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Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

Sarah Wilding, Mark Conner, Andrew Prestwich, Rebecca Lawton, Paschal Sheeran
Asking questions about a behavior has been found to influence subsequent performance of that behavior, a phenomenon termed the question-behavior effect (QBE). The present study addressed two under-researched questions concerning the QBE: (1) Can the QBE be used to change multiple health behaviors, and (2) does enhancing dissonance during questionnaire completion increase the magnitude of the QBE? Participants ( N  = 1534) were randomized to one of three conditions (dissonance-enhanced QBE; standard QBE; control) that targeted three health-protective behaviors (eating fruit and vegetables, physical activity, dental flossing) and three health-risk behaviors (alcohol intake, sedentariness, unhealthy snacking)...
March 2019: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Jim A C Everett, Nadira S Faber, Julian Savulescu, Molly J Crockett
Previous work has demonstrated that people are more likely to trust "deontological" agents who reject harming one person to save many others than "consequentialist" agents who endorse such instrumental harms, which could explain the higher prevalence of non-consequentialist moral intuitions. Yet consequentialism involves endorsing not just instrumental harm, but also impartial beneficence, treating the well-being of every individual as equally important. In four studies (total N  = 2086), we investigated preferences for consequentialist vs...
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Jessica L Alquist, Roy F Baumeister, Ian McGregor, Tammy J Core, Ilil Benjamin, Dianne M Tice
People have the ability to make important choices in their lives, but deliberating about these choices can have costs. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that writing about conflicted personal goals and values (conflict condition) would impair self-control on an unrelated subsequent task as compared to writing about clear personal goals and values (clarity condition). Personal conflict activates the behavioral inhibition system (BIS; Hirsh, Mar, & Peterson, 2012), which may make it harder for participants to successfully execute self-control...
January 2018: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Brittany S Cassidy, Anne C Krendl, Kathleen A Stanko, Robert J Rydell, Steven G Young, Kurt Hugenberg
The dehumanization of Black Americans is an ongoing societal problem. Reducing configural face processing, a well-studied aspect of typical face encoding, decreases the activation of human-related concepts to White faces, suggesting that the extent that faces are configurally processed contributes to dehumanization. Because Black individuals are more dehumanized relative to White individuals, the current work examined how configural processing might contribute to their greater dehumanization. Study 1 showed that inverting faces (which reduces configural processing) reduced the activation of human-related concepts toward Black more than White faces...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
David G Rand
Does intuition favor prosociality, or does prosocial behavior require deliberative self-control? The Social Heuristics Hypothesis (SHH) stipulates that intuition favors typically advantageous behavior - but which behavior is typically advantageous depends on both the individual and the context. For example, non-zero-sum cooperation (e.g. in social dilemmas like the Prisoner's Dilemma) typically pays off because of the opportunity for reciprocity. Conversely, reciprocity does not promote zero-sum cash transfers (e...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Patricia G Devine, Patrick S Forscher, William T L Cox, Anna Kaatz, Jennifer Sheridan, Molly Carnes
Addressing the underrepresentation of women in science is a top priority for many institutions, but the majority of efforts to increase representation of women are neither evidence-based nor rigorously assessed. One exception is the gender bias habit-breaking intervention (Carnes et al., 2015), which, in a cluster-randomized trial involving all but two departmental clusters ( N = 92) in the 6 STEMM focused schools/colleges at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, led to increases in gender bias awareness and self-efficacy to promote gender equity in academic science departments...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Chelsea Mitamura, Lynnsey Erickson, Patricia G Devine
People often disagree about what constitutes sexism, and these disagreements can be both socially and legally consequential. It is unclear, however, why or how people come to different conclusions about whether something or someone is sexist. Previous research on judgments about sexism has focused on the perceiver's gender and attitudes, but neither of these variables identifies comparative standards that people use to determine whether any given behavior (or person) is sexist. Extending Devine and colleagues' values framework (Devine, Monteith, Zuwerink, & Elliot, 1991; Plant & Devine, 1998), we argue that, when evaluating others' behavior, perceivers rely on the morally-prescriptive values that guide their own behavior toward women...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Patrick S Forscher, Chelsea Mitamura, Emily L Dix, William T L Cox, Patricia G Devine
The prejudice habit-breaking intervention (Devine et al., 2012) and its offshoots (e.g., Carnes et al., 2012) have shown promise in effecting long-term change in key outcomes related to intergroup bias, including increases in awareness, concern about discrimination, and, in one study, long-term decreases in implicit bias. This intervention is based on the premise that unintentional bias is like a habit that can be broken with sufficient motivation, awareness, and effort. We conducted replication of the original habit-breaking intervention experiment in a sample more than three times the size of the original ( N = 292)...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Sara E Burke, John F Dovidio, Marianne LaFrance, Julia M Przedworski, Sylvia P Perry, Sean M Phelan, Diana J Burgess, Rachel R Hardeman, Mark W Yeazel, Michelle van Ryn
Increasing evidence suggests that bisexual people are sometimes evaluated more negatively than heterosexual and gay/lesbian people. A common theoretical account for this discrepancy argues that bisexuality is perceived by some as introducing ambiguity into a binary model of sexuality. The present brief report tests a single key prediction of this theory, that evaluations of bisexual people have a unique relationship with Need for Closure (NFC), a dispositional preference for simple ways of structuring information...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Thomas C Mann, Melissa J Ferguson
People are adept at forming impressions of others, but how easily can impressions be updated? Although implicit first impressions have been characterized as difficult to overturn, recent work shows that they can be reversed through reinterpretation of earlier learning. However, such reversal has been demonstrated only in the same experimental session in which the impression formed, suggesting that implicit updating might be possible only within a brief temporal window, before impressions are consolidated and when memory about the initial information is strongest...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Susan T Fiske
Crises provide an opportunity for the field to take stock, as do the articles in this special issue. Constructive advice for 21st century publication standards includes appropriate theory, internal validity, and external validity. First, well-grounded theory can produce a priori plausibility, testable logic, and a focus on the ideas involved, all cumulatively informed by meta-analysis across studies. Second, internal validity benefits from both exploratory work and confirmatory analyses on well-powered samples that require systematic detection and principled decisions about data quality...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Angela G Pirlott, David P MacKinnon
Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Richard Yi, Alison Pickover, Allison M Stuppy-Sullivan, Sydney Baker, Reid D Landes
Episodic future thinking, which refers to the use of prospective imagery to concretely imagine oneself in future scenarios, has been shown to reduce delay discounting (enhance self-control). A parallel approach, in which prospective imagery is used to concretely imagine other's scenarios, may similarly reduce social discounting (i.e., enhance altruism). In study 1, participants engaged in episodic thinking about the self or others, in a repeated-measures design, while completing a social discounting task. Reductions in social discounting were observed as a function of episodic thinking about others, though an interaction with order was also observed...
July 2016: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Alison Blodorn, Brenda Major, Jeffrey Hunger, Carol Miller
The present research tested the hypothesis that the negative effects of weight stigma among higher body-weight individuals are mediated by expectations of social rejection. Women and men who varied in objective body-weight (body mass index; BMI) gave a speech describing why they would make a good date. Half believed that a potential dating partner would see a videotape of their speech (weight seen) and half believed that a potential dating partner would listen to an audiotape of their speech (weight unseen)...
March 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Brenda Major, Jonathan W Kunstman, Brenna D Malta, Pamela J Sawyer, Sarah S M Townsend, Wendy Berry Mendes
Strong social and legal norms in the United States discourage the overt expression of bias against ethnic and racial minorities, increasing the attributional ambiguity of Whites' positive behavior to ethnic minorities. Minorities who suspect that Whites' positive overtures toward minorities are motivated more by their fear of appearing racist than by egalitarian attitudes may regard positive feedback they receive from Whites as disingenuous. This may lead them to react to such feedback with feelings of uncertainty and threat...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Jennifer L Rennels, Andrea J Kayl
A significant association exists between adults' expressivity and facial attractiveness, but it is unclear whether the association is linear or significant only at the extremes of attractiveness. It is also unclear whether attractive persons actually display more positive expressivity than unattractive persons (target effects) or whether high and low attractiveness influences expressivity valence judgments (perceiver effects). Experiment 1 demonstrated adult ratings of attractiveness were predictive of expressivity valence only for high and low attractive females and medium attractive males...
September 1, 2015: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Ori Weisel, Robert Böhm
We report on two studies investigating the motivations ("ingroup love" and "outgroup hate") underlying individual participation in intergroup conflict between natural groups (fans of football clubs, supporters of political parties), by employing the Intergroup Prisoner's Dilemma Maximizing-Difference (IPD-MD) game. In this game group members can contribute to the ingroup (at a personal cost) and benefit ingroup members with or without harming members of an outgroup. Additionally, we devised a novel version of the IPD-MD in which the choice is between benefiting ingroup members with or without helping members of the outgroup...
September 2015: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
M Cikara, E Bruneau, J J Van Bavel, R Saxe
Despite its early origins and adaptive functions, empathy is not inevitable; people routinely fail to empathize with others, especially members of different social or cultural groups. In five experiments, we systematically explore how social identity, functional relations between groups, competitive threat, and perceived entitativity contribute to intergroup empathy bias: the tendency not only to empathize less with out-group relative to in-group members, but also feel pleasure in response to their pain (and pain in response to their pleasure)...
November 1, 2014: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Sarah E Ainsworth, Roy F Baumeister, Kathleen D Vohs, Dan Ariely
Three experiments tested the effects of ego depletion on economic decision making. Participants completed a task either requiring self-control or not. Then participants learned about the trust game, in which senders are given an initial allocation of $10 to split between themselves and another person, the receiver. The receiver receives triple the amount given and can send any, all, or none of the tripled money back to the sender. Participants were assigned the role of the sender and decided how to split the initial allocation...
September 1, 2014: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Donna D Whitsett, Yuichi Shoda
The effects of situations may vary importantly across people. If the relevant individual difference variables are known, moderation analyses can test for this possibility. But what if the moderators are not measured or are unknown? We demonstrated how a Highly-Repeated Within-Person (HRWP) design can be used to answer this question, by examining the effect of support seekers' expressions of distress separately for each participant. Although on average, participants' willingness to provide social support increased as a function of support seekers' levels of distress, the opposite was true for some participants; their willingness to provide support significantly decreased as support seekers' expressed distress increased...
January 2014: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
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