Matsapume Detcharoen, Francis M Jiggins, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner, Florian M Steiner
Wolbachia are known to cause reproductive manipulations and in some arthropod species, Wolbachia were reported to cause changes in gut microbiome. However, the effects of Wolbachia bacteria on the microbiomes of their hosts, including Drosophila flies, have not been fully accessed. Here, we checked the bacterial microbiome in guts of Wolbachia-uninfected and of Wolbachia-infected Drosophila nigrosparsa, both separated into a bleach-only (embryos bleached) and a gnotobiotic (embryos bleached and inoculated with bacteria) treatment...
March 21, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Arturo Miranda-Calixto, Octavio Loera-Corral, Marcos López-Pérez, Francisco Figueroa-Martínez
Tebuconazole (TEB) is a fungicide widely used in agriculture; however, its constant application has increased the emergence of resistant plant pathogenic fungal strains and reduced the effectiveness of fungi as biological control agents; for instance, the entomopathogenic and hyperparasitic fungus Akanthomyces lecanii, suitable for simultaneous biological control of insect pest and plant pathogenic fungi, is highly sensitive to fungicides. We carried out the induction of resistance to TEB in two wild type strains of A...
March 21, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Aleksei A Miroliubov, Anastasia D Lianguzova, Darya Y Krupenko, Georgii A Kremnev, Irina C Enshina
Cancer-like neoplasms are extremely rarely present in arthropods, particularly in crustaceans. Thus, it is assumed that these animals have some efficient cancer-preventing mechanisms. However, several cases of cancer-like neoplasms are described in crustaceans, though only for the Decapoda. We identified a tumor in the parasitic barnacle Peltogaster paguri (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala), and described its histological structure. A spherical cell mass, consisting mostly of roundish cells with big translucent nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and sparse chromatin, and of cells with condensed chromosomes, was found in the main trunk of the P...
March 18, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ubaid Qayoom, P Gireesh-Babu, Gulshan Kumar, Aparna Chaudhari
White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) continues to cause considerable loss to shrimp farmers globally with frequent outbreaks even in specific pathogen free Peneaus vannamei. Our studies showed that the bodyweight (BW) of PL has a bearing on their susceptibility to the virus. To test this hypothesis, PL of the same age group and family were grouped according to BW (10-20, 30-40, and 50-60 mg) and challenged through immersion route with two viral doses (106 and 107 virus copies/L of water). It was observed that the PL became susceptible to WSSV at ≥50 mg BW...
March 14, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ignacio Vicente-Díez, Alicia Pou, Raquel Campos-Herrera
The grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a critical pest for vineyards and causes significant economic losses in wine-growing areas worldwide. Identifying and developing novel semiochemical cues (e.g. volatile bacterial compounds) which modify the ovipositional and trophic behaviour of L. botrana in vineyard fields could be a novel control alternative in organic viticulture. Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp. are becoming one of the best-studied bacterial species due to their potential interest in producing toxins and deterrent factors...
March 13, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Wan Muhammad Hazim Wan Sajiri, Kua Beng Chu, Muhammad Hafiz Borkhanuddin
Infection by the microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) has become a significant problem in the shrimp cultivation industry in Asian countries like Thailand, China, India, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Malaysia. The outbreak of this microsporidian parasite is predominantly related to the existence of macrofauna-carriers of EHP. However, information about potential macrofauna-carriers of EHP in rearing ponds is still limited. In this study, the screening of EHP in potential macrofauna-carriers was conducted in farming ponds of Penaeus vannamei in three states in Malaysia, namely Penang, Kedah, and Johor...
March 6, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Hongwei Liu, Mark A Hall, Laura E Brettell, Juntao Wang, Megan Halcroft, Scott Nacko, Robert Spooner-Hart, James M Cook, Markus Riegler, Brajesh Singh
Stingless bees are important social corbiculate bees, fulfilling critical pollination roles in many ecosystems. However, their gut microbiota, particularly the fungal communities associated with them, remains inadequately characterised. This knowledge gap hinders our understanding of bee gut microbiomes and their impacts on the host fitness. We collected 121 samples from two species, Tetragonula carbonaria and Austroplebeia australis across 1,200 km of eastern Australia. We characterised their gut microbiomes and investigated potential correlations between bee gut microbiomes and various geographical and morphological factors...
March 6, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Jamie Bojko, Antonella Frizzera, Nuria Vázquez, Gillian Taylor, Vikki Rand, Florencia Cremonte
Carcinus spp. are global aquatic invaders and carriers of several parasites, including a taxonomically unrecognised microsporidian recently observed from Argentina. We provide genome drafts for two parasite isolates, one from Carcinus maenas and one from Carcinus aestuarii, and use multi-gene phylogenetics and genome comparison methods to outline their similarities. Their SSU genes are 100% similar and other genes have an average similarity of 99.31%. We informally name the parasite Agmasoma carcini, terming the isolates Ac...
March 4, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Yabin Dou, Leiting Zhang, Hui Shen, Sheng Zhang, Xiaohui Cao, Yi Qiao, Ge Jiang, Jie Cheng, Xihe Wan, Xianping Fan, Hui Li, Libao Wang, Wenjun Shi, Yali Qin, Xiaoman Sun
Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), an obligate intracellular parasite classified as microsporidia, is an emerging pathogen with a significant impact on the global shrimp aquaculture industry. The understanding of how microsporidia germinate has been a key factor in exploring its infection process. However, the germination process of EHP was rarely reported. To gain insight into the germination process, we conducted a high-throughput sequencing analysis of purified EHP spores that had undergone in vitro germination treatment...
February 16, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ausrine Sabockyte, Samuel McAllister, Christopher J Coates, Jenson Lim
For humans, acute and chronic overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause tissue damage in the form of sunburn and promote cancer(s). The immune-modulating properties of UV radiation and health-related consequences are not well known. Herein, we used the larvae of the wax moth (Galleria mellonella) to determine UV-driven changes in cellular components of innate immunity. From immune cell (haemocyte) reactivity and the production of antimicrobial factors, these insects share many functional similarities with mammalian cellular innate immunity...
February 15, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Nathália A Sousa, Juscelino Rodrigues, Christian Luz, Richard A Humber
Aedes aegypti, an important vector of viral diseases affecting humans in the tropics, generally oviposits just above the water line of small artificial bodies of water. Within the first hours after being deposited eggs are highly susceptible to desiccation, and the chorion undergoes profound processes of sclerotization. Most uneclosed eggs remain viable for months, and their susceptibility to entomopathogenic fungi turns them into reasonable targets for focal control strategies. This study explored the sensitivity of newly deposited eggs to Metarhizium humberi IP 46 conidia...
February 15, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Jianyang Bai, Zhe Xu, Lu Li, Yue Zhang, Jian Diao, Jingyu Cao, Letian Xu, Ling Ma
The gut bacterial microbiota of insects has been shown to play essential roles in processes related to physiology, metabolism, and innate immunity. In this study, we firstly performed a broad analysis of the gut bacteria in Lymantria dispar asiatica, one of the most devastating forestry defoliators. We analyzed the bacterial composition among different individuals from lab-reared or wild-collected using 16 s rRNA-sequencing, revealing that the gut bacteria of wild-collected larvae were highly diverse, while lab-reared larvae were only associated with a few genera...
February 15, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Robbie Rae
Avoidance of pathogens and parasites is the first line of defense to survive. Several slug species avoid the parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita to reduce infection however, there is nothing known about whether slugs avoid other members of the Phasmarhabditis genus. I exposed two slug species (Deroceras invadens and Limax maculatus) to Phasmarhabditis californica and P. neopapillosa. D. invadens avoided P. californica but was strangely attracted to P. neopapillosa. L. maculatus did not avoid P...
February 7, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Jiaobing Li, Yan Wang, Jingjie Hu, Zhenmin Bao, Mengqiang Wang
Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is a kind of microsporidian parasite belonging to fungi, and poses a serious threat to prawn farmers. Due to the lack of effective treatments for EHP, the establishment of a rapid and sensitive detection method would be beneficial to the control and prevention of this prawn parasitic disease. In this study, an isothermal enzymatic recombinase amplification (EHP-ERA) assay that could diagnose EHP within 20 min at 42 °C was developed and evaluated. The determined final concentrations of primers and probe in the reaction system were 400 nM and 120 nM, respectively...
February 6, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Cybèle Prigot-Maurice, Baptiste Lheraud, Samuel Guéritault, Sophie Beltran-Bech, Richard Cordaux, Jean Peccoud, Christine Braquart-Varnier
Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts provide protection against pathogens in various arthropod species but the underlying mechanisms remain misunderstood. By using a natural Wolbachia nuclear insert (f-element) in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare, we explored whether Wolbachia presence is mandatory to observe protection in this species or the presence of its genes is sufficient. We assessed survival of closely related females carrying or lacking the f-element (and lacking Wolbachia) challenged with the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica...
February 6, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Giulia Godina, Bart Vandenbossche, Maja Schmidt, Aviel Sender, Akwo Hanson Tambe, Maria Touceda-González, Ralf-Udo Ehlers
Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is one of the largest crops in Europe and the cabbage stem flea beetle Psylliodes chrysocephala is one of its major pests. Since the ban of neonicotinoids for seed treatment, farmers apply pyrethroids in autumn to control the cabbage stem flea beetle. Current studies show that the insect develops resistance to this group of chemicals. Biological control with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) represent a possible, environmentally friendly alternative control measure. In the present work, we considered three strategies to control the cabbage stem flea beetle: applying the nematodes against the first larval stage in the soil, against the second and third larval stages inside the plant or against the adult beetles...
February 6, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Hao Wu, Youmin Tong, Cuiming Wang, Yashuai Yu, Mingyue Chen, Yulong Wang, Xiaojuan Li, Bo Huang
Pigments of conidia play a crucial role in fungal defense against environmental stressors such as UV radiation. The molecular basis of conidial pigmentation has been studied in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii, while limited information been reported on function mechanisms transcription factors governing conidial pigmentation. Here, we identified transcription factor MrAbaA binding to the promoter regions of both MrPks1 and MrMlac1 in M. robertsii using yeast one-hybrid technology. Chromatin immunoprecipitation quantitative PCR assays further confirmed the interaction...
January 28, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Gian Paolo Barzanti, Jürg Enkerli, Claudia Benvenuti, Agostino Strangi, Giuseppe Mazza, Giulia Torrini, Stefania Simoncini, Francesco Paoli, Leonardo Marianelli
The natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) was investigated along the Ticino River (Ticino River Natural Park, Novara Province, Piedmont, Italy), at the center of the area of the first settlement of the invasive alien pest Popillia japonica. Using Zimmermann's "Galleria bait method", EPF were successfully isolated from 83 out of 155 soil samples from different habitats (perennial, cultivated, or uncultivated meadows, woodlands, and riverbanks). Sequencing of the 5' end of the Translation Elongation Factor 1 alfa (5'-TEF) region allowed the assignment of 94% of the isolates to Metarhizium spp...
January 27, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Agostina Giacobino, Camila Miotti, Ana Molineri, Emanuel Orellano, Marcelo Signorini, Adriana Pacini
Infestation with Varroa destructor compromises the survival of Apis mellifera colonies, especially during the winter season. In order to prevent colony losses due to the presence of Varroa mites, determination of the infestation level and the application of autumn treatment is highly recommended. However, autumn reinvasion by inter-apiary and intra-apiary horizontal transmission might threaten the control strategies. Drivers like the infestation level of untreated colonies, the presence of bee brood during late autumn and the colonies disposition within the apiary might explain at least partially the re-invasion rates of treated colonies during autumn and winter...
January 25, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Víctor Manuel Arévalo Rojas, Natasha Sant Anna Iwanicki, Celeste Paola D'Alessandro, Maíra Blumer Fatoretto, Clarice Garcia Borges Demétrio, Italo Delalibera
Cordyceps fumosorosea is an entomopathogenic fungus with a global distribution and is used for the biological control of agricultural pests. High conidial productivity and tolerance to abiotic stresses such as elevated temperature and ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) are desired characteristics in candidate isolates for commercial products. Our goal in this study was to characterize promising isolates of C. fumosorosea from five Brazilian biomes regarding conidial production, tolerance to UV-B, and elevated temperature (45°)...
January 18, 2023: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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