Journals Journal of Personality and Soc...

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Ariella S Kristal, Julian J Zlatev
Commitment strategies are effective mechanisms individuals can use to overcome self-control problems. Across seven studies (and two supplemental studies), we explore the negative interpersonal consequences of commitment strategy choice and use. In Study 1, using an incentivized trust game, we demonstrate that individuals trust people who choose to use a commitment strategy less than those who choose to use willpower to achieve their goals. Study 2 shows this relationship holds across four domains and for integrity-based trust in particular...
April 11, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Andreea Sutu, Kevin A Hoff, Chu Chu, Sif Einarsdóttir, James Rounds, Rodica Ioana Damian
Life goals play a major role in shaping people's lives and careers. Although life goals have prior documented associations with occupational and other life outcomes, no prior studies have investigated associations between life goal development and occupational outcomes. Using two representative samples of Icelandic youth (Sample 1: n = 485, Sample 2: n = 1,339), followed across 12 years from adolescence to young adulthood, we examined life goal development and associations with educational attainment and a wide range of occupational outcomes...
March 28, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Anne Wiedenroth, Nele M Wessels, Daniel Leising
This study investigated the effects and interplay of several core determinants of consensus in person perception: information overlap, information quantity, cross-situational consistency, and shared meaning. Targets ( N = 200) were filmed in different standardized situations. Perceivers either watched the same target in different situations ( N = 1,395 perceivers) or different targets in the same situation ( N = 3,963 perceivers) and then rated the targets' personalities after each video. Overlap of the observed situations was systematically varied across perceivers...
March 21, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Eva Bleckmann, Richard Rau, Erika N Carlson, Jenny Wagner
Feeling accepted by others is a fundamental human motive and an important marker of successful social interactions. This interpersonal perception, known as meta-liking, is especially relevant during adolescence, when peer relationships deepen and expand. However, knowledge is limited regarding meta-liking formation in initial social interactions. This study investigated whether adolescents ( N = 293, M age = 15.48, 61.10% female) have default expectations for meta-liking at zero acquaintance and how these judgments are updated during initial group interactions...
March 14, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Fei Teng, Xijing Wang, Qiao Lei, Kai-Tak Poon
Existing research has suggested a predominantly negative view of dependency-oriented help. In contrast, the current research aims to test the positive function of dependency-oriented help in intimate relationships where interpersonal dependency is valued. We hypothesized that dependency-oriented help-seeking could function in communicating liking and romantic interests and, therefore, can be instrumental in attracting mates. Our hypothesis was confirmed across nine studies ( N = 2,535). For help-seekers, a mate-seeking motivation could positively predict (Study 1) and lead to (Studies 2A-4) dependency-oriented help-seeking behavior tendencies (Studies 1-2B) and actual behavior (Studies 3 and 4)...
March 14, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Laura C Dapp, Ulrich Orth
This meta-analysis examined the rank-order stability of domain-specific self-esteem by comprehensively synthesizing the available evidence in eight domains of self-esteem (i.e., academic, appearance, athletic, morality, romantic, social, mathematics, and verbal abilities). The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 118 independent samples, including 107,550 participants aged 4-24 years. The time lag between assessments ranged from 6 months to 20 years. As effect-size measure, we used test-retest correlations that were corrected for attenuation due to measurement error...
March 7, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Curtis Puryear, Joseph A Vandello, Kurt Gray
Moral panics have regularly erupted in society, but they appear almost daily on social media. We propose that social media helps fuel moral panics by combining perceived societal threats with a powerful signal of social amplification-virality. Eight studies with multiple methods test a social amplification model of moral panics in which virality amplifies perceptions of threats posed by deviant behavior and ideas, prompting moral outrage expression. Three naturalistic studies of Twitter ( N = 237,230) reveal that virality predicts moral outrage in response to tweets about controversial issues, even when controlling for specific tweet content...
February 29, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Alex Koch, Andrew Bromley, Johanna Woitzel, Hans Alves
According to the cognitive-ecological model of social perception, biases toward individuals can arise as by-products of cognitive principles that interact with the information ecology. The present work tested whether negatively biased person descriptions occur as by-products of cognitive differentiation. Later-encountered persons are described by their distinct attributes that differentiate them from earlier-encountered persons. Because distinct attributes tend to be negative, serial person descriptions should become increasingly negative...
February 29, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Phuong Q Le, Abigail A Scholer, Kentaro Fujita
Self-control-the prioritization of valued global goals over immediate local rewards-is typically conceptualized and studied as isolated decisions. Goal pursuit, however, generally requires people to make repeated self-control decisions across contexts. We adopt a higher order, strategic level of analysis of self-control and explore, for the first time, people's preferences for abstinence (a pattern of choices in which one never indulges) versus moderation (a pattern of choices in which one indulges when doing so does not harm one's goals or even helps promote the pursuit of those goals)...
February 29, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Edward P Lemay, Jennifer Cutri, Nadya Teneva
Although loneliness has been associated with negative perceptions of social life in past research, little is known about the implications of loneliness for interpersonal perception within close relationships. The current research includes three studies (total N = 1,197) suggesting that loneliness is associated with a negative bias in perceiving relationship partners' regard and care and that this bias partially accounts for the effects of loneliness on lower relationship quality and problematic interpersonal behaviors...
February 26, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Chantal D'Amore, Martijn van Zomeren, Namkje Koudenburg
Within structurally polarized and dynamic contexts, such as the U.S. 2020 presidential elections, the moralization of individuals' attitudes on a specific topic (e.g., climate policy) can dangerously escalate disagreements between groups into zero-sum conflict. However, limited knowledge exists regarding the factors that influence individuals' tendency to moralize their attitudes over time, and what the role of structural polarization is in this psychological process. Our objective is to test a theoretically integrative model of when and how perceived polarization is related to attitude moralization over time within the polarized context of the U...
February 22, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Derek D Rucker, Jesse D'Agostino, Mark Dyer, Zakary L Tormala
How do people select targets when tasked with persuading a group of people? One approach would be to prioritize getting people in support of the persuader's position to hold relatively extreme attitudes-an extremity strategy. An alternative approach would be to prioritize getting as many people as possible to support the persuader's position, regardless of how extreme they are-a consensus strategy . Although some situations might allow persuaders to combine these strategies, the present work examines how people select targets and strategies when a natural trade-off exists between acquiring fewer people with more extreme attitudes versus more people with less extreme attitudes...
February 15, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Julian Scharbert, Lisa M Dein, Lara Kroencke, Steffen Nestler, Mitja D Back, Katharina Utesch
Whereas grandiose narcissism has generally been found to be related to adaptive affective experiences (i.e., positive affective states), many theoretical conceptualizations have emphasized its associations with characteristics of low affective well-being (i.e., unstable, highly variable affective states). Empirical research on the association of grandiose narcissism with the mean level of and variability in affective states has been inconclusive, as studies have differed considerably in their conceptualizations and measurement of narcissism and affect dynamics and have suffered from methodological limitations...
February 15, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Megan R Lindloff, Angela Meadows, Rachel M Calogero
Fat microaggressions are microlevel social practices in the form of commonplace everyday indignities that insult fat people and have been documented anecdotally and qualitatively. However, no psychometrically validated scale exists for measuring fat microaggressions, despite decades of microaggression research demonstrating their negative health associations. This research describes the development and construct validation of the Fat Microaggressions Scale across four studies. Study 1 focused on item development through a systematic review, qualitative analysis of Tweets using #fatmicroaggressions, and a Delphi review...
February 15, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Shree Vallabha, Jonathan E Doriscar, Mark J Brandt
Groups have committed historical wrongs (e.g., genocide, slavery). We investigated why people blame current groups who were not involved in the original historical wrong for the actions of their predecessors who committed these wrongs and are no longer alive. Current models of individual and group blame overlook the dimension of time and therefore have difficulty explaining this phenomenon using their existing criteria like causality, intentionality, or preventability. We hypothesized that factors that help psychologically bridge the past and present, like perceiving higher (a) connectedness between past and present perpetrator groups, (b) continued privilege of perpetrator groups, (c) continued harm of victim groups, and (d) unfulfilled forward obligations of perpetrator groups would facilitate higher blame judgments against current groups for the past...
February 15, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Hemant Kakkar
The dual framework of social rank allocation discusses dominance and prestige as two viable routes to status or social influence. In doing so, this literature has largely neglected findings demonstrating backlash against men and women for behaving in gender-incongruent ways. Likewise, it remains unclear if dominance and prestige continue to be effective means to status over time. This study investigates the viability of dominance or prestige in contributing to an individual's social influence, conditional on their gender and across time...
February 1, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Shuang Wu, Rachel Smallman, Pamela K Smith
Whom do we perceive as more powerful and prefer to give power to: Those who have self-control or those who lack it? Past theory and research provide divergent predictions. Low self-control can be seen as a form of disinhibition, and disinhibition has been associated with greater power. However, high self-control can be seen as a form of agency, which is associated with greater power. Across seven studies, we found that individuals who exhibited high self-control were seen as more powerful, and given more power, than individuals who exhibited low self-control...
January 25, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Rebecca M Walsh, Amanda L Forest
Receiving high-quality, responsive support in times of distress is critical but difficult. In a theoretical review, we previously proposed a process model that explains why support-seekers' positive expressivity can elicit-but may sometimes suppress-supportive responses from partners (providers) within distress-related contexts. In the current work, we aimed to test direct and indirect pathways linking seeker's positive expressivity in negative disclosures to provider's support while addressing notable gaps in the existing literature...
January 22, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Garrett L Brady, Hemant Kakkar, Niro Sivanathan
Moral hazard involves a context where decision-makers engage in behaviors that prioritize self-interest while allowing the associated risk to be primarily borne by others. Such decision making can lead to catastrophic consequences, as seen in the 2008 global financial crisis after hedge fund managers indiscriminately invested their clients' money in subprime mortgages. This research examines which decision-makers are most likely to engage in moral hazard decision making and the psychological mechanism driving this behavior...
January 18, 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Tell it like it is: When politically incorrect language promotes authenticity" by Michael Rosenblum, Juliana Schroeder and Francesca Gino ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 2020[Jul], Vol 119[1], 75-103). In the original article, the sample size in the abstract and in the third sentence of the General Discussion section has been corrected to N = 4,922. The Open Science Framework URL for the preregistered hypothesis and analysis plan for Experiment 2 is now available at https://osf...
February 2024: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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