Virginie M Patt, Caroline Strang, Mieke Verfaellie
When considering future outcomes, humans tend to discount gains more than losses. This phenomenon, referred to as the temporal discounting sign effect, is thought to result from the greater anticipated emotional impact of waiting for a negative outcome (dread) compared to waiting for a positive outcome (mixture of savoring and impatience). The impact of such anticipatory emotions has been proposed to rely on episodic future thinking. We evaluated this proposal by examining the presence and magnitude of a sign effect in the intertemporal decisions of individuals with hippocampal amnesia, who are severely impaired in their ability to engage in episodic mental simulation, and by comparing their patterns of choices to those of healthy controls...
April 18, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Isabel Asp, Andrew T J Cawley-Bennett, Jennifer C Frascino, Shahrokh Golshan, Mark W Bondi, Christine N Smith
Robust and sensitive clinical measures are needed for more accurate and earlier detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD), for staging preclinical AD, and for gauging the efficacy of treatments. Mild impairment on episodic memory tests is thought to indicate a cognitive risk of developing AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), considered to be a transitional stage between normal aging and AD. Novel tests of semantic memory, such as memory for news events, are also impaired early on but have received little clinical attention even though they may provide a novel way to assess cognitive risk for AD...
April 13, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Péter Przemyslaw Ujma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Stéphane Dufau, Jeremy Yeaton, Jean-Michel Badier, Sophie Chen, Phillip J Holcomb, Jonathan Grainger
When a sequence of written words is briefly presented and participants are asked to identify just one word at a post-cued location, then word identification accuracy is higher when the word is presented in a grammatically correct sequence compared with an ungrammatical sequence. This sentence superiority effect has been reported in several behavioral studies and two EEG investigations. Taken together, the results of these studies support the hypothesis that the sentence superiority effect is primarily driven by rapid access to a sentence-level representation via partial word identification processes that operate in parallel over several words...
April 9, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Yolanda Balboa-Bandeira, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, M Acebo García-Guerrero, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Natalia Ojeda, Javier Peña
Several studies have analyzed the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on verbal fluency tasks in non-clinical populations. Nevertheless, the reported effects on verbal fluency are inconsistent. In addition, the effect of other techniques such as transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) on verbal fluency enhancement has yet to be studied in healthy multilingual populations. This study aims to explore the effects of tRNS on verbal fluency in healthy multilingual individuals. Fifty healthy multilingual (Spanish, English and Basque) adults were randomly assigned to a tRNS or sham group...
April 8, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Justin G Lauro
A growing body of research suggests that an episodic specificity induction (ESI), that is, training in recalled details of a (recent) past event, impacts performance on subsequent tasks that require episodic retrieval processes. The constructive episodic simulation hypothesis (Schacter & Addis, 2007) posits that various tasks which require, at least partially, episodic retrieval processes rely on a single, flexible episodic memory system. As such, a specificity induction activates that episodic memory system and improves subsequent performance on tasks that require use of that memory system...
April 8, 2024: Neuropsychologia
H H Chan, A G Mitchell, E Sandilands, D Balslev
Left smooth pursuit eye movement training in response to large-field visual motion (optokinetic stimulation) has become a promising rehabilitation method in left spatial inattention or neglect. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect, however, remain unknown. During optokinetic stimulation, there is an error in visual localization ahead of the line of sight. This could indicate a change in the brain's estimate of one's own direction of gaze. We hypothesized that optokinetic stimulation changes the brain's estimate of gaze...
April 8, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Benjamin Weissman, Neil Cohn, Darren Tanner
As emoji often appear naturally alongside text in utterances, they provide a way to study how prediction unfolds in multimodal sentences in direct comparison to unimodal sentences. In this experiment, participants (N = 40) read sentences in which the sentence-final noun appeared in either word form or emoji form, a between-subjects manipulation. The experiment featured both high constraint sentences and low constraint sentences to examine how the lexical processing of emoji interacts with prediction processes in sentence comprehension...
April 3, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Gregory Peters-Founshtein, Amnon Dafni-Merom, Rotem Monsa, Shahar Arzy
The relation between the processing of space and time in the brain has been an enduring cross-disciplinary question. Grid cells have been recognized as a hallmark of the mammalian navigation system, with recent studies attesting to their involvement in the organization of conceptual knowledge in humans. To determine whether grid-cell-like representations support temporal processing, we asked subjects to mentally simulate changes in age and time-of-day, each constituting "trajectory" in an age-day space, while undergoing fMRI...
April 2, 2024: Neuropsychologia
H Thielen, L Welkenhuyzen, N Tuts, S Vangkilde, R Lemmens, A Wibail, C Lafosse, I M C Huenges Wajer, C R Gillebert
After stroke, patients can experience visual hypersensitivity, an increase in their sensitivity for visual stimuli as compared to their state prior to the stroke. Candidate behavioural mechanisms for these subjective symptoms are atypical bottom-up sensory processing and impaired selective attention, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between post-stroke visual hypersensitivity and sensory thresholds, sensory processing speed, and selective attention using computational modelling of behavioural data...
April 1, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Silvia Gobbo, Carlotta Lega, Angelica De Sandi, Roberta Daini
Current models propose that facial recognition is mediated by two independent yet interacting anatomo-functional systems: one processing facial features mainly mediated by the Fusiform Face Area and the other involved in the extraction of dynamic information from faces, subserved by Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS). Also, the pre-Supplementary Motor Area (pre-SMA) is implicated in facial expression processing as it is involved in its motor mimicry. However, the literature only shows evidence of the implication of STS and preSMA for facial expression recognition, without relating it to face recognition...
March 28, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Barbara Tomasino, Luca Weis, Marta Maieron, Giada Pauletto, Lorenzo Verriello, Riccardo Budai, Tamara Ius, Serena D'Agostini, Luciano Fadiga, Miran Skrap
We retrospectively analyzed data from 15 patients, with a normal pre-operative cognitive performance, undergoing awake surgery for left fronto-temporal low-grade glioma. We combined a pre-surgical measure (fMRI maps of motor- and language-related centers) with intra-surgical measures (MNI-registered cortical sites data obtained during intra-operative direct electrical stimulation, DES, while they performed the two most common language tasks: number counting and picture naming). Selective DES effects along the precentral gyrus/inferior frontal gyrus (and/or the connected speech articulation network) were obtained...
March 28, 2024: Neuropsychologia
B Chouinard, A Pesquita, J T Enns, C S Chapman
Social perception and communication differ between those with and without autism, even when verbal fluency and intellectual ability are equated. Previous work found that observers responded more quickly to an actor's points if the actor had chosen by themselves where to point instead of being directed where to point. Notably, this 'choice-advantage' effect decreased across non-autistic participants as the number of autistic-like traits and tendencies increased (Pesquita et al., 2016). Here, we build on that work using the same task to study individuals over a broader range of the spectrum, from autistic to non-autistic, measuring both response initiation and mouse movement times, and considering the response to each actor separately...
March 28, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Orsolya Székely, Antonia F Ten Brink, Alexandra G Mitchell, Janet H Bultitude, Robert D McIntosh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 26, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Angélique Volfart, Bruno Rossion
Face identity recognition (FIR) is arguably the ultimate form of recognition for the adult human brain. Even if the term prosopagnosia is reserved for exceptionally rare brain-damaged cases with a category-specific abrupt loss of FIR at adulthood, subjective and objective impairments or difficulties of FIR are common in the neuropsychological population. Here we provide a critical overview of the evaluation of FIR both for clinicians and researchers in neuropsychology. FIR impairments occur following many causes that should be identified objectively by both general and specific, behavioral and neural examinations...
March 22, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Ramisha S Knight, Tao Chen, Evan G Center, Gabriele Gratton, Monica Fabiani, Silvia Savazzi, Chiara Mazzi, Diane M Beck
Early visual cortex (V1-V3) is believed to be critical for normal visual awareness by providing the necessary feedforward input. However, it remains unclear whether visual awareness can occur without further involvement of early visual cortex, such as re-entrant feedback. It has been challenging to determine the importance of feedback activity to these areas because of the difficulties in dissociating this activity from the initial feedforward activity. Here, we applied single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left posterior parietal cortex to elicit phosphenes in the absence of direct visual input to early visual cortex...
March 21, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Marc Sato
Previous psychophysical and neurophysiological studies in young healthy adults have provided evidence that audiovisual speech integration occurs with a large degree of temporal tolerance around true simultaneity. To further determine whether audiovisual speech asynchrony modulates auditory cortical processing and neural binding in young healthy adults, N1/P2 auditory evoked responses were compared using an additive model during a syllable categorization task, without or with an audiovisual asynchrony ranging from 240 ms visual lead to 240 ms auditory lead...
March 20, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Adrián E Yoris, Luis F Cira, Antonio Luque-Casado, Caterina Salvotti, Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Chiara Avancini, Juan Antonio Zarza-Rebollo, Daniel Sanabria, Pandelis Perakakis
Cardiac interoception, the ability to sense and process cardiac afferent signals, has been shown to improve after a single session of acute physical exercise. However, it remains unclear whether repetitive engagement in physical exercise over time leads to long-term changes in cardiac interoceptive accuracy. It is also unknown whether those changes affect the neural activity associated with the processing of afferent cardiac signals, assessed by the heart-evoked potential (HEP). In this study, we aimed to investigate this hypothesis through two cross-sectional studies, categorizing participants as active or inactive based on physical fitness (Study I; N = 45) or self-reported physical activity levels (Study II; N = 60)...
March 20, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Roni Setton, Jordana S Wynn, Daniel L Schacter
Imagining future scenarios involves recombining different elements of past experiences into a coherent event, a process broadly supported by the brain's default network. Prior work suggests that distinct brain regions may contribute to the inclusion of different simulation features. Here we examine how activity in these brain regions relates to the vividness of future simulations. Thirty-four healthy young adults imagined future events involving familiar people and locations in a two-part study involving a repetition suppression paradigm...
March 18, 2024: Neuropsychologia
Jazmin Morrone, Charles R Pedlar
Visuospatial cognition encapsulates an individual's ability to efficiently navigate and make sense of the multimodal cues from their surroundings, and therefore has been linked to expert performance across multiple domains, including sports, performing arts, and highly skilled tasks, such as drawing (Morrone and Minini, 2023). As neural efficiency posits a task-specific functional reorganization facilitated by long-term training, the present study employs a visuospatial construction task as a means of investigating the neurophysiological adaptations associated with expert visuospatial cognitive performance...
March 15, 2024: Neuropsychologia
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