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Ceskoslovenská Patologie

Ježová Marta, Souček Ondřej, Tůma Jiří
Histochemical diagnosis of Hirschsprung´s disease at our institution was introduced in the 1970s, calretinin imunohistochemistry on formalin fixed tissue was newly added in 2015. Employing both methods we were able to confirm Hirschsprung´s disease in 13 patients and exclude it in 34 patients since then. Calretinin seems highly reliable and easy to evaluate, it is not influenced by patient´s age, associated genetic features or the length of agangliosis. The number of inadequate samples was very low (3...
2019: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Stupková Tatiana, Ježová Marta, Matyášová Monika, Vlašín Pavel
We present our experience with four cases of fetal autopsies with abnormal prenatal ultrasound findings and suspicion of Noonan syndrome. These were fetuses from the 17th to the 24th age of gestation (GA). In all cases, prenatal ultrasound examination recorded increased nuchal translucency (NT) and presence of lymphatic neck sacs. Some fetuses showed signs of fetal hydrops and polyhydramnion was found. Similar signs and congenital developmental defects were confirmed in the autopsy examination. These were primarily signs of developing fetal hydrops with increased nuchal edema, in some cases up to the character of cystic hygroma, pleural and abdominal effusions, congenital heart and kidney defects, skeletal defects and facial dysmorphism...
2019: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Kinkor Zdeněk, Grossmann Petr, Špůrková Zuzana, Věcková Zuzana, Matějovský Zdeněk
35-year-old woman suffered prolonged pain in the left shoulder, where an aggressively growing tumor of the proximal humerus was revealed thereafter. The lesion caused massive osteolysis of the metaepiphysis with cortical disruption, but no soft tissue extension was evident. Given the unsatisfactory effect, the ongoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy was prematurely ceased and the resection 13 cm long segment of bone with modular prosthesis replacement followed. Histologically, clear-cut malignant tumor with both the presence of numerous reactive osteoclast-like giant cells and geographic structural deposition of chondroid matrix bore a close resemblance to chondroblastoma...
2019: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Pivovarčíková Kristýna, Pitra Tomáš, Hes Ondřej
Urine cytology is used for detection of neoplastic cells in urine. It has high sensitivity and specificity in detection high-grade urothelial carcinoma, but it is low sensitive in detection of low-grade carcinoma. Different classification systems were published in the past, need for a more standardized terminology results in Paris System for Reporting Urine cytology. This classification was published in 2016, and it is based on clear diagnostic criteria. Implementation of The Paris System will lead to global standardization and uniformity of urine cytology reports...
2019: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Čapková Linda, Galgonková Petra
Pulmonary cytology represents one of the basic diagnostic methods in pneumopathology. It is primarily focused on: 1) assessment of biologic nature of the pathologic process (recommended terminology and classification according to the The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology guidelines, 2016), 2) typing of malignant tumors (according to the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Lung, 2015), 3) assessment of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes (including preoperative staging), 4) attaining adequate material for ancillary testing, 5) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) differential cell count and cytopathology studies...
2019: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Dušková Jaroslava
Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has become an established procedure for the basic examination of thyroid nodules, which remain common in our population. The widely used Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology has undoubtedly contributed to the understanding among clinicians and cytopathologists. Since its publication in 2010, the systems overall applicability has been tested by many studies and reclassification of follicular thyroid tumours has occurred. The consensus embedded in the latest version of the WHO classification was the impetus for a revision of the very successful Bethesda 2010 system in 2017...
2019: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Michaela Bártů, Pavel Dundr, Kristýna Němejcová, Petra Prokopová, Iva Zambo, Štěpán Černý
Here we report on the case of a 61-year-old female with an accidental finding of intravascular fasciitis (IVF) affecting the ascending aorta in a specimen resected due to an acute aortic dissection. No infiltrative process of the aorta or surrounding soft tissues was grossly apparent. Microscopically, the lesion had poorly defined margins and was composed of plump spindle- and oval-shaped cells set in an abundant myxoid stroma. Immunohistochemically, cytoplasmic positivity for β-catenin was observed and about 25% of cells were positive for calponin...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Šárka Pokorová, Iva Zambo
Hyalinizing trabecular tumor is a rare neoplasm usually with benign clinical behavior. Exceptionally it shows characteristic features of malignant tumors, such as the presence of venous or capsular invasion or distant metastasis. We report the case of 45-years-old female with a palpable nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid gland, 8x8x10 mm in size, well circumscribed, white colored. Histologically it was an encapsulated follicular neoplasm that consisted of medium to large-sized spindle-like to polygonal cells with elongated to round-shaped nuclei and small prominent nucleoli, sporadically with nuclear grooving and intranuclear pseudoinclusions, growing in alveolar to trabecular pattern...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Jaroslava Dušková
oelom cavities (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, tunica vaginalis testis) lined with mesothelial lining derived from the mesoderm, represent a frequent place of propagation of pathological processes both from the neighbourhood and primary. These are most often manifested by effusion, whose cytological examination contributes significantly to the diagnosis. Each larger amount of fluid in the coelom spaces is pathological. The primary task is, as a rule, the identification of tumour cells, more often of metastatic origin (with decreasing frequency (adenocarcinomas, melanoma, sarcomas) than primary (mesothelioma, primary lymphomas of coelom cavities)...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Iva Kinkorová Luňáčková, Ondřej Májek
Carcinoma of the uterine cervix belongs to significant malignancy in the Czech Republic. The goal of organized national cervical cancer screening program is to decrease incidence and mortality of this disease. Discovery of casual relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer together with modern examinations methods pushed forward possibilities of primary and secondary prevention worldwide. In the article, there are mentioned basic statistical data of cervical cancer screening in the Czech Republic (the annual coverage of the target population, incidence, prevalence, mortality etc...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Ronell Bologna-Molina, Gabriela Vigil-Bastitta, Vanesa Pereira-Prado, Leonel Elola-Verocay
José Verocay (Paysandú 1876 - Eichwald/Dubí, Bohemia 1927) was a Uruguayan anatomopathologist, recognized worldwide as "Prague's pathologist" (Fig. 1). In 1910, he described, for the first time, the morphological structure later called Verocay's bodies, which are used for diagnosing schwannoma. He spent the end of the XIXth century and the beginning of XXth century in Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague. During the last years of his life, he tried unsuccessfully to reintegrate himself into the Uruguayan academic community...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Val-Bernal, C Celeiro-Muñoz, E Linares, E Gallardo, E García-Somacarrera
Diagnosing accessory breast tissue in a male patient is difficult when the condition is unilateral, and there is no areola or nipple. Pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of the mammary stroma is an uncommon benign mesenchymal proliferation that may mimic low-grade angiosarcoma. We report herein an example of tumoriform pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia of the stroma arising in the accessory breast tissue of a 38-year-old man. The condition presented as a palpable tender axillary mass. Histopathologically, there were no changes of gynecomastia...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Anna Farkašová, Vladimír Tancoš, Zuzana Kviatkovská, Zdenko Huťka, Jozef Mičák, Karla Scheerová, Peter Szépe, Lukáš Plank
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies on check-point inhibitor therapy, which seems to improve the prognosis of patients with advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma increase the importance of immunohistochemical analyses of the programmed-death receptor and of its ligand, PD-L1 protein. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In our study we present results of PD-L1 immunohistochemical tumor cell expression in a series of 325 lung carcinoma patients biopsies, using the clone 22C3 (and DAKO Link 48 immunostainer)...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Petr Šteiner, Jaroslav Pavelka, Tomáš Vaneček, Markéta Miesbauerová, Alena Skálová
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary gland origin (AdCC) is second most common salivary carcinoma characterized by frequent recurrences, perineural invasion and high long-term mortality rate. The surgical resection of the tumor in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy is the only method of choice. AdCC has been studied, altogether with immunohistochemistry, by numerous molecular-genetic techniques. Some of them, e.g. reverse-transcription PCR or fluorescent in situ hybridization contributed to the identification of translocation t(6;9)(q22-23;p23-24), which results in fusion of two transcription factors MYB-NFIB...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Zuzana Mouchová, Blanka Rosová, Radoslav Matěj
Thoracic frozen section biopsies including lungs, pleura and mediastinum have crucial role in differential diagnosis of solitary lesions of the lungs and mediastinum. There is a significant difference in patient´s therapeutical management, if the patients suffer from lung primary malignant tumour, metastasis or non-malignant lesion. In this review, we summarize the usefulness of frozen section biopsies in thoracic surgery and provide 5-years of experiences with thoracic frozen section biopsies performed at the Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine of Thomayer Hospital in Prague...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Petr Škapa, Marek Pluta
Intraoperative consultation represents an integral part of diagnostic protocols in gynecologic oncology. It may be indicated 1) to evaluate the biologic nature of a pathologic process (distinction between nonneoplastic lesions and tumors), 2) to classify the histologic type of tumor and assess its biologic behavior (typing), 3) to confirm or rule out the metastatic origin of a tumor, 4) to determine the degree of differentiation and extent of local spread of a malignant tumor (grading and staging), 5) to detect tumor deposits in lymph nodes, 6) to examine surgical resection margins, 7) to detect products of conception in uterine curettings when ectopic pregnancy is suspected and 8) to collect native tumor tissue for ancillary studies (molecular methods, flow cytometry)...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Martin Dušek, Ladislav Hadravský, Jan Stehlík, Kateřina Černá, Radmila Čurčíková, Marián Švajdler, Bohuslava Šašková, Magdaléna Dubová, Michal Michal, Tomáš Jirásek, Ondřej Daum
The introduction of a screening system for Lynch syndrome in pathology laboratories in Plzen yielded 24 diagnoses of Lynch syndrome during the period of 2013-2016, 20 of them presenting with colorectal cancer. In 8 of those 24 cases germline mutations of MMR genes, previously not recognized as pathogenic with certainty, were detected. Although the frequency of Lynch syndrome in patients with colorectal cancer was only 0.34 % in total, following introduction of the universal immunohistochemical investigation of MMR (mismatch repair) proteins expression in all colorectal cancers examined in Sikl´s Institute of Pathology the frequency per year in this department reached 2...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Alena Chlumská, Petr Mukenšnabl, Tomáš Waloschek, Michal Zámečník
Columnar lined esophagus is a complication of long term gastroesophageal reflux disease and the main precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Incomplete intestinal metaplasia in reflux esophagitis represents one of the most important risk factors for neoplastic transformation through the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence. However, recent studies suggest that cardiac type mucosa also shows molecular abnormalities which are similar to those of incomplete intestinal metaplasia. Immunohistochemically, three types of esophageal dysplasia and adenocarcinoma are recognized: adenomatous-intestinal, hybrid/mixed and foveolar gastric types...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Jan Laco, Ondřej Daum, Iva Zambo, Ondrej Ondič, Marián Švajdler
In this article, indications and pitfalls in frozen section diagnosis in selected organs and systems are discussed. The main indications for frozen section examination of head and neck and genitourinary system lesions are to evaluate the resection margin and the metastatic involvement of lymph nodes. Recently, intraoperative consultation has been introduced for identification of patients who might benefit from testis-sparing surgery. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration has greatly diminished the need for frozen section evaluation of thyroid lesions...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
Marián Švajdler, Peter Švajdler
Frozen section represents one of the most imortant procedures carried out by the pathologist. At the same time, it's one of the most difficult and most stressful tasks in the practice of pathology. The basic rule and the only correct indication for intraoperative consultation is that the result will determine the further conduction of the surgical procedure or will change the immediate patient care after operation. Successful accomplishment of intraoperative consultation requires knowledge of clinical history, familiarity with the surgical procedure technique, a keen knowledge of gross and microscopic pathology and a perfect work of the lab...
2018: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
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