
Christine Feillet-Coudray, Gilles Fouret, Claire Vigor, Béatrice Bonafos, Bernard Jover, Agnieszka Blachnio-Zabielska, Jennifer Rieusset, François Casas, Sylvie Gaillet, Jean Francois Landrier, Thierry Durand, Charles Coudray
Inflammation and oxidative stress are thought to be involved in, or associated with, the development of obesity, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance. This work was designed to determine the evolution of inflammation and oxidative stress during onset and progression of hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were divided to control and high-fat high-fructose (HFHFr) groups. A subgroup of each group was sacrificed at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks. HFHFr-fed rats exhibited overweight, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis with increased contents of hepatic diacylglycerols and ceramides...
February 14, 2019: Lipids
Yuriko Adkins, Athena M Soulika, Bruce Mackey, Darshan S Kelley
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurologic autoimmune disease, which is the leading cause of nontraumatic neurologic disability in young adults in United States and Europe. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are reported to mitigate severity of this disease. Recent studies suggest that phospholipid (PL) form of dietary n-3 PUFA may lead to their higher tissue accretion than triacylglycerol (TAG) form. We compared efficacy of PL-docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA) and TAG-DHA on onset and severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in a mouse model of MS...
February 14, 2019: Lipids
Pooja Acharya, Ramaprasad R Talahalli
In this study, the effect of n-3 fatty acids (FA) [α-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] on the intestinal bile acid (BA) uptake, hepatic BA synthesis, and enterohepatic bile acid transporters (BAT) was assessed in young and aged dyslipidemic rats. Dyslipidemia was induced in young and aged rats by feeding a high-fat (HF) diet. Experimental groups received diets containing canola oil (HF + CNO) and fish oil (HF + FO) as a source of ALA and EPA + DHA, respectively...
February 10, 2019: Lipids
Claudia A Betancourt López, María G Bernal Santos, Pedro A Vázquez Landaverde, Dale E Bauman, Kevin J Harvatine, Cynthia T Srigley, Juan Becerra Becerra
The relationship between the fatty acid (FA) profile of cecotrophs and that of the milk fat was evaluated in nine multiparous New Zealand does during the first 12 days of lactation. Milk samples were obtained manually on days 6, 8, 10, and 12 postpartum and cecotrophs and feces were collected on days 7, 9, and 11 postpartum. The FA profiles of feed, milk, cecotrophs, and feces were determined using gas chromatography. The principal FA found in rabbits' milk were 8:0, 10:0, 16:0, 18:1 cis-9, and 18:2 n-6. Bacteria-derived FA found in the milk fat included branched FA from 14 to 16 carbons, and 18:1 trans...
February 10, 2019: Lipids
Anna Fickler, Stefanie Staats, Stéphanie Céline Michl, Mario Hasler, Gerald Rimbach, Carsten Schulz
Equol and Ahiflower oil have been shown to increase either eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) levels in tissues of rainbow trout when applied individually. Thus, we investigated whether the combination of an Ahiflower oil-based diet and equol might increase both, EPA and DHA levels, in rainbow trout. Rainbow trout (87.1 ± 0.3 g) were fed with five diets for 8 weeks. A diet based on a blend of fish and vegetable oils (FV) served as a reference diet. The four experimental diets contained a blend of Ahiflower oil and vegetable oils (AV)...
February 5, 2019: Lipids
Dong-Hwan Kim, Jeong-Woong Lee, Kichoon Lee
Vitamin A, referred to as retinol, is an essential nutrient that affects the cell growth and differentiation including adipogenesis. Although previous studies using supraphysiological doses (over 1 μM) of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) demonstrated antiadipogenic activity, effects of atRA at various levels on differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes have not been extensively investigated. Our study showed that the amount of cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) and intensities of Oil-Red-O staining were decreased by supplementing atRA (1 and 10 μM) but increased by low concentrations of atRA (0...
February 5, 2019: Lipids
Maria N B Kristiansen, Sanne S Veidal, Christina Christoffersen, Jacob Jelsing, Kristoffer T G Rigbolt
Simple steatosis is the hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, with lipid accumulating as either microvesicular or macrovesicular lipid droplets within hepatocytes. The present study used a combination of laser capture microdissection and RNAseq to characterize murine gene expression in nonsteatotic, microsteatotic, and macrosteatotic compartments collected from the same liver. The data indicate that microvesicular steatosis is intermediate to macrovesicular steatosis, showing a widespread and pronounced metabolic gene regulation of lipid export, gluconeogenesis, and de novo lipogenesis...
February 5, 2019: Lipids
Sophie E van der Krieken, Herman E Popeijus, Igor Bendik, Bettina Böhlendorf, Maurice C J M Konings, Jehad Tayyeb, Ronald P Mensink, Jogchum Plat
Increasing apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the predominant protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, has favorable effects on atherogenic risk factors. Here, we investigated the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transactivating compounds on apoA-I transcription in HepG2 cells. A transient PPARα agonist transactivation assay was used to screen 2500 natural compounds. To analyze the effects on apoA-I transcription, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) were exposed to 0...
February 1, 2019: Lipids
Michele A Johnson, Nicholas P Gannon, Jamie K Schnuck, Emily S Lyon, Kyle L Sunderland, Roger A Vaughan
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) such as leucine stimulate favorable metabolic processes involved in lean tissue preservation and skeletal muscle metabolism. However, higher levels of circulating BCAA correlate with severity of metabolic disease (including diabetes/insulin resistance), and may result from dysregulated BCAA catabolism. Past observations have demonstrated potential interaction between BCAA and dietary fat; however, much of this relationship remains underexplored. This study investigated the effect of leucine both with and without palmitate on oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, as well as indicators of BCAA catabolism using cultured skeletal muscle cells...
January 31, 2019: Lipids
Afroza Ferdouse, Shan Leng, Tanja Winter, Harold M Aukema
Oxylipins are bioactive lipids formed by the monooxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (ARA) are the most well-studied class of oxylipins that influence brain functions in normal health and in disease. However, comprehensive profiling of brain oxylipins from other PUFA with differing functions, and the examination of the effects of dietary PUFA and sex differences in oxylipins are warranted. Therefore, female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided standard rodent diets that provided additional levels of the individual n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (LNA) alone or with ALA (LNA + ALA) compared to essential fatty acid-sufficient control diets...
January 29, 2019: Lipids
Yuriko Adkins, Kevin D Laugero, Bruce Mackey, Darshan S Kelley
Recent studies suggest that dietary krill oil leads to higher omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) tissue accretion compared to fish oil because the former is rich in n-3 PUFA esterified as phospholipids (PL), while n-3 PUFA in fish oil are primarily esterified as triacylglycerols (TAG). Tissue accretion of the same dietary concentrations of PL- and TAG-docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA) has not been compared and was the focus of this study. Mice (n = 12/group) were fed either a control diet or one of six DHA (1%, 2%, or 4%) as PL-DHA or TAG-DHA diets for 4 weeks...
January 29, 2019: Lipids
Konstantin Mayer, Natascha Sommer, Karl Hache, Andreas Hecker, Sylvia Reiche, Emmanuel Schneck, Norbert Weissmann, Werner Seeger, Matthias Hecker
Severe inflammatory disorders such as sepsis are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction is regarded as a key feature involved in inflammation pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the omega-3 fatty acid-derived lipid mediator Resolvin E1 (RvE1) on mitochondrial function in experimental pulmonary inflammation. RvE1 was found to exert anti-inflammatory properties in human alveolar epithelial cells during severe inflammation. RvE1 is capable of restoring inflammation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and the impaired imbalance of mitochondrial fission and fusion...
January 29, 2019: Lipids
Regan Lawrence
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Lipids
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