Roni Arbel, Benedetta Heimler, Amir Amedi
Accumulating evidence in the last decades has given rise to a new theory of brain organization, positing that cortical regions are recruited for specific tasks irrespective of the sensory modality via which information is channeled. For instance, the visual reading network has been shown to be recruited for reading via the tactile Braille code in congenitally blind adults. Yet, how rapidly non-typical sensory input modulates activity in typically visual regions is yet to be explored. To this aim, we developed a novel reading orthography, termed OVAL, enabling congenitally blind adults to quickly acquire reading via the auditory modality...
September 21, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Marc N Coutanche, Jake Sauter, Essang Akpan, Rae Buckser, August Vincent, M Kathleen Caulfield
Functional lateralization is typically measured by comparing activation levels across the right and left hemispheres of the brain. Significant additional information, however, exists within distributed multi-voxel patterns of activity - a format not detectable by traditional activation-based analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We introduce and test two methods -one anatomical, one functional- that allow hemispheric information asymmetries to be detected. We first introduce and apply a novel tool that draws on brain 'surface fingerprints' to pair every location in one hemisphere with its hemispheric homologue...
September 21, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Ekaterina Delikishkina, Shira Cohen-Zimerman, Zachary R Kachian, Frank Krueger, Barry Gordon, Jordan Grafman
Altruism is a type of prosocial behavior that is carried out in the absence of personal benefit or even at an expense to self. Trait altruism varies greatly across individuals, and the reasons for this variability are still not fully understood. Growing evidence suggests that altruism may be partly determined by the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene, which regulates the emotions underlying altruistic attitudes, such as empathy and trust. Neuroimaging and lesion studies have also implied several higher-order brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, in altruistic behaviors...
September 21, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Tzu-Yun Tung, Jonathan R Brennan
Memory operations during language comprehension are subject to interference: re-trieval is harder when items are linguistically similar to each other. We test how such interference effects might be modulated by linguistic expectations. Theories differ in how these factors might interact; we consider three possibilities: (i) pre-dictability determines the need for retrieval, (ii) predictability affects cue-preference during retrieval, or (iii) word predictability moderates the effect of noise in memory during retrieval...
September 20, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Vinaya Hari, Anushree Bose, Vani Holebasavanahalli Thimmashetty, Rujuta Parlikar, Vanteemar S Sreeraj, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
BACKGROUND: Self-bias effect is expressed as a preferential selection and accelerated perception of self-related sensory information. Intentional binding (IB) is a related phenomenon where the sensory outcome from a voluntary action and the voluntary action itself are perceived to be closer to each other in time in both predictive (voluntary action predicting sensory consequence) and retrospective (sensory consequence features triggering self-related inference) contexts. Recent evidence indicates that self-related visual stimuli can affect retrospective intentional binding (rIB)...
September 18, 2023: Neuropsychologia
David C Burr, Maria Concetta Morrone
Saccadic eye-movements are fundamental for active vision, allowing observers to purposefully scan the environment with the high-resolution fovea. In this brief perspective we outline a series of experiments from our laboratories investigating the role of eye-movements and their consequences to active perception. We show that saccades lead to suppression of visual sensitivity at saccadic onset, and that this suppression is accompanied by endogenous neural oscillations in the delta range. Similar oscillations are initiated by purposeful hand movements, which lead to measurable changes in responsivity in area V1, and in the connectivity with motor area M1...
September 15, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Alex Swainson, Kathryn M Woodward, Mihaela Boca, Michal Rolinski, Philip Collard, Nadia L Cerminara, Richard Apps, Alan L Whone, Iain D Gilchrist
There is currently mixed evidence on the effect of Parkinson's disease on motor adaptation. Some studies report that patients display adaptation comparable to age-matched controls, while others report a complete inability to adapt to novel sensory perturbations. Here, early to mid-stage Parkinson's patients were recruited to perform a prism adaptation task. When compared to controls, patients showed slower rates of initial adaptation but intact aftereffects. These results support the suggestion that patients with early to mid-stage Parkinson's disease display intact adaptation driven by sensory prediction errors, as shown by the intact aftereffect...
September 12, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Felix Dörr, Simona Schäfer, Fredrik Öhman, Nicklas Linz, Timothy Hadarsson Bodin, Johan Skoog, Anna Zettergren, Silke Kern, Ingmar Skoog, Johannes Tröger
The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is an established verbal learning test commonly used to quantify memory impairments due to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) both at a clinical dementia stage or prodromal stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Focal memory impairment-as quantified e.g. by the RAVLT-at an MCI stage is referred to as amnestic MCI (aMCI) and is often regarded as the cognitive phenotype of prodromal AD. However, recent findings suggest that not only learning and memory but also other cognitive domains, especially executive functions (EF) and processing speed (PS), influence verbal learning performance...
September 6, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Renae Mannion, Amritha Harikumar, Fernanda Morales-Calva, Stephanie L Leal
Difficulty remembering faces and names is a common struggle for many people and gets more difficult as we age. Subtle changes in appearance from day to day, common facial characteristics across individuals, and overlap of names may contribute to the difficulty of learning face-name associations. Computational models suggest the hippocampus plays a key role in reducing interference across experiences with overlapping information by performing pattern separation, which enables us to encode similar experiences as distinct from one another...
September 1, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Haili Wang, Ning Yin, Aoxiang Wang, Guizhi Xu
To explore the relationship between pericardial meridian acupoints and brain, the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were collected synchronously during transcutaneous electrical stimulation at PC3, PC5, PC7, and PC8 on the pericardial meridian in 21 healthy subjects. The cerebral cortex functional networks were constructed by standard low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA), phase-locking value (PLV) and complex network methods. The prefrontal cortex (BA10), the orbitofrontal cortex (BA11), the middle temporal gyrus (BA21), the temporal gyrus (BA22), the temporal pole (BA38), the triangular part (BA44), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA46), and the inferior frontal cortex (BA47) were activated by electrical stimulation at PC3, PC5, PC7, and PC8 on the pericardium meridian...
August 28, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Hayden J Peel, Philippe A Chouinard
We present a comprehensive review of the rare syndrome visual form agnosia (VFA). We begin by documenting its history, including the origins of the term, and the first case study labelled as VFA. The defining characteristics of the syndrome, as others have previously defined it, are then described. The impairments, preserved aspects of visual perception, and areas of brain damage in 21 patients who meet these defining characteristics are described in detail, including which tests were used to verify the presence or absence of key symptoms...
August 25, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Marianne de Chastelaine, Erin D Horne, Mingzhu Hou, Michael D Rugg
Using fMRI, we investigated the effects of age and divided attention on the neural correlates of familiarity and their relationship with memory performance. At study, word pairs were visually presented to young and older participants under the requirement to make a relational judgment on each pair. Participants were then scanned while undertaking an associative recognition test under single and dual (auditory tone detection) task conditions. The test items comprised studied, rearranged (words from different studied pairs) and new word pairs...
August 24, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Zhiwei Miao, Junzhe Wang, Yun Wang, Yunpeng Jiang, Ying Chen, Xia Wu
When searching for a target defined by a set of objects, attention can be directed toward task-relevant objects by creating a category-based attentional template (CAT). Previous studies have found that CAT can be activated before the onset of the target. However, the time course of CAT pre-activation and whether the category framework (prototypical or semantic) can modulate it remain unclear. To explore the time course of CAT pre-activation, we employed a rapid serial probe presentation paradigm (RSPP) with event-related potentials (ERPs)...
August 22, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Sharice Clough, Victoria-Grace Padilla, Sarah Brown-Schmidt, Melissa C Duff
PURPOSE: Real-world communication is situated in rich multimodal contexts, containing speech and gesture. Speakers often convey unique information in gesture that is not present in the speech signal (e.g., saying "He searched for a new recipe" while making a typing gesture). We examine the narrative retellings of participants with and without moderate-severe traumatic brain injury across three timepoints over two online Zoom sessions to investigate whether people with TBI can integrate information from co-occurring speech and gesture and if information from gesture persists across delays...
August 22, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Samuli Linnunsalo, Dennis Küster, Santeri Yrttiaho, Mikko J Peltola, Jari K Hietanen
Eye contact with a social robot has been shown to elicit similar psychophysiological responses to eye contact with another human. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the attention- and affect-related psychophysiological responses differentiate between direct (toward the observer) and averted gaze mainly when viewing embodied faces that are capable of social interaction, whereas pictorial or pre-recorded stimuli have no such capability. It has been suggested that genuine eye contact, as indicated by the differential psychophysiological responses to direct and averted gaze, requires a feeling of being watched by another mind...
August 22, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Siew Kei Kho, David R T Keeble, Hoo Keat Wong, Alejandro J Estudillo
The functional role of the occipital face area (OFA) and the fusiform face area (FFA) in face recognition is inconclusive to date. While some research has shown that the OFA and FFA are involved in early (i.e., featural processing) and late (i.e., holistic processing) stages of face recognition respectively, other research suggests that both regions are involved in both early and late stages of face recognition. Thus, the current study aims to further examine the role of the OFA and the FFA using multifocal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
August 21, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Manda Fischer, Morris Moscovitch, Keisuke Fukuda, Claude Alain
Does memory prepare us to act? Long-term memory can facilitate signal detection, though the degree of benefit varies and can even be absent. To dissociate between learning and behavioral expression of learning, we used high-density electroencephalography to assess memory retrieval and response processing. At learning, participants heard everyday sounds. Half of these sounds were paired with an above-threshold lateralized tone, such that it was possible to form incidental associations between the sound and the location of the tone...
August 19, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Christopher Baldassano
Narrative stimuli offer a unique opportunity for research in cognitive neuroscience, since they can evoke cognitive processes that are difficult or impossible to study with traditional paradigms. An especially compelling feature of narratives is their temporal structure, which allows for meaningful predictions about upcoming events. As we proceed through a narrative, we can maintain a complex set of short- and long-term guesses about the future, and continually refine our predictions as the story unfolds. Experiments using narratives can allow researchers to probe the ways in which memory systems are flexibly used during perception, including the mechanisms by which continuous experiences are segmented into discrete events...
August 19, 2023: Neuropsychologia
Chella M Robles, Britt Anderson, Sean P Dukelow, Christopher L Striemer
The cerebellum is known to play an important role in the coordination and timing of limb movements. The present study focused on how reach kinematics are affected by cerebellar lesions to quantify both the presence of motor impairment, and recovery of motor function over time. In the current study, 12 patients with isolated cerebellar stroke completed clinical measures of cognitive and motor function, as well as a visually guided reaching (VGR) task using the Kinarm exoskeleton at baseline (∼2 weeks), as well as 6, 12, and 24-weeks post-stroke...
August 18, 2023: Neuropsychologia
D Kumral, A Matzerath, R Leonhart, M Schönauer
Accumulating evidence suggests a central role for sleep spindles in the consolidation of new memories. However, no meta-analysis of the association between sleep spindles and memory performance has been conducted so far. Here, we report meta-analytical evidence for spindle-memory associations and investigate how multiple factors, including memory type, spindle type, spindle characteristics, and EEG topography affect this relationship. The literature search yielded 53 studies reporting 1427 effect sizes, resulting in a small to moderate effect for the average association...
August 17, 2023: Neuropsychologia
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