Journals Journal of Personality and Soc...

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Joshua Conrad Jackson, Jamin Halberstadt, Masanori Takezawa, Kongmeng Liew, Kristopher Smith, Coren Apicella, Kurt Gray
Why do people assume that a generous person should also be honest? Why do we even use words like "moral" and "immoral"? We explore these questions with a new model of how people perceive moral character. We propose that people vary in the extent to which they perceive moral character as "localized" (varying along many contextually embedded dimensions) versus "generalized" (varying along a single dimension from morally bad to morally good). This variation might be partly the product of cultural evolutionary adaptations to different kinds of social networks...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Christopher P Barlett, Jordan E Scott
Cyber-racism has emerged as a societal issue that affects many youths and adults; however, no published work has elucidated the psychological processes germane to predicting cyber-racism perpetration. Theory-without data to support its postulates-argues that online disinhibition mediates the relationship between anonymity afforded the online user and cyber-racism. The purpose of the current research was to examine this prediction and add to the theory by testing additional mediators and moderators. Six empirical studies tested this theory with U...
September 21, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Leonie Hater, Norhan Elsaadawy, Jeremy C Biesanz, Simon M Breil, Lauren J Human, Lisa M Niemeyer, Hasagani Tissera, Mitja D Back, Erika N Carlson
To what extent do individuals differ in understanding how others see them and who is particularly good at it? Answering these questions about the "good metaperceiver" is relevant given the beneficial outcomes of meta-accuracy. However, there likely is more than one type of the good metaperceiver: One who knows the specific impressions they make more than others do ( dyadic meta-accuracy ) and one who knows their reputation more than others do (generalized meta-accuracy ). To identify and understand these good metaperceivers, we introduce the social meta-accuracy model (SMAM) as a statistical and conceptual framework and apply the SMAM to four samples of first impression interactions...
September 18, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Eesha Sharma, Stephanie M Tully, Xiang Wang
Scarcity often encourages decisions that favor the present over the future. While prevailing theories largely attribute these decisions to myopic, impulsive decision making, five studies find support for an alternative, less prevalent perspective. We introduce the time horizon of threatened needs as an important determinant of scarcity's effect on intertemporal choice, demonstrating that people's decisions under scarcity reflect attempts to address threatened needs. Data from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Study 1) and preregistered studies ( N = 10,297) show that time horizon moderates intertemporal decisions under scarcity...
September 14, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Ingo S Seifert, Julia M Rohrer, Stefan C Schmukle
How does personality change when people get older? Numerous studies have investigated this question, overall supporting the idea of so-called personality maturation. However, heterogeneous findings have left open questions, such as whether maturation continues in old age and how large the effects are. We suggest that the heterogeneity is partly rooted in methodological issues. First, studies may have failed to recover age effects as they did not stringently separate within-person changes from confounding between-person differences...
September 11, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Suhaib Abdurahman, Huy Vu, Wanling Zou, Lyle Ungar, Sudeep Bhatia
Traditional methods of personality assessment, and survey-based research in general, cannot make inferences about new items that have not been surveyed previously. This limits the amount of information that can be obtained from a given survey. In this article, we tackle this problem by leveraging recent advances in statistical natural language processing. Specifically, we extract "embedding" representations of questionnaire items from deep neural networks, trained on large-scale English language data. These embeddings allow us to construct a high-dimensional space of items, in which linguistically similar items are located near each other...
September 7, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "In it together: Shared reality with instrumental others is linked to goal success" by Abdo Elnakouri, Maya Rossignac-Milon, Kori L. Krueger, Amanda L. Forest, E. Tory Higgins and Abigail A. Scholer ( Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Jul 13, 2023, np). In the original article, the abstract was revised. Specifically, there were errors in the the second and third sentences of the fifth paragraph of the Shared Reality section, fifth sentence of the Present Research section, An updated Figure 1 now appears in the erratum...
September 7, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Niclas Kuper, Alina S von Garrel, Brenton M Wiernik, Le Vy Phan, Nick Modersitzki, John F Rauthmann
People differ in their reaction to situations, resulting in Person × Situation interactions. These interactions have been emphasized by many theoretical accounts of personality. Nevertheless, empirical progress on Person × Situation interactions has been slow. This is in part attributable to an insufficient distinction of person and situation variables and of different types of interaction effects. We propose a framework distinguishing four nested types of interaction effects varying in specificity: (a) P × S: broad Person × Situation interaction variance, (b) P × Sspec : between-person differences in situation variable-outcome associations, (c) Pspec × S: between-situation differences in person variable-outcome associations, and (d) Pspec × Sspec : specific Person Variable × Situation Variable interactions...
September 4, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Jenny Wagner, Larissa L Wieczorek, Naemi D Brandt
Research over the past 2 decades has repeatedly shown that the evaluation of one's own worth-trait self-esteem-is closely linked to the quality of social relationships and perceptions of social inclusion. However, there is limited evidence on the dynamics between momentary self-esteem and perceptions of social inclusion in everyday life, as well as on their possible long-term (bottom-up) effects on the development of trait self-esteem. We addressed this research gap using longitudinal data from a German multimethodological study ( N = 324) in which N = 235 late adolescents ( M age = 17...
September 4, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Spike W S Lee, Cecilia Ma
We live in a time of exacerbating political polarization. Bridging the ideological divide is hard. Although some strategies have been found effective for interpersonal persuasion and interaction across the aisle, little is known about what intrapersonal attributes predict which individuals are more inclined to support their ideological opponent's views. The present work identifies a low-level attribute-sensitivity to physical pain-that robustly predicts individual variations in support for moral and political views typically favored by one's ideological opponent...
August 24, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Tessa E S Charlesworth, Nishanth Sanjeev, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Mahzarin R Banaji
The social world is carved into a complex variety of groups each associated with unique stereotypes that persist and shift over time. Innovations in natural language processing (word embeddings) enabled this comprehensive study on variability and correlates of change/stability in both manifest and latent stereotypes for 72 diverse groups tracked across 115 years of four English-language text corpora. Results showed, first, that group stereotypes changed by a moderate-to-large degree in manifest content (i.e...
August 24, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Gregg A Muragishi, Lauren Aguilar, Priyanka B Carr, Gregory M Walton
When people enter new work settings, we theorized that they are vulnerable to questioning whether they will be received in ways that allow them to contribute to shared goals. If so, treatment that clarifies the stance that others take toward the self, which we call microinclusions, that convey a receptivity and supportiveness to one's contributions may bolster a sense of fit. Further, in examining this question in technology contexts, we theorized that such microinclusions may be particularly impactful for women for whom underrepresentation and negative stereotypes make opportunities to contribute especially fraught...
August 21, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Mohammad Atari, Jonathan Haidt, Jesse Graham, Sena Koleva, Sean T Stevens, Morteza Dehghani
Moral foundations theory has been a generative framework in moral psychology in the last 2 decades. Here, we revisit the theory and develop a new measurement tool, the Moral Foundations Questionnaire-2 (MFQ-2), based on data from 25 populations. We demonstrate empirically that equality and proportionality are distinct moral foundations while retaining the other four existing foundations of care, loyalty, authority, and purity. Three studies were conducted to develop the MFQ-2 and to examine how the nomological network of moral foundations varies across 25 populations...
August 17, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Rongxin Cheng, Katherine M Lawson, Richard W Robins
School achievement has long-term consequences for occupational success, mental health, and overall psychological adjustment. The present study examined the association between temperament trajectories from late childhood through adolescence and academic outcomes during late adolescence and young adulthood. Data come from the California Families Project, a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin youth assessed 12 times from Age 10 to 23, and from school records. Results from latent growth curve models indicate that higher levels of Effortful Control (EC) at Age 10 were associated with better academic achievement (i...
August 17, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Eric M VanEpps, Einav Hart, Maurice E Schweitzer
To create favorable impressions and receive credit, individuals need to share information about their past accomplishments. Broadcasting one's past accomplishments or claiming credit to demonstrate competence, however, can harm perceptions of warmth and likability. In fact, prior work has conceptualized self-promotion as a hydraulic challenge: tactics that boost perceptions along one dimension (e.g., competence) harm perceptions along other dimensions (e.g., warmth). In this work, we identify a novel approach to self-promotion: We show that by combining self-promotion with other-promotion (complimenting or giving credit to others), which we term "dual-promotion," individuals can project both warmth and competence to make better impressions on observers than they do by only self-promoting...
August 10, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Lara Kroencke, Niclas Kuper, Simon Mota, Katharina Geukes, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, Mitja D Back
Status pursuit has been emphasized as a key motivational factor underlying narcissism, but research has just begun to unravel the processes by which more narcissistic individuals pursue status in their everyday social interactions. In this article, we combine process models of narcissistic status pursuit with three-factor models of narcissism to test whether different aspects of narcissism (i.e., agentic, antagonistic, and neurotic narcissism) can be characterized by stronger reactivity to different kinds of status perceptions (i...
August 10, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Wen-Dong Li, Jiexin Wang, Tammy Allen, Xin Zhang, Kaili Yu, Hong Zhang, Jason L Huang, Mengqiao Liu, Andrew Li
The literature on personality trait development has mainly focused on influences of life experiences in one single life domain (e.g., work or family) separate from one another and has primarily examined personality development in early life stages. Thus, less attention has been devoted to influences from interplays across different life domains and personality development in middle and late adulthood. Synthesizing the literature on personality science and organizational research, we built a theoretical model and investigated what, how, and why the interplay between two central life domains-work and family-may be related to personality trait development of people at their middle and late life stages, and more important, change-related reciprocal relationships between personality traits and work-family experiences...
August 10, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Laura K Hildebrand, Margo J Monteith, Ximena B Arriaga
Confronting, or calling out people for prejudiced remarks, reduces subsequent expressions of prejudice. However, people who confront others incur social costs: Confronters are disliked, derogated, and avoided relative to others who have not confronted. These social costs hurt the confronter and reduce the likelihood of future confrontation. The present studies ( N = 1,019) integrate the close relationships and prejudice reduction literatures to examine whether people who are confronted assign fewer social costs when they trust the confronter...
August 3, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Laura Buchinger, Theresa M Entringer, David Richter, Gert G Wagner, Denis Gerstorf, Wiebke Bleidorn
Since the new millennium, research in the field of personality development has focused on the stability and change of basic personality traits. Motivational aspects of personality and their longitudinal association with basic traits have received comparably little attention. In this preregistered study, we applied bivariate latent growth curve model to investigated the codevelopment of nine life goals and the Big Five traits. We tested age, perceived control, gender, educational background, and regional socialization as potential moderators of codevelopment...
July 27, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Abdo Elnakouri, Maya Rossignac-Milon, Kori L Krueger, Amanda L Forest, E Tory Higgins, Abigail A Scholer
Why are some people more successful than others? In addition to individual factors (e.g. self-control), research has recently suggested that the quality of people's interpersonal relationships is crucial for success. Successful people do not just like and feel close to instrumental objects (e.g., study material, the gym), they also like and feel close to instrumental others (IOs; people who make goal success more likely). Yet instrumental people have one crucially distinct feature that instrumental objects do not: A mind of their own...
July 13, 2023: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
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