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Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31011766/transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-over-the-prefrontal-cortex-enhances-episodic-memory-recognition
#1
Tomonori Nomura, Akihiko Asao, Ayumi Kumasaka
It remains unknown whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) affects episodic memory and the effect of gamma oscillations delivered to the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) on long-term memory retention has not been fully investigated. We examined whether tACS over the left PFC enhances recognition of episodic memory. The study enrolled 36 healthy young adult volunteers. The participants were randomly assigned to either a tACS group [n = 18; 14 females; mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 21...
April 22, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30997538/unique-controlling-mechanisms-underlying-walking-with-two-handheld-poles-in-contrast-to-those-of-conventional-walking-as-revealed-by-split-belt-locomotor-adaptation
#2
Hiroki Obata, Tetsuya Ogawa, Kimitaka Nakazawa
Pole walking (PW), a form of locomotion in which a person holds a pole in each hand, enhances the involvement of alternating upper-limb movement. While this quadruped-like walking increases postural stability for bipedal conventional walking (CW), in terms of the neural controlling mechanisms underlying the two locomotion forms (PW and CW), the similarities and differences remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the neural control of PW and CW from the perspective of locomotor adaptation to a novel environment on a split-belt treadmill...
April 17, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30989246/effect-of-coadministration-of-the-gaba-b-agonist-baclofen-and-the-5-ht-2c-agonist-ro60-0175-on-the-expression-of-amphetamine-induced-locomotor-sensitization
#3
Laura N Cedillo, Rosa Isela Ruíz-García, Juan C Jiménez, Florencio Miranda
GABAB and 5-HT2C agonists are effective in attenuating the behavioral effects of psychostimulants. However, they induce adverse side effects when used in high doses. The previous evidence has suggested that the 5HT2C receptor activation effect could be produced by an increased release of GABA in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the consequent activation of GABAergic receptors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of joint administration of an intermediate dose of the GABAB agonist baclofen (3...
April 15, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30976822/control-strategies-for-rapid-visually-guided-adjustments-of-the-foot-during-continuous-walking
#4
Sean L Barton, Jonathan S Matthis, Brett R Fajen
When walking over stable, complex terrain, visual information about an upcoming foothold is primarily utilized during the preceding step to organize a nearly ballistic forward movement of the body. However, it is often necessary to respond to changes in the position of an intended foothold that occur around step initiation. Although humans are capable of rapidly adjusting foot trajectory mid-swing in response to a perturbation of target position, such movements may disrupt the efficiency and stability of the gait cycle...
April 12, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30976821/referent-control-of-anticipatory-grip-force-during-reaching-in-stroke-an-experimental-and-modeling-study
#5
Silvi Frenkel-Toledo, Juri Yamanaka, Jason Friedman, Anatol G Feldman, Mindy F Levin
To evaluate normal and impaired control of anticipatory grip force (GF) modulation, we compared GF production during horizontal arm movements in healthy and post-stroke subjects, and, based on a physiologically feasible dynamic model, determined referent control variables underlying the GF-arm motion coordination in each group. 63% of 13 healthy and 48% of 13 stroke subjects produced low sustained initial force (< 10 N) and increased GF prior to arm movement. Movement-related GF increases were higher during fast compared to self-paced arm extension movements only in the healthy group...
April 11, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30953082/the-gap-effect-reduces-both-manual-and-saccadic-inhibition-of-return-ior
#6
Łukasz Michalczyk, Jacek Bielas
Inhibition of return (IOR) is the effect of slower responses to validly than invalidly cued targets. The discovery of IOR raised controversy as to whether it has two "flavors", i.e., attentional/perceptual and motoric, or whether it is a homogeneous visual-motor phenomenon that should be understood in terms of the preparation of different effectors (mainly eye movement). Since manipulation of fixation offset (0 and 200 ms gap) is believed to affect the latency of saccades, we measured its influence on saccadic and manual IOR with a simple keypress response when eye movements were forbidden...
April 5, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30949729/descending-inhibition-selectively-counteracts-the-capsaicin-induced-facilitation-of-dorsal-horn-neurons-activated-by-joint-nociceptive-afferents
#7
A Ramírez-Morales, E Hernández, P Rudomin
Previous studies from our laboratory showed that in the anesthetized cat, the intradermal injection of capsaicin in the hindpaw facilitated the intraspinal field potentials (IFPs) evoked by stimulation of the intermediate and high-threshold myelinated fibers in the posterior articular nerve (PAN). The capsaicin-induced facilitation was significantly reduced 3-4 h after the injection, despite the persistence of hindpaw inflammation. Although this effect was attributed to an incremented descending inhibition acting on the spinal pathways, it was not clear if it was set in operation once the capsaicin-induced effects exceeded a certain threshold, or if it was continuously operating to keep the increased neuronal activation within manageable limits...
April 4, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30941440/memory-for-non-painful-auditory-items-is-influenced-by-whether-they-are-experienced-in-a-context-involving-painful-electrical-stimulation
#8
Keith M Vogt, Caroline M Norton, Lauren E Speer, Joshua J Tremel, James W Ibinson, Lynne M Reder, Julie A Fiez
In this study, we sought to examine the effect of experimentally induced somatic pain on memory. Subjects heard a series of words and made categorization decisions in two different conditions. One condition included painful shocks administered just after presentation of some of the words; the other condition involved no shocks. For the condition that included painful stimulations, every other word was followed by a shock, and subjects were informed to expect this pattern. Word lists were repeated three times within each condition in randomized order, with different category judgments but consistent pain-word pairings...
April 2, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30929033/force-perception-at-the-shoulder-after-a-unilateral-suprascapular-nerve-block
#9
David Phillips, Peter Kosek, Andrew Karduna
There are two key sources of information that can be used to match forces-the centrally generated sense of effort and afferent signals from mechanical receptors located in peripheral tissues. There is currently no consensus on which source of information is more important for matching forces. The corollary discharge hypothesis argues that subjects match forces using the centrally generated sense of effort. The purpose of this study was to investigate force matching at the shoulder before and after a suprascapular nerve block...
March 30, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30927044/improve-tactile-frequency-discrimination-in-musicians
#10
Andréanne Sharp, M S Houde, M Maheu, I Ibrahim, F Champoux
Music practice is a multisensory training that is of great interest to neuroscientists because of its implications for neural plasticity. Music-related modulation of sensory systems has been observed in neuroimaging data, and has been supported by results in behavioral tasks. Some studies have shown that musicians react faster than non-musicians to visual, tactile and auditory stimuli. Behavioral enhancement in more complex tasks has received considerably less attention in musicians. This study aims to investigate unisensory and multisensory discrimination capabilities in musicians...
March 29, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30927043/neurophysiological-neuropsychological-and-cognitive-effects-of-30-days-of-isolation
#11
Jan Weber, Florian Javelle, Timo Klein, Tina Foitschik, Brian Crucian, Stefan Schneider, Vera Abeln
The increasing demand of space flights requires a profound knowledge of the chronologic reactions of the human body to extreme conditions. Prior studies already have shown the adverse effects of long-term isolation on psycho-physiological well-being. The chronology of the effects and whether short-term isolation periods already lead to similar effects has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of short-term isolation (30 days) on mood, cognition, cortisol, neurotrophic factors, and brain activity...
March 29, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30927042/the-nociceptive-withdrawal-response-of-the-tail-in-the-spinalized-rat-employs-a-hybrid-categorical-continuous-spatial-mapping-strategy
#12
Christina M Bence, Corey L Cleland
Complexity in movement planning, arising from diverse temporal and spatial sources, places a computational burden on the central nervous system. However, the efficacy with which humans can perform natural, highly trained movements suggests that they have evolved effective behavioral strategies that simplify the computational burden. The specific aim of our research was to use three-dimensional high-speed video to determine whether the tail nociceptive withdrawal response (NWR) to noxious heat stimuli delivered at locations that varied both circumferentially and rostral-caudally on the tail depended on the location of the stimulus in spinalized rats...
March 29, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30927041/bihemispheric-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-temporal-cortex-enhances-auditory-selective-spatial-attention
#13
Jörg Lewald
The capacity to selectively focus on a particular speaker of interest in a complex acoustic environment with multiple persons speaking simultaneously-a so-called "cocktail-party" situation-is of decisive importance for human verbal communication. Here, the efficacy of single-dose transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) in improving this ability was tested in young healthy adults (n = 24), using a spatial task that required the localization of a target word in a simulated "cocktail-party" situation...
March 29, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30919013/microstimulation-induced-inhibition-of-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-in-non-human-primates
#14
Jennifer Lymer, Ian A Prescott, Ron Levy
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) modulates activity in the thalamus and controls excitatory input from corticothalamic and thalamocortical glutamatergic projections. It is made up of GABAergic neurons which project topographically to the thalamus. The TRN also receives inhibitory projections from the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Photostimulation of the TRN results in local inhibition in rat slice preparations but the effects of local stimulation in vivo are not known. This study aimed to characterize stimulation-evoked responses in the TRN of non-human primates (NHPs)...
March 27, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30919012/the-effect-of-experimental-pain-on-short-interval-intracortical-inhibition-with-multi-locus-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#15
Karita S-T Salo, Selja M I Vaalto, Lari M Koponen, Jaakko O Nieminen, Risto J Ilmoniemi
Chronic neuropathic pain is known to alter the primary motor cortex (M1) function. Less is known about the normal, physiological effects of experimental neurogenic pain on M1. The objective of this study is to determine how short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) is altered in the M1 representation area of a muscle exposed to experimental pain compared to SICI of another muscle not exposed to pain. The cortical representation areas of the right abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and biceps brachii (BB) muscles of 11 subjects were stimulated with a multi-locus transcranial magnetic stimulation device while the resulting motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded with electromyography...
March 27, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30919011/the-effect-of-sevoflurane-and-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-single-unit-and-local-field-potentials
#16
Daniil P Aksenov, Michael J Miller, Conor J Dixon, Alice M Wyrwicz
Volatile general anesthetics are used commonly in adults and children, yet their mechanisms of action are complex and the changes in single unit firing and synaptic activity that underlie the broad decreases in neuronal activity induced by these drugs have not been well characterized. Capturing such changes throughout the anesthesia process is important for comparing the effects of different anesthetics and gaining a better understanding of their mechanisms of action and their impact on different brain regions...
March 27, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915492/utricular-function-in-vestibular-neuritis-a-pilot-study-of-concordance-discordance-between-ocular-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-and-ocular-cycloposition
#17
Marcello Cherchi
Vestibular neuritis (VN) can affect utricular afferents. Utricular function can be assessed by ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMPs) whose abnormalities include weak or absent responses, and ocular cycloposition whose abnormalities include ocular torsion (OT). When studied independently in vestibular neuritis, oVEMPs are abnormal in 61-82% of cases, and OT is present in 72-80% of cases. The similar range of abnormalities suggests the hypothesis that these tests should be concordantly abnormal...
March 27, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915491/dose-of-remote-limb-ischemic-conditioning-for-enhancing-learning-in-healthy-young-adults
#18
Anna E Mattlage, Ellen N Sutter, Marghuretta D Bland, Swati M Surkar, Jeffrey M Gidday, Jin-Moo Lee, Tamara Hershey, Ling Chen, Catherine E Lang
Remote limb ischemic conditioning (RLIC) is a technique in which tissues distant from the target organ are exposed to brief, sub-lethal bouts of ischemia. The effects of remotely applied ischemic conditioning are systemically transferred to the target organ, and typically manifested as protection from subsequent ischemic injury. Previous studies in our lab have found and confirmed that RLIC enhances learning and retention during motor training on a balance task. The current study tested the effect of RLIC dose (number of cycles) on learning enhancement in young, healthy adults...
March 26, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30903206/modeling-the-effects-of-medial-olivocochlear-efferent-stimulation-at-the-level-of-the-inferior-colliculus
#19
T J M Kwan, M S A Zilany, E Davies-Venn, Ahmad Khairi Abdul Wahab
Various studies on medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents have implicated it in multiple roles in the auditory system (e.g., dynamic range adaptation, masking reduction, and selective attention). This study presents a systematic simulation of inferior colliculus (IC) responses with and without electrical stimulation of the MOC. Phenomenological models of the responses of auditory nerve (AN) fibers and IC neurons were used to this end. The simulated responses were highly consistent with physiological data (replicated 3 of the 4 known rate-level responses all MOC effects-shifts, high stimulus level reduction and enhancement)...
March 22, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30900000/contribution-of-corticospinal-drive-to-ankle-plantar-flexor-muscle-activation-during-gait-in-adults-with-cerebral-palsy
#20
Rasmus Feld Frisk, Jakob Lorentzen, Jens Bo Nielsen
Impaired plantar flexor muscle activation during push-off in late stance contributes importantly to reduced gait ability in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Here we used low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to suppress soleus EMG activity during push-off as an estimate of corticospinal drive in CP adults and neurologically intact (NI) adults. Ten CP adults (age 34 years, SD 14.6, GMFCS I-II) and ten NI adults (age 33 years, SD 9.8) walked on a treadmill at their preferred walking speed. TMS of the leg motor cortex was elicited just prior to push-off during gait at intensities below threshold for motor-evoked potentials...
March 21, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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