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Journal of Abnormal Psychology

Taiwo Afe, Abosede Adekeji Adegbohun, Olawale Ogunsemi, Bamidele Osalusi, Suraju Adeyemo, Omobola Comfort Adetunmbi, Adebayo Jejeloye, Afeez Enifeni, Gbonjubola Babalola-Abiri, Oyewale Ogunlowo
The importance of gender and obstetric factors as predictors of the age of onset of schizophrenia is debatable. Unfortunately, there is a significant dearth of studies in developing countries such as Nigeria. This study involved a survey of patients with schizophrenia (n = 1,445; N = 2,393), from March 2014 to March 2016, from a psychiatric hospital in southwest Nigeria. Structured diagnostic interviews were used to confirm diagnosis. Females had a higher age of onset (M = 34.91, SD = 15.52) compared with males (M = 28...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Elana K Schwartz, Nancy M Docherty, Gina M Najolia, Alex S Cohen
There is evidence that African Americans are 2.4 times more likely to be diagnosed with a schizophrenia-spectrum diagnosis compared with White individuals, who are more likely to receive an affective diagnosis. The reason for these diagnostic discrepancies is unclear, however, 2 explanations have garnered attention: epigenetic differences and systematic error or bias in the diagnostic process. The latter is the focus of the present study and it is hypothesized that the bias involves cultural insensitivity on the part of the clinician...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Brianne L Glazier, Lynn E Alden
Clinical theorists postulate that individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) display memory biases such that recall of social events becomes more negative with time; however, alternative memory models have also been proposed. Research has focused predominantly on selective recall of negative information with inconsistent findings. The goal of the current study was to examine potential biases in recall of positive social feedback. Individuals with SAD (n = 59) and nonanxious community controls (n = 63) engaged in an unexpected public speaking task and received standardized positive or neutral feedback on their speech...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Christopher G Beevers, Michael C Mullarkey, Justin Dainer-Best, Rochelle A Stewart, Jocelyn Labrada, John J B Allen, John E McGeary, Jason Shumake
Cognitive models of depression posit that negatively biased self-referent processing and attention have important roles in the disorder. However, depression is a heterogeneous collection of symptoms and all symptoms are unlikely to be associated with these negative cognitive biases. The current study involved 218 community adults whose depression ranged from no symptoms to clinical levels of depression. Random forest machine learning was used to identify the most important depression symptom predictors of each negative cognitive bias...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Alexander J Millner, Hanneke E M den Ouden, Samuel J Gershman, Catherine R Glenn, Jaclyn C Kearns, Aaron M Bornstein, Brian P Marx, Terence M Keane, Matthew K Nock
Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite decades of clinical and theoretical accounts that suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are efforts to escape painful emotions, little prior research has examined decision making involved in escaping aversive states. We compared the performance of 85 suicidal participants to 44 nonsuicidal psychiatric patients on a novel reinforcement learning task with choices to make either active (i.e., "go") or passive responses (i.e., "no-go") to either escape or avoid an aversive stimulus...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Bradley S Gibson, M Karl Healey, Dawn M Gondoli
Previous attempts to understand the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be limited by the tendency to focus exclusively on "externally directed cognition" (EDC) while ignoring "internally directed cognition" (IDC; Dixon, Fox, & Christoff, 2014. There is clear evidence that ADHD reflects deficiencies in EDC because of weaknesses in modulatory, motivational, and cognitive control constructs, but little is currently known about the integrity of IDC in ADHD...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Eric Stice, Mark J Van Ryzin
Prospective studies have identified risk factors that predict future onset of eating disorders, but none has provided a test of the temporal sequencing of the emergence of risk factors hypothesized in a multivariate etiologic model of eating disorder development. Using data from an 8-year prospective study of 496 adolescent girls, we first conducted receiver operator characteristic plots to identify cut-points for each risk factor that optimally predicted future onset of threshold or subthreshold bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and purging disorder...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Catherine Insel, Catherine R Glenn, Matthew K Nock, Leah H Somerville
Reward dysfunction is often present in youth with major depressive disorder (MDD), but the specific neurobiological bases underlying reward valuation deficits remain unclear. The current study examined whether adolescents and young adults with MDD track brain and behavioral responses according to relative reward magnitude-a neurocognitive valuation process known as magnitude tracking. Female adolescents and young adults ages 15-20 years (n = 56 with current or past-year MDD; n = 26 healthy controls [HCs]) completed a task during functional neuroimaging in which they could win or lose money at high stakes (+$1/-50¢) and low stakes (+20¢/-10¢)...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Rachel M Butler, Arielle Horenstein, Matt Gitlin, Rylan J Testa, Simona C Kaplan, Michaela B Swee, Richard G Heimberg
Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) individuals are at heightened risk for psychological distress, including social anxiety (SA). The current study aimed to examine whether gender-affirming medical interventions (GAMIs) are associated with lower SA among TGNC individuals. Two hundred ninety-one transfeminine and 424 transmasculine participants completed the Trans Health Survey, which assessed SA and interest in or utilization of GAMIs (genital surgery, chest surgery, hormone use, speech therapy, tracheal shave or Adam's apple removal, hair removal)...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Chiara De Panfilis, Graziana Schito, Irene Generali, Luigi Alberto Gozzi, Paolo Ossola, Carlo Marchesi, Alessandro Grecucci
This study evaluated whether the impairment in cooperation that characterizes individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be explained by the difficulty to use emotion regulation strategies and to accurately perceive the fairness of others' behavior. Forty-one patients with BPD and 41 sex and age matched healthy controls (HC) played the responder's role in a Modified Ultimatum Game during which they were asked to apply 3 different emotion regulation strategies: look, distancing, and reappraisal...
February 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Anca Sfärlea, Johanna Löchner, Jakob Neumüller, Laura Asperud Thomsen, Kornelija Starman, Elske Salemink, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Belinda Platt
Children of parents with a history of depression have an increased risk of developing depression themselves. The present study investigated the role of interpretation biases (that have been found in adults and adolescents with depression but have rarely been examined in at-risk youth) in the transgenerational transmission of depression risk. Interpretation biases were assessed with two experimental tasks: Ambiguous Scenarios Task (AST) and Scrambled Sentences Task (SST) in 9-14-year-old children of parents with a history of depression (high risk; n = 43) in comparison to children of parents with no history of mental disorders (low risk; n = 35)...
February 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Manuel Waldorf, Silja Vocks, Rainer Düsing, Anika Bauer, Martin Cordes
Although muscle dysmorphia (MD) has been added as a specifier for body dysmorphic disorder in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, experimental research on psychopathological mechanisms is lacking. Because models of eating disorders (EDs) suggest parallels between MD and ED, body-oriented attentional biases, which are prominent in ED models, have been identified as potentially important maintaining factors. Specifically, we predicted the existence of biases toward subjectively negative areas of one's own body and positive areas of a bodybuilder in MD...
February 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Eva Pila, Stuart B Murray, Daniel Le Grange, Susan M Sawyer, Elizabeth K Hughes
Recent research has identified the important but overlooked role of negative affect in the maintenance of dietary restriction. However, understanding how fluctuations in negative affect relate to symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN) during treatment is limited. In a longitudinal study, the reciprocal associations between higher and lower order dimensions of negative affect and dietary restraint were examined in adolescents undergoing treatment for AN. The sample consisted of 107 adolescents (Mage = 15.5, SD = 1...
February 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Alex S Cohen, Taylor L Fedechko, Elana K Schwartz, Thanh P Le, Peter W Foltz, Jared Bernstein, Jian Cheng, Terje B Holmlund, Brita Elvevåg
Acoustic analysis of vocal expression offers a potentially inexpensive, unobtrusive, and highly sensitive biobehavioral measure of serious mental illness (SMI)-related issues. Despite literature documenting its use for understanding SMI, prior studies have largely ignored that vocal expression is highly dynamic within individuals over time. We employed ambulatory vocal assessment from SMI outpatients to understand links between vocal expression, SMI symptoms, and affective states. Vocal samples were analyzed using a validated acoustic analysis protocol...
February 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Deanna M Barch, Michael P Harms, Rebecca Tillman, Elizabeth Hawkey, Joan L Luby
Depression in adults is associated with deficits in a number of cognitive domains, however it remains less clear how early in development theses deficits can be detected in early onset depression. There are several different hypotheses about the links between cognitive function and depression. For example, it has been argued that executive function deficits contribute to emotion regulation difficulties, which in turn increase risk for depression. Further, it has been suggested that some cognitive deficits, such as episodic memory, may reflect hippocampal abnormalities linked to both depression and episodic memory...
January 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Jana M Iverson, Frederick Shic, Carla A Wall, Katarzyna Chawarska, Suzanne Curtin, Annette Estes, Judith M Gardner, Ted Hutman, Rebecca J Landa, April R Levin, Klaus Libertus, Daniel S Messinger, Charles A Nelson, Sally Ozonoff, Lori-Ann R Sacrey, Kelly Sheperd, Wendy L Stone, Helen B Tager-Flusberg, Jason J Wolff, Nurit Yirmiya, Gregory S Young
Research has identified early appearing differences in gross and fine motor abilities in infants at heightened risk (HR) for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they are the younger siblings of children with ASD, and it suggests that such differences may be especially apparent among those HR infants themselves eventually diagnosed with ASD. The present study examined overall and item-level performance on the gross (GM) and fine motor (FM) subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) administered at 6 months to a large, geographically diverse sample of HR infants with varying developmental outcomes (ASD, elevated ADOS without ASD, low ADOS without ASD) and to infants with low ASD risk (low risk [LR])...
January 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Michael R Lowe, Naomi Marmorstein, William Iacono, Diane Rosenbaum, Hallie Espel-Huynh, Alexandra F Muratore, Elin L Lantz, Fengquig Zhang
Body concerns (e.g., body dissatisfaction and weight preoccupation) are well-supported prospective risk factors for the development of eating disorders in women. Body concerns are psychological variables but they are partly based on actual body mass. This study tested whether (a) body concerns predict increases in eating disorder characteristics measured both continuously (via subscale scores on the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey (MEBS) and categorically (via transition to a probable or definite eating disorder), (b) body concerns predict changes in BMI, and (c) BMI predicts changes in eating disorder symptoms or development of an eating disorder...
January 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Chloe M Evans, Leonard J Simms
The underlying structure of self-harm behaviors is not well-understood; for example, whether suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) lie on a single dimension or two separate dimensions is unknown. We used confirmatory factor analyses to examine the factor structure of self-harm items in a clinical/community sample ( N = 641). Of three alternative factor structures (one-factor, correlated-factors, bifactor), the bifactor model fit best. The general factor, representing overlap between suicidality and NSSI, captured the majority of model variance and was the strongest predictor of psychosocial correlates...
January 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Courtland S Hyatt, Max M Owens, Joshua C Gray, Nathan T Carter, James MacKillop, Lawrence H Sweet, Joshua D Miller
Although personality traits have been linked to internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, the extent to which these traits and psychopathological phenotypes share a common neuroanatomical structure is unclear. To address this gap, we used structural neuroimaging and self-report data from 1101 participants in the Human Connectome Project to generate neuroanatomical profiles (NAPs) of FFM traits and psychopathology indices composed of the thickness, surface area, and gray matter volume of each region in the Desikan atlas, then used a profile matching approach to compare the absolute similarity of the FFM trait NAPs and psychopathology index NAPs...
January 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Snežana Urošević, Tate Halverson, Eric A Youngstrom, Monica Luciana
Theoretical models of bipolar disorders (BD) posit core deficits in reward system function. However, specifying which among the multiple reward system's neurobehavioral processes are abnormal in BD is necessary to develop appropriately targeted interventions. Research on probabilistic-reinforcement learning deficits in BD is limited, particularly during adolescence, a period of significant neurodevelopmental changes in the reward system. The present study investigated probabilistic-reinforcement learning, using a probabilistic selection task (PST), and its correlates, using self-reported reward/threat sensitivities and cognitive tasks, in 104 adolescents with and without BD...
November 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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