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Journal of Invertebrate Pathology

Jiří Vávra, Ivan Fiala, Pavla Krylová, Adam Petrusek, Miroslav Hyliš
Microsporidia are among the most common microparasites of cladocerans and have potentially significant impact on host populations. However, many of these pathogens are known only from molecular-based studies. We provide ultrastructural data supported by molecular phylogeny for a common microsporidium infecting the Daphnia longispina complex, important planktonic filter-feeders in reservoirs and ponds in the temperate Holarctic region. This parasite, previously characterized only by molecular means, infects adipose cells around the Daphnia midgut and eventually fills the centre of the host body with ovoid-shaped spores...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Jéssica M P Pereira, Emília N V de Souza, Jéssica R B Candido, Márcia D A Dantas, Allan R D Nunes, Karina Ribeiro, Dárlio I A Teixeira, Daniel C F Lanza
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major challenges faced by global shrimp farming in recent decades. The characterization of WSSV genetic variability has been used to determine viral dispersion and is a promising method to determine the association between genotype and virulence. The major variable regions that have been used as markers to differentiate the WSSV genomes include the VNTR loci inside ORF94, ORF75, ORF125, and insertions/deletions interspersing ORF14/15 and ORF23/24. The primers used to amplify these regions were described at least 10 years ago, but some of them do not work efficiently to identify new WSSV variants...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Mark Robin Holmes Hurst, Sandra Andrea Jones, Amy Beattie, Chikako van, Anthony Minot Shelton, Hilda Lam Collins, Michael Brownbridge
The application of the biocontrol bacterium Yersinia entomophaga as a foliar spray was assessed for its efficacy against larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. The bacterium was applied as either a broth suspension, or as a biopolymer-based gel foliar spray and compared with commercial insecticides Dipel (Bacillus thuringiensis) and Spinosad. The performance of Y. entomophaga was comparable with that of Dipel. The gel-based formulation extended leaf persistence over that of the basic broth culture spray, while also providing higher initial foliar deposition rates...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
N González-Mas, L Ortega-García, I Garrido-Jurado, O Dembilio, J A Jaques, E Quesada-Moraga
The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is threatening the palm family worldwide, causing important economic losses. Current tactics to manage the weevil are largely based on chemical control, although the use of pesticides is hampered by several environmental constraints. Since the first introduction of RPW in Spain in 1996 and during its progressive spread around the Mediterranean basin, the number of reports of natural infection of RPW populations by entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) has been rising for 15 years, and this rise could support a pest-mediated EPF spread...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Marlinda Lobo Souza, Marcio Martinello Sanches, Daniela Aguiar de Souza, Marcos Faria, Carlos Espinel-Correal, William Sihler, Rogerio Biaggioni Lopes
Members of the family Baculoviridae have been quite successfully used as biocontrol agents against some lepidopterans. Likewise, a number of fungi are important natural enemies of these pests. An interesting approach to increase control efficacy could be the combination of a given nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) and a fungus, since they possess distinct modes of action. As a first step towards this goal, we assessed the interaction between NPV (either AgMNPV-79 or SfMNPV-6nd) and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium rileyi (either CG1153 or CG381), using Anticarsia gemmatalis and Spodoptera frugiperda as hosts...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Erica P Ross, Donald C Behringer, Jamie Bojko
The Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus is susceptible to infection by Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1), the only virus known to naturally infect any lobster species. However, P. argus is able to mitigate PaV1 transmission risk by avoiding infected individuals. P. argus may also be susceptible to another lethal virus, White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). WSSV has not been documented in wild populations of spiny lobsters, but has been experimentally transmitted to six other lobster species from the genus Panulirus spp...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Chunjie Li, Xianhong Zhou, Edwin E Lewis, Yi Yu, Congli Wang
Pluronic F-127 gel (PF127) has proven to be a powerful medium in which to study host-finding behavior and chemotaxis for plant-parasitic nematodes. Pluronic gel can also be used to study host-habitat seeking behavior of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), which are natural enemies of root-feeding insect pests. In this study, PF127 was used to study tritrophic interactions among EPNs, host-habitat roots and insects. We also tested whether EPN aggregated to acetic acid (pH gradient) which mimicked the conditions near the roots...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Valerio Joe Utzeri, Giuseppina Schiavo, Anisa Ribani, Francesca Bertolini, Samuele Bovo, Luca Fontanesi
Honey contains DNA from many different organisms that are part of hive micro-environmental niches and honey bee pathospheres. In this study, we recovered and sequenced mite mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from honey from different locations around the world (Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America). DNA extracted from 17 honey samples was amplified with eight primer pairs targeting three mite mtDNA genes, obtaining 88 amplicons that were sequenced with an Ion Torrent sequencing platform. A bioinformatic pipeline compared produced reads with Varroa spp...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Richard F Lee, Anna N Walker, Stephen C Landers, Tina L Waters, Shirley A Powell, Marc E Frischer
Black spot gill syndrome in the northern shrimp, Pandalus borealis, is caused by an apostome ciliate, Synophrya sp., found within the gill lamellae. Whole mount staining, thin section histology, electron microscopy, and molecular studies were carried out on infected gills. The Synophrya 18S rRNA from Pandalus borealis (Genbank accession no. KX906568) and from two portunid crab species, Achelous spinimanus (Genbank accession no. MH395150) and Achelous gibbesii (Genbank accession no. MH395151) was sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the identity of these ciliates as apostomes...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Johanna Mayerhofer, Andy Lutz, Francesca Dennert, Stephen A Rehner, Ryan M Kepler, Franco Widmer, Jürg Enkerli
The fungal species Metarhizium pingshaense, M. anisopliae, M. robertsii, and M. brunneum, a monophyletic group informally referred to as the PARB species complex, are well known facultative entomopathogens, including many commercialized strains used for biological pest control. Accurate and expedient species identification of Metarhizium isolates represents an important first step when addressing ecological as well as application-related questions involving these fungi. To this end, a species-specific multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for identification and discrimination among Metarhizium PARB complex species, based on unique sequence signature differences within the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer (rIGS) and nuclear intergenic spacer regions MzFG546 and MzIGS2...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
E Blanco-Rayón, M Soto, U Izagirre, I Marigómez
Changes in the cell type composition of the digestive gland epithelium constitute a common and recognized biological response to stress in mussels. Usually, these changes are identified as alterations in the relative proportion of basophilic cells, determined in tissue sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and measured in terms of volume density of basophilic cells (VvBAS ) after stereological quantification. However, the identification and discrimination of basophilic cells may be a difficult issue, even for a trained operator, especially when, in circumstances of environmental stress, basophilic cells lose their basophilia and the perinuclear area of digestive cells gains basophilia...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Pablo Valverde-Garcia, Cándido Santiago-Alvarez, Matthew B Thomas, Elizabeth A A Maranhão, Inmaculada Garrido-Jurado, Enrique Quesada-Moraga
The effects of single and mixed infections with Beauveria bassiana (EABb 90/2-Dm) and Metarhizium acridum (IMI 330189) strains on survival, feeding and reproduction of thermoregulating Dociostaurus maroccanus were evaluated. Adult locusts (2-3 days post fledging) were treated with low dosages of both fungal pathogens alone and in mixture (total dosage for single treatments and combinations = 1 × 102 and 1 × 103 spores per insect). M. acridum IMI 330189 was more virulent than B. bassiana EABb 90/2-Dm at both dosages...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Diana Medina Félix, Ángel Isidro Campa Córdova, José Antonio López Elías, Luis Rafael Martínez Córdova, Gudelia Figueroa Preciado, Edilmar Cortés Jacinto, Antonio Luna González, Fernando Mendoza Cano, Nolberta Huerta Aldaz
Carotenoid sources in shrimp diets have shown to be effective for improving survival, growth, reproductive capacity, stress resistance, and also for diminishing disease. Dunaliella sp. is known to have high levels of β-carotenes, which works as pro-vitamin A, enhancing the immune response in shrimp. However, the administration of Dunaliella sp. in shrimp diet needs to be evaluated to determine the appropriate dose and frequency of administration needed to optimize performance in cultured white shrimp. Diets with three different concentrations of Dunaliella sp...
December 23, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Renato J Horikoshi, Oderlei Bernardi, Fernando S de A E Amaral, Leonardo L Miraldo, Mariana R Durigan, Daniel Bernardi, Sandy S Silva, Celso Omoto
The resistance of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in maize in Brazil. Here, we investigate the cross-resistance to Bt-insecticide XenTari in selected fall armyworm strains resistant to Bt maize varieties. The LC50 of XenTari in neonates of resistant strains ranged from 0.28 to 0.68 µg a.i./cm2 , while for the susceptible reference strain (Sus), LC50 was 0.21 µg a.i./cm2 . This indicated a resistance ratio lower than 3...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
T Steele, S Bjørnson
Two species of microsporidia have been described from lady beetles that are commercially available for biological control: Nosema adaliae from the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L., and Tubulinosema hippodamiae from the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville. These pathogens delay larval development under controlled conditions, but little is known regarding the effects that microsporidia cause when their hosts are subjected to stressful conditions that are often experienced in nature...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Anne Dalmon, Mathilde Peruzzi, Yves Le Conte, Cedric Alaux, Maryline Pioz
Many of the physiological traits in insects are shaped by environmental temperatures, which can influence their interactions with pathogens. Therefore, quantifying the thermal responses of the host-pathogen system is crucial for better understanding and predicting their dynamics due to environmental changes. This is particularly important in honey bees, which are experiencing severe colony losses around the world, notably due to infection with the Deformed wing virus (DWV). To investigate the influence of temperature on the honey bee/DWV relationship we exposed adult bees to low or high temperatures and determined the effects on viral titers and bee survival...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Andreas Larem, Eva Fritsch, Karin Undorf-Spahn, Regina G Kleespies, Johannes A Jehle
An antagonistic effect of a microsporidium (Nosema sp.) infection on the virulence of Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus (PhopGV) was recorded in potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) larvae with mixed infections. When the P. operculella colony was infected at a high rate (42.8-100%) with the microsporidium, it was less susceptible to the isolate PhopGV-GR1.1. A virus concentration 1.89 x 105 higher was necessary to cause the same level of mortality produced in the P. operculella colony when it was uninfected or had a low level of infection with the microsporidium (0-30%)...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ceren Eroglu, Harun Cimen, Derya Ulug, Mehmet Karagoz, Selcuk Hazir, Ibrahim Cakmak
The effects of secondary metabolites produced by the following symbiotic bacteria, Xenorhabdus szentirmaii, X. nematophila, X. bovienii, X. cabanillasii, Photorhabdus luminescens and P. temperata, associated with entomopathogenic nematodes, were investigated against various developmental stages of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) using cell-free bacterial supernatants in Petri dishes. In addition, the effects of the most active bacterial supernatant(s) found in Petri dish experiments were tested on T...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Sudarshan K Aryal, Dihong Lu, Kathleen Le, Lauren Allison, Carter Gerke, Adler R Dillman
The entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci, a specialist parasite of crickets, has been successfully used to combat the southern mole cricket, Neoscapteriscus borellii, which is an invasive pest of turf grass. As an entomopathogenic nematode, S. scapterisci causes rapid death of the insects it infects and uses bacteria to facilitate its parasitism. However, our understanding of the relative contributions of the nematode, S. scapterisci, and its bacterial symbiont, Xenorhabdus innexi, to parasitism remains limited...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Velayudhan Satheeja Santhi, Liora Salame, Hussein Muklada, Hassan Azaizeh, Manal Haj-Zaroubi, Safaa Awwad, Serge Yan Landau, Itamar Glazer
Insects show adaptive plasticity by ingesting plant secondary compounds, such as phenolic compounds, that are noxious to parasites. This work examined whether exposure to phenolic compounds affects the development of insect parasitic nematodes. As a model system for parasitic life cycle, we used Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida; Heterorhabditiade) grown with Photorhabdita luminescens supplemented with different concentrations of plant phenolic extracts (0, 600, 1200, 2400 ppm): a crude ethanol extract of lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus) or lentisk extract fractionated along a scale of hydrophobicity with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate; and flavonoids (myricetin, catechin), flavanol-glycoside (rutin) or phenolic acids (chlorogenic and gallic acids)...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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