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Alessandro Tomassini, Thomas A Pollak, Mark J Edwards, Sven Bestmann
The prolonged reaction times seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been linked to a dopaminergic-dependent deficit in using prior information to prepare responses, but also have been explained by an altered temporal processing. However, an underlying cognitive mechanism linking dopamine, temporal processing and response preparation remains elusive. To address this, we studied PD patients, with or without medication, and age-matched healthy individuals using a variable foreperiod task requiring speeded responses to a visual stimulus occurring at variable onset-times, with block-wise changes in the temporal predictability of visual stimuli...
February 11, 2019: Neuropsychologia
David Moreau, Kristina Wiebels, Anna J Wilson, Karen E Waldie
Dyslexia, dyscalculia and their comorbid manifestation are prevalent disorders associated with well-documented behavioral manifestations. However, attempts to relate these manifestations to abnormalities in brain structure have yielded mixed results, with no clear consistency across a range of measures. In this study, we used a unique design including adults with dyslexia, dyscalculia, both disorders and controls, to explore differences in gray matter characteristics across groups. Specifically, we examined whether dyslexia, dyscalculia, or their comorbid manifestation could be related to volumetric and surface characteristics of gray matter, using voxel-based and surface-based morphometry...
February 7, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Yu-Ting Tseng, Jessica Holst-Wolf, Chia-Liang Tsai, Fu-Chen Chen, Jürgen Konczak
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting the motor system, but it may also present with signs of somatosensory dysfunction. This study examined whether haptic perception, which relies on somatosensory afferents, is impaired in children with DCD. Haptic sensitivity and acuity were systematically quantified in children with DCD and contrasted to the performance of typically developing (TD) children and young adults (each group N = 20). All participants performed a curvature detection task measuring haptic sensitivity and a curvature discrimination task measuring haptic acuity...
February 7, 2019: Neuropsychologia
William Matchin, Chia-Hsuan Liao, Phoebe Gaston, Ellen Lau
In fMRI, increased activation for combinatorial syntactic and semantic processing is typically observed in a set of left hemisphere brain areas: the angular gyrus (AG), the anterior temporal lobe (ATL), the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Recent work has suggested that semantic combination is supported by the ATL and the AG, with a division of labor in which AG is involved in event concepts and ATL is involved in encoding conceptual features of entities and/or more general forms of semantic combination...
February 5, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Giulio Contemori, Yves Trotter, Benoit R Cottereau, Marcello Maniglia
Visual crowding, the difficulty of recognizing elements when surrounded by similar items, is a widely studied perceptual phenomenon and a trademark characteristic of peripheral vision. Perceptual Learning (PL) has been shown to reduce crowding, although a large number of sessions is required to observe significant improvements. Recently, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) has been successfully used to boost PL in low-level foveal tasks (e.g., contrast detection, orientation) in both healthy and clinical populations...
February 2, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Bernadette Hippmann, Ivo Kuhlemann, Tobias Bäumer, Jörg Bahlmann, Thomas F Münte, Sarah Jessen
Although an enhancing effect of reward on cognitive performance has been observed consistently, its neural underpinnings remain elusive. Recent evidence suggests that the inferior frontal junction (IFJ) may be a key player underlying such an enhancement by integrating motivational processes and cognitive control. However, its exact role and in particular a potential causality of IFJ activation is still unclear. In the present study, we therefore investigated the causal contributions of the left IFJ in motivated task switching by temporarily disrupting its activity using continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS, Exp...
February 2, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Lisa Wittenhagen, Jason B Mattingley
Our perception of illusory shapes, such as the classic Kanizsa triangle, is thought to reflect the visual system's capacity to fill in missing information associated with fragmented or partially occluded objects. Previous work has suggested that such 'modal' filling-in arises at relatively early stages of visual processing, prior to the allocation of focused attention, but few studies have examined whether attention influences neural responses to illusory shapes. Here we asked whether spatial attention affects neural activity evoked by illusory shapes by having participants focus on stimuli presented in one visual field (left or right), while ignoring those on the other side...
January 31, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Joseph Glicksohn, Aviva Berkovich-Ohana, Federica Mauro, Tal Dotan Ben-Soussan
We use a unique environment of Whole Body Perceptual Deprivation (WBPD) to induce an altered state of consciousness (ASC) in our participants, and employ online EEG recording. We present individual EEG alpha profiles, and show how these data can be analyzed at the individual level. Our goal is to investigate to what degree subjective experience matches EEG alpha profile, and in particular, the various alpha hemispheric asymmetries observed in the frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. Specifically, we consider positive (frontal L < R) or negative (frontal L > R) affect; a more verbal (L > R) or a more imagistic (R > L) mode of thinking; and a more trancelike (frontal > parietal) or more reflective (frontal < parietal) state of consciousness...
January 31, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Fangying Quan, Wenfeng Zhu, Yan Dong, Jiang Qiu, Xinyu Gong, Mingyue Xiao, Yong Zheng, Yufang Zhao, Xu Chen, Ling-Xiang Xia
The majority of research regarding hostile attribution bias focuses on its effect on aggression. However, little is known about the brain structure associated with trait hostile attribution bias and the mediating mechanism underlying this link. The current study uses voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify the brain regions related to individual differences in trait hostile attribution bias, measured by a Word Sentence Association Paradigm - Hostility in a sample of 176 undergraduate students. Subsequently, two mediation models with regard to brain structure, trait hostile attribution bias, and attitudes toward violence (measured by the Attitudes toward Violence Scale) were analyzed...
January 28, 2019: Neuropsychologia
A F Ten Brink, T C W Nijboer, J H Fabius, S Van der Stigchel
Even though we frequently execute saccades, we perceive the external world as coherent and stable. An important mechanism of trans-saccadic perception is spatial remapping: the process of updating information across eye movements. Previous studies have indicated a right hemispheric dominance for spatial remapping, which has been proposed to translate into enhanced trans-saccadic memory for locations that are remapped into the right compared to the left hemisphere in healthy participants. Previous study designs suffered from several limitations, however (i...
January 26, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Rob H J Van der Lubbe, Elian de Kleine, Karolina K Rataj
Individuals with developmental dyslexia have been characterized by problems with attentional orienting. In the current study, we specifically focused on possible changes in endogenous visual orienting that may be reflected in the electroencephalogram. A variant of the Posner cuing paradigm was employed with valid or invalid central cues that preceded target stimuli that were presented in the left or right visual field. The target stimuli consisted of vertical or horizontal stripes with low (two thick lines) or high (six thin lines) spatial frequencies...
January 24, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Solène Le Bars, Álvaro Darriba, Florian Waszak
Human event-related potentials (ERPs) have previously been observed to be attenuated for self-triggered sounds and amplified for deviant auditory stimuli. These auditory ERP modulations have been proposed to reflect internal predictions about the sensory consequences of our actions and more generally about our sensory context. The present exploratory ERP study (1) compared the processing of self-triggered tones by either intention-based or stimulus-driven actions, and (2) studied the impact of impulsivity traits on the prediction of action-effects...
January 24, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Hayley Guiney, Samuel J E Lucas, James D Cotter, Liana Machado
A growing body of evidence indicates regular physical activity benefits older adults' cognitive functioning, particularly when a high level of cognitive control is required. Recent research has pointed to improved cerebrovascular function as one mechanism through which such benefits might arise. This study built on previous research by investigating in 51 healthy older adults aged 60 to 72 years relationships between habitual physical activity, cerebrovascular function (indicated by resting cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery [n = 42], and its responsiveness to hypercapnia [n = 26] and hypocapnia [n = 25]), and cognitive control (inhibition and switching)...
January 22, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Gesche Schauenburg, Markus Conrad, Christian von Scheve, Horacio A Barber, Jens Ambrasat, Arash Aryani, Tobias Schröder
We compared event-related potentials during sentence reading, using impression formation equations of a model of affective coherence, to investigate the role of affective content processing during meaning making. The model of Affect Control Theory (ACT; Heise, 1979, 2007) predicts and quantifies the degree to which social interactions deflect from prevailing social norms and values - based on the affective meanings of involved concepts. We tested whether this model can predict the amplitude of brain waves traditionally associated with semantic processing...
January 18, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Martina G Vilas, Micaela Santilli, Ezequiel Mikulan, Federico Adolfi, Miguel Martorell Caro, Facundo Manes, Eduar Herrera, Lucas Sedeño, Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García
Functional shifts (FSs) -morphosyntactically marked words evoking coherent but novel meanings- are ubiquitous in English and, specially, in Shakespearean literature. While their neural signatures have been explored in native speakers, no study has targeted foreign-language users, let alone comparing early and late bilinguals. Here, we administered a validated FS paradigm to subjects from both populations and evaluated time-frequency modulations evoked by FS and control sentences. Early bilinguals exhibited greater sensitivity towards FSs, indexed by reduced fronto-posterior theta-band oscillations across semantic- and structural-integration windows...
January 18, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Changxin Zhang, Renxia Tao, Hang Zhao
The perceptual separation between a signal speech and a competing speech (masker), induced by the precedence effect, plays an important role in releasing the signal speech from the masker, especially in a reverberant environment. The perceptual-separation-induced unmasking effect has been suggested to involve multiple cognitive processes, such as selective attention. However, whether listeners' spatial attention modulate the perceptual-separation-induced unmasking effect is not clear. The present study investigated how perceptual separation and auditory spatial attention interact with each other to facilitate speech perception under a simulated noisy and reverberant environment by analyzing the cortical auditory evoked potentials to the signal speech...
January 16, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Simen Hagen, James W Tanaka
While expert face discrimination develops naturally in humans, expert discrimination in non-face object categories, such as birds, cars and dogs, is acquired through years of experience and explicit practice. The current study used an implicit visual discrimination paradigm and electroencephalography (EEG) - Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation - to examine whether within-category discrimination of faces and non-face objects of expertise rely on shared mechanisms despite their distinct learning histories. Electroencephalogram was recorded while bird experts and bird novices viewed 60s sequences of bird images or face images presented at a periodic rate of six images per second (i...
January 16, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Gennady Knyazev, Ekaterina Merkulova, Alexander Savostyanov, Andrey Bocharov, Alexander Saprigyn
Reactive, as opposed to proactive, behavior during social interactions has been investigated in the study of aggression, but it is virtually unexplored in relation to other kinds of social behavior. Little is known about brain underpinning of these processes. In this study, we used a virtual interaction model to manipulate the emotional display of the interaction partner and to register actor's responses to these manipulations. EEG was recorded throughout the experiment. After the experiment, participants filled in the IPIP Big-Five Factor Markers...
January 14, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Nahian S Chowdhury, Evan J Livesey, Justin A Harris
The time required to abort an initiated response can be measured as the Stop Signal Reaction Time (SSRT). We determined whether GABAergic activity in the primary motor cortex (M1), measured using paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was related to SSRT. GABAergic activity in M1 was assessed by measuring Short-Interval Intracortical Inhibition (SICI). In two experiments, participants (males and females) completed the Stop Signal Task while we measured SICI from the first dorsal interosseous muscle...
January 14, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Kelong Lu, Xinuo Qiao, Ning Hao
This study aimed to investigate how different feedback affect group creative performance, and reveal the underlying interpersonal neural correlates using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning technique. Participants solved one creativity task with two strangers in conditions with positive/negative/no feedback. Results revealed that performance in the negative condition was lower than in the other conditions. Moreover, results showed the highest 'index of convergence'/collective flexibility in the positive/control condition respectively...
January 8, 2019: Neuropsychologia
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