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Journals Journal of Personality and Soc...

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

https://read.qxmd.com/read/37902708/metamotivational-beliefs-about-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-motivation
#41
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Candice Hubley, Jessica Edwards, David B Miele, Abigail A Scholer
Although intrinsic motivation is often viewed as preferable to more extrinsic forms of motivation, there is evidence that the adaptiveness of these motivational states depends on the nature of the task being completed (e.g., Cerasoli et al., 2014). Specifically, research suggests task-motivation fit such that intrinsic motivation tends to benefit performance on open-ended tasks (tasks that involve qualitative performance assessment; e.g., creative writing) and extrinsic motivation benefits performance on closed-ended tasks (tasks that involve quantitative performance assessment; e...
October 30, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37902707/anger-has-benefits-for-attaining-goals
#42
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Heather C Lench, Noah T Reed, Tiffany George, Kaitlyn A Kaiser, Sophia G North
Functional accounts of emotion have guided research for decades, with the core assumption that emotions are functional-they improve outcomes for people. Based on functional accounts of emotion, we theorized that anger should improve goal attainment in the presence of challenges. In seven studies, goal attainment was assessed in situations that involved varying levels of challenges to goal attainment. Across studies, anger compared to a neutral condition resulted in behavior that facilitated greater goal attainment on tasks that involved challenges...
October 30, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37883025/the-consequences-of-heroization-for-exploitation
#43
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Matthew L Stanley, Aaron C Kay
The hero label has become a pervasive positive stereotype applied to many different groups and occupations, such as nurses, teachers, and members of the military. Although meant to show support, appreciation, and even admiration, we suggest that attaching this label to groups and occupations may actually have problematic consequences. Specifically, we theorize that the hero label may affect beliefs about the internal motivations of these group members that make them more vulnerable to exploitation. These ideas are tested and supported across nine preregistered studies using complementary materials and experimental paradigms...
October 26, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37883024/golden-gazes-gaze-direction-and-emotional-context-promote-prosocial-behavior-by-increasing-attributions-of-empathy-and-perspective-taking
#44
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Leticia Micheli, Christina Breil, Anne Böckler
Prosocial behavior is fundamental to societies. But when and toward whom do humans act generously? We investigate the impact of a listeners' gaze direction and the emotional context of the story heard on (a) perceptions of their social cognition skills and (b) prosocial decisions toward them. In three experiments (two preregistered, N = 486), human participants witnessed prerecorded video encounters between a listener (visible) and a speaker (audible, not visible). The listener either established eye contact, averted gaze, or showed a mixed gaze pattern ( gaze direction ), while the speaker told a neutral or negatively valenced autobiographic episode (emotional context )...
October 26, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37796595/the-civilian-s-dilemma-civilians-exhibit-automatic-defensive-responses-to-the-police
#45
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Vincenzo J Olivett, David S March
Interactions between police officers and civilians incur for both police and civilians the possibility of danger due to a nonzero likelihood of encountering a physical threat. A body of work examining the implications of threat processes during police-civilian interactions focuses almost exclusively on the perspective of police officers, under the auspice that police use-of-force decisions stem from perceptions and misperceptions of threat (e.g., research on the shooter bias). Almost no research has examined these dynamics from the perspective of civilians whose encounter with police involves interacting with an armed and potentially dangerous individual...
October 5, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37796594/divergent-effects-of-warmth-and-competence-social-rejection-an-explanation-based-on-the-need-threat-model
#46
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Feifei Chen, Tieyuan Guo, Jian Wang
Based on the need-threat model, we hypothesized that "warmth rejection" threatens belongingness more than "competence rejection," whereas competence rejection threatens sense of efficacy more than warmth rejection. To restore threatened belongingness, warmth (vs. competence) rejection was predicted to result in higher affiliative responses. In contrast, to restore the threatened sense of efficacy, competence (vs. warmth) rejection would lead to higher self-focus. Across six studies, we found that the participants exhibited more affiliative responses after being rejected due to low warmth than due to low competence (Studies 1-6), whereas they became more self-focused after being rejected due to low competence than due to low warmth (Studies 3-6)...
October 5, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37796593/a-prosocial-value-intervention-in-gateway-stem-courses
#47
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Judith M Harackiewicz, Cameron A Hecht, Michael W Asher, Patrick N Beymer, Liana B Lamont, Natalie S Wheeler, Nicole M Else-Quest, Stacy J Priniski, Jessi L Smith, Janet S Hyde, Dustin B Thoman
Many college students, especially first-generation and underrepresented racial/ethnic minority students, desire courses and careers that emphasize helping people and society. Can instructors of introductory science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) courses promote motivation, performance, and equity in STEM fields by emphasizing the prosocial relevance of course material? We developed, implemented, and evaluated a prosocial utility-value intervention (UVI): A course assignment in which students were asked to reflect on the prosocial value of biology or chemistry course content; our focus was on reducing performance gaps between first-generation and continuing generation college students...
October 5, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37796592/the-development-of-personality-from-metatraits-to-facets-across-adolescence-and-into-adulthood-in-a-sample-of-mexican-origin-youth
#48
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Whitney R Ringwald, Aleksandra Kaurin, Katherine M Lawson, Aidan G C Wright, Richard W Robins
The time between adolescence and adulthood is a transformative period of development. During these years, youth are exploring work, relationships, and worldviews while gaining the capacities needed to take on adult roles. These social and psychological processes are reflected in how personality develops across this period. Most youth personality development research has focused on the Big Five domains, ignoring the hierarchical structure of personality and missing broader, higher order processes and more specific, lower order processes...
October 5, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37796591/-thanks-but-no-thanks-gratitude-expression-paradoxically-signals-distance
#49
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jiaqi Yu, Shereen J Chaudhry
Many studies have found that feelings and expressions of gratitude bring profound benefits to people and relationships. We complicate this view of gratitude. We examine two variables known to impact people's expectations for relationships: culture (collectivist vs. individualist) and relational distance (close vs. distant), and we find evidence that expressing gratitude conveys that relationship expectations have been exceeded, such that people view it as less desirable to give and receive gratitude for actions that are expected duties of a relationship...
October 5, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37796589/gender-differences-and-variability-in-creative-ability-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-greater-male-variability-hypothesis-in-creativity
#50
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Christa L Taylor, Sameh Said-Metwaly, Anaëlle Camarda, Baptiste Barbot
Society is largely shaped by creativity, making it critical to understand why, despite minimal mean gender differences in creative ability, substantial differences exist in the creative achievement of men and women. Although the greater male variability hypothesis (GMVH) in creativity has been proposed to explain women's underrepresentation as eminent creators, studies examining the GMVH are sparse and limited. This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to examine whether the GMVH in creativity can adequately explain the gender gap in creative achievement...
October 5, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37721540/correction-to-wurm-and-sch%C3%A3-fer-2022
#51
JOURNAL ARTICLE
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Gain- but not loss-related self-perceptions of aging predict mortality over a period of 23 years: A multidimensional approach" by Susanne Wurm and Sarah K. Schäfer ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 2022[Sep], Vol 123[3], 636-653). The last sentence of the second paragraph of the Prediction of Mortality Based on Single Gain- or Loss-Related SPA Dimensions section now appears as Figure 3 shows a Kaplan-Meier curve as schematic illustration of the relationship between gain-related SPA (ongoing development) and mortality over 23 years...
October 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37498689/the-effects-of-a-personality-intervention-on-satisfaction-in-10-domains-of-life-evidence-for-increases-and-correlated-change-with-personality-traits
#52
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Gabriel Olaru, Manon A van Scheppingen, Mirjam Stieger, Tobias Kowatsch, Christoph Flückiger, Mathias Allemand
The desire to change one's personality traits has been shown to be stronger if people are dissatisfied with associated aspects of their life. While evidence for the effects of interventions on personality trait change is increasing, it is unclear whether these lead to subsequent improvements in the satisfaction with various domains of life. In this study, we examined the effects of a 3-month digital-coaching personality change intervention study on 10 domains of satisfaction. We focused on the three largest intervention groups of the study ( N = 418), which included participants who wanted to increase their Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, or Extraversion...
October 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37439714/the-psychology-of-negative-sum-competition-in-strategic-interactions
#53
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Christopher K Hsee, Ying Zeng, Xilin Li, Alex Imas
Many real-life examples-from interpersonal rivalries to international conflicts-suggest that people actively engage in competitive behavior even when it is negative sum (benefiting the self at a greater cost to others). This often leads to loss spirals where everyone-including the winner-ends up losing. Our research seeks to understand the psychology of such negative-sum competition in a controlled setting. To do so, we introduce an experimental paradigm in which paired participants have the option to repeatedly perform a behavior that causes a relatively small gain for the self and a larger loss to the other...
October 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37732992/generalized-morality-culturally-evolves-as-an-adaptive-heuristic-in-large-social-networks
#54
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Joshua Conrad Jackson, Jamin Halberstadt, Masanori Takezawa, Kongmeng Liew, Kristopher Smith, Coren Apicella, Kurt Gray
Why do people assume that a generous person should also be honest? Why do we even use words like "moral" and "immoral"? We explore these questions with a new model of how people perceive moral character. We propose that people vary in the extent to which they perceive moral character as "localized" (varying along many contextually embedded dimensions) versus "generalized" (varying along a single dimension from morally bad to morally good). This variation might be partly the product of cultural evolutionary adaptations to different kinds of social networks...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37732991/racism-behind-the-screen-examining-the-mediating-and-moderating-relationships-between-anonymity-online-disinhibition-and-cyber-racism
#55
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Christopher P Barlett, Jordan E Scott
Cyber-racism has emerged as a societal issue that affects many youths and adults; however, no published work has elucidated the psychological processes germane to predicting cyber-racism perpetration. Theory-without data to support its postulates-argues that online disinhibition mediates the relationship between anonymity afforded the online user and cyber-racism. The purpose of the current research was to examine this prediction and add to the theory by testing additional mediators and moderators. Six empirical studies tested this theory with U...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37721538/examining-individual-differences-in-metaperceptive-accuracy-using-the-social-meta-accuracy-model
#56
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Leonie Hater, Norhan Elsaadawy, Jeremy C Biesanz, Simon M Breil, Lauren J Human, Lisa M Niemeyer, Hasagani Tissera, Mitja D Back, Erika N Carlson
To what extent do individuals differ in understanding how others see them and who is particularly good at it? Answering these questions about the "good metaperceiver" is relevant given the beneficial outcomes of meta-accuracy. However, there likely is more than one type of the good metaperceiver: One who knows the specific impressions they make more than others do ( dyadic meta-accuracy ) and one who knows their reputation more than others do (generalized meta-accuracy ). To identify and understand these good metaperceivers, we introduce the social meta-accuracy model (SMAM) as a statistical and conceptual framework and apply the SMAM to four samples of first impression interactions...
September 18, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37707481/scarcity-and-intertemporal-choice
#57
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Eesha Sharma, Stephanie M Tully, Xiang Wang
Scarcity often encourages decisions that favor the present over the future. While prevailing theories largely attribute these decisions to myopic, impulsive decision making, five studies find support for an alternative, less prevalent perspective. We introduce the time horizon of threatened needs as an important determinant of scarcity's effect on intertemporal choice, demonstrating that people's decisions under scarcity reflect attempts to address threatened needs. Data from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Study 1) and preregistered studies ( N = 10,297) show that time horizon moderates intertemporal decisions under scarcity...
September 14, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37695345/using-within-person-change-in-three-large-panel-studies-to-estimate-personality-age-trajectories
#58
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ingo S Seifert, Julia M Rohrer, Stefan C Schmukle
How does personality change when people get older? Numerous studies have investigated this question, overall supporting the idea of so-called personality maturation. However, heterogeneous findings have left open questions, such as whether maturation continues in old age and how large the effects are. We suggest that the heterogeneity is partly rooted in methodological issues. First, studies may have failed to recover age effects as they did not stringently separate within-person changes from confounding between-person differences...
September 11, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37676124/a-deep-learning-approach-to-personality-assessment-generalizing-across-items-and-expanding-the-reach-of-survey-based-research
#59
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Suhaib Abdurahman, Huy Vu, Wanling Zou, Lyle Ungar, Sudeep Bhatia
Traditional methods of personality assessment, and survey-based research in general, cannot make inferences about new items that have not been surveyed previously. This limits the amount of information that can be obtained from a given survey. In this article, we tackle this problem by leveraging recent advances in statistical natural language processing. Specifically, we extract "embedding" representations of questionnaire items from deep neural networks, trained on large-scale English language data. These embeddings allow us to construct a high-dimensional space of items, in which linguistically similar items are located near each other...
September 7, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37676123/correction-to-elnakouri-et-al-2023
#60
JOURNAL ARTICLE
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "In it together: Shared reality with instrumental others is linked to goal success" by Abdo Elnakouri, Maya Rossignac-Milon, Kori L. Krueger, Amanda L. Forest, E. Tory Higgins and Abigail A. Scholer ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Jul 13, 2023, np). In the original article, the abstract was revised. Specifically, there were errors in the the second and third sentences of the fifth paragraph of the Shared Reality section, fifth sentence of the Present Research section, An updated Figure 1 now appears in the erratum...
September 7, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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