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Nutrition Today

Taylor C Wallace, Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn, Marie A Caudill, Kevin C Klatt, Elana Natker, Steven H Zeisel, Kathleen M Zelman
Choline has been recognized as an essential nutrient by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academies of Medicine since 1998. Its metabolites have structural, metabolic, and regulatory roles within the body. Humans can endogenously produce small amounts of choline via the hepatic phosphatidylethanolamine N -methyltransferase pathway. However, the nutrient must be consumed exogenously to prevent signs of deficiency. The Adequate Intake (AI) for choline was calculated at a time when dietary intakes across the population were unknown for the nutrient...
November 2018: Nutrition Today
Jonathan M Scott, Andrea T Lindsey, Rebecca B Costello, Patricia A Deuster
Over half of young adults, athletes, and Military Service Members self-report using at least one dietary supplement (DS) 1 or more times per week. DS may be consumed to improve health, provide more energy, increase muscle strength, and/or enhance performance. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has raised concerns regarding adulteration, safety, and adverse events associated with DS marketed for brain health and bodybuilding. Some DS products may compromise health as well as lead to a serious adverse event...
September 2018: Nutrition Today
Connie M Weaver, Michael S Stone, Andrea J Lobene, Dennis P Cladis, Joanna K Hodges
Increased intake of potassium should be promoted to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke and to protect against bone loss, but confidence in recommended intakes depends on the strength of the evidence. All public health recommendations are considerably higher than current average intakes. Evidence on which current potassium intake recommendations for the United States, Europe, and globally have limitations. More recent evidence reviewed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality affirms that more evidence is needed to define specific values for optimal potassium intakes...
September 2018: Nutrition Today
Nancy Potischman, Liwen Fang, Ling Hao, Regan R Bailey, David Berrigan, Robert John Berry, Alison Brodie, Ann Chao, Jing Chen, Kevin Dodd, Yajing Feng, Guansheng Ma, Yuna He, Jing Fan, Michael Kimlin, Cari Kitahara, Martha Linet, Zhu Li, Ailing Liu, Yashan Liu, Joshua Sampson, Joseph Su, Jiandong Sun, Natasha Tasevska, Lichen Yang, Ruilan Yang, Qian Zhang, Ning Wang, Linhong Wang, Wang Yu
This article reports the study design, methodological issues and early results of a pilot study testing methods for collecting nutrition, physical activity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure data in a groundbreaking study in China. Epidemiological studies suggest that exposures across the entire life course, including in utero, early childhood, and adolescence, may be important in the etiology of adult cancers and other chronic diseases. The Chinese Children and Families Cohort Study intends to follow-up subjects from the 1993 to 1995 Community Intervention Program of folic acid supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects...
May 2018: Nutrition Today
Kathleen C Reidy, Regan Lucas Bailey, Denise M Deming, Lynda O'Neill, B Thomas Carr, Ruta Lesniauskas, Wendy Johnson
Nutrition is critically important in the first 1000 days, and while most American babies are fed commercial baby foods, there is little or no evidence from nationally representative data to understand the implications of such consumption. We used 24-hour dietary recall data for 505 infants from The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study to describe food consumption patterns and micronutrient density of complementary foods consumed by infants fed commercially prepared baby food fruit, vegetables, and dinners and compared with those eaten by nonconsumers of these products...
March 2018: Nutrition Today
Mitch Kanter
While all experts agreed that protein needs for performance are likely greater than believed in past generations, particularly for strength training athletes, and that dietary fat could sustain an active person through lower-intensity training bouts, current research still points to carbohydrate as an indispensable energy source for high-intensity performance.
January 2018: Nutrition Today
Donato F Romagnolo, Ornella I Selmin
A large body of research data suggests that traditional dietary habits and lifestyle unique to the Mediterranean region (Mediterranean diet, MD) lower the incidence of chronic diseases and improve longevity. These data contrast with troubling statistics in the United States and other high income countries pointing to an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and the projected explosion in cost of medical care associated with an aging population. In 2013, the MD was inscribed by UNESCO in the "Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity...
September 2017: Nutrition Today
Abby Dilk, Dennis A Savaiano
Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar "tax" on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of "empty" calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)-sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources-is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity...
May 2017: Nutrition Today
Phyllis E Bowen
Food and agriculture commodity boards have become important funders of nutrition research. There are benefits and cautions (biases toward health benefits, failure to publish negative results, and aggressive promotion of single studies) for this activity. The California Dried Plum Board, along with other commodity boards, have developed independent Scientific Nutrition Advisory Panels to guide and evaluate the research they fund. In the case of the California Dried Plum Board, this has resulted in research that has distinguished the nature and dose of dried plum and juice to maintain bowel health and opened up a surprising new function for dried plum in the prevention of age-related bone loss...
January 2017: Nutrition Today
Cindy D Davis
The human body is host to a vast number of microbes, including bacterial, fungal and protozoal microoganisms, which together constitute our microbiota. Evidence is emerging that the intestinal microbiome is intrinsically linked with overall health, including obesity risk. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders are characterized by specific alterations in the composition and function of the human gut microbiome. Mechanistic studies have indicated that the gastrointestinal microbiota can influence both sides of the energy balance equation; namely, as a factor influencing energy utilization from the diet and as a factor that influences host genes that regulate energy expenditure and storage...
July 2016: Nutrition Today
Sheila Fleischhacker, Gowri Ramachandran
This article briefly explains the food and nutrition implications of the new standards, tax penalties and reporting requirements for non-profit hospitals and healthcare systems to maintain a tax-exempt or charitable status under section 501(c)(3) of the Federal Internal Revenue Code set forth in The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (P.L. 111-148, Sec. 9007). The newly created 501(r) of the Internal Revenue Code requires, beginning with the first tax year on or after March 23, 2012, that such hospitals demonstrate community benefit by conducting a community health needs assessment (CHNA) at least once every three years and annually file information by means of a Schedule H (Form 990) regarding progress towards addressing identified needs...
July 2016: Nutrition Today
Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Mònica Bulló, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
Human beings have known about pistachio nuts since 6000 bc. Since then, pistachios have been systematically incorporated into the diet of various cultures. They are nutrient-dense nuts with a healthy nutritional profile that contains fiber, unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant compounds.
May 2016: Nutrition Today
Julie Hess, Joanne Slavin
Changing the name of the "protein foods" group on the US Department of Agriculture's visual food guide, MyPlate, back to the "meat & beans" group would provide important clarification regarding US Department of Agriculture recommendations for a balanced diet. Previous iterations of the food guide named the protein group after its constituent foods (ie, the "meat & beans" group on the 2005 MyPyramid), and the reasons for renaming the entire group with MyPlate are unclear. The exclusion of dairy foods from the "protein foods" group of the 2010 MyPlate illustrates the shortcomings of this group's name...
May 2016: Nutrition Today
Ronald E Kleinman, Frances A Coletta
Although recommendations for introducing solid foods to infants and young children have changed significantly since the beginning of the 20th century, vegetable consumption recommendations have always been an important part of the child-feeding repertoire. In 1958, the first report of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Nutrition stated that developmental maturity of the gut and neuromuscular system, growth rate, and activity level were good indicators for determining when to introduce solid foods to infants than age...
January 2016: Nutrition Today
Robert P Heaney
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Nutrition Today
Rebecca B Costello, Johanna T Dwyer, Regan L Bailey, Leila Saldanha, Steven French
It is complicated to ascertain the composition and prevalence of the use of highly fortified food and supplement products (HFPs) because HFP foods and HFP supplements have different labeling requirements. However, HFPs (energy bars, energy drinks, sports drinks, protein bars, energy shots, and fortified foods/beverages) are popular in the United States. A web-based survey balanced to reflect US census data was used to describe their use in a sample of 2,355 US adults >18 yr in 2011 and trends in their use from 2005...
November 2015: Nutrition Today
Holly Reiland, Joanne Slavin
Fruit consumption is universally promoted, yet consumption of fruit remains low in the United States. We conducted a systematic review on pear consumption and health outcomes searching both PubMed and Agricola from 1970 to present. The genus Pyrus L. consists of species of pears cultivated in Europe, parts of Asia, South America, and North America. Like most fruit, pears are concentrated in water and sugar. Pears are high in dietary fiber, containing 6 g per serving. Pears, similar to apples, are concentrated in fructose, and the high fiber and fructose in pears probably explain the laxative properties...
November 2015: Nutrition Today
Regan L Bailey, Nigel Denby, Bryan Haycock, Katherine Sherif, Suzanne Steinbaum, Clemens von Schacky
Limited data exist on consumer beliefs and practices on the role of omega-3 fatty acid and vitamin D dietary supplements and health. For this reason, the Global Health and Nutrition Alliance conducted an online survey in 3 countries (n = 3030; United States = 1022, Germany = 1002, United Kingdom = 1006) of a convenience sample of adults (aged 18-66 years) who represented the age, gender, and geographic composition within each country. More than half of the sample (52%) believed they consume all the key nutrients needed for optimal nutrition through food sources alone; fewer women (48%) than men (57%), and fewer middle-aged adults (48%) than younger (18-34 years [56%]) and older (≥55 years [54%]) adults agreed an optimal diet could be achieved through diet alone...
November 2015: Nutrition Today
Gareth R Dutton, Kevin R Fontaine, David B Allison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Nutrition Today
John A Lucey
There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk...
July 2015: Nutrition Today
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