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British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology

Wenchao Ma, Wenjing Guo
Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) have been used as psychometric tools in educational assessments to estimate students' proficiency profiles. However, most CDMs assume that all students adopt the same strategy when approaching problems in an assessment, which may not be the case in practice. This study develops a generalized multiple-strategy CDM for dichotomous response data. The proposed model provides a unified framework to accommodate various condensation rules (e.g., conjunctive, disjunctive, and additive) and different strategy selection approaches (i...
February 12, 2019: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Christof Schuster, Dirk Lubbe
Although a statistical model might fit well to a large proportion of the individuals of a random sample, some individuals might give 'unusual' responses that are not well explained by the hypothesized model. If individual responses are given as continuous response vectors, M-distances can be used to produce real valued indicators of how well an individual's response vector corresponds to a covariance structure implied by a psychometric model. In this note, we focus on the so-called one-factor model. Two M-distances, dsi and dri , which are sensitive to different aspects of the assumed factor model, have been proposed...
February 12, 2019: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Thorsten Meiser, Hansjörg Plieninger, Mirka Henninger
IRTree models decompose observed rating responses into sequences of theory-based decision nodes, and they provide a flexible framework for analysing trait-related judgements and response styles. However, most previous applications of IRTree models have been limited to binary decision nodes that reflect qualitatively distinct and unidimensional judgement processes. The present research extends the family of IRTree models for the analysis of response styles to ordinal judgement processes for polytomous decisions and to multidimensional parametrizations of decision nodes...
February 12, 2019: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Wenchao Ma, Jimmy de la Torre
As a core component of most cognitive diagnosis models, the Q-matrix, or item and attribute association matrix, is typically developed by domain experts, and tends to be subjective. It is critical to validate the Q-matrix empirically because a misspecified Q-matrix could result in erroneous attribute estimation. Most existing Q-matrix validation procedures are developed for dichotomous responses. However, in this paper, we propose a method to empirically detect and correct the misspecifications in the Q-matrix for graded response data based on the sequential generalized deterministic inputs, noisy 'and' gate (G-DINA) model...
February 5, 2019: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Jana Mahlke, Martin Schultze, Michael Eid
When multisource feedback instruments, for example, 360-degree feedback tools, are validated, multilevel structural equation models are the method of choice to quantify the amount of reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. A non-standard multilevel structural equation model that incorporates self-ratings (level-2 variables) and others' ratings from different additional perspectives (level-1 variables), for example, peers and subordinates, has recently been presented. In a Monte Carlo simulation study, we determine the minimal required sample sizes for this model...
January 29, 2019: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Siliang Zhang, Yunxiao Chen, Yang Liu
In this paper, we explore the use of the stochastic EM algorithm (Celeux & Diebolt (1985) Computational Statistics Quarterly, 2, 73) for large-scale full-information item factor analysis. Innovations have been made on its implementation, including an adaptive-rejection-based Gibbs sampler for the stochastic E step, a proximal gradient descent algorithm for the optimization in the M step, and diagnostic procedures for determining the burn-in size and the stopping of the algorithm. These developments are based on the theoretical results of Nielsen (2000, Bernoulli, 6, 457), as well as advanced sampling and optimization techniques...
December 3, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Qian Zhang, Ke-Hai Yuan, Lijuan Wang
Moderation analysis is useful for addressing interesting research questions in social sciences and behavioural research. In practice, moderated multiple regression (MMR) models have been most widely used. However, missing data pose a challenge, mainly because the interaction term is a product of two or more variables and thus is a non-linear function of the involved variables. Normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood (NML) has been proposed and applied for estimating MMR models with incomplete data. When data are missing completely at random, moderation effect estimates are consistent...
November 25, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Gwowen Shieh
The reporting and interpretation of effect size estimates are widely advocated in many academic journals of psychology and related disciplines. However, such concern has not been adequately addressed for analyses involving interactions between categorical and continuous variables. For the purpose of improving current practice, this article presents fundamental features and theoretical developments for the variance of standardized slopes as a desirable standardized effect size measure for the degree of disparity between several slope coefficients...
November 23, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Rand R Wilcox
A well-known concern regarding the usual linear regression model is multicollinearity. As the strength of the association among the independent variables increases, the squared standard error of regression estimators tends to increase, which can seriously impact power. This paper examines heteroscedastic methods for dealing with this issue when testing the hypothesis that all of the slope parameters are equal to zero via a robust ridge estimator that guards against outliers among the dependent variable. Included are results related to leverage points, meaning outliers among the independent variables...
November 23, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Daniel W Heck
The Savage-Dickey density ratio is a simple method for computing the Bayes factor for an equality constraint on one or more parameters of a statistical model. In regression analysis, this includes the important scenario of testing whether one or more of the covariates have an effect on the dependent variable. However, the Savage-Dickey ratio only provides the correct Bayes factor if the prior distribution of the nuisance parameters under the nested model is identical to the conditional prior under the full model given the equality constraint...
November 19, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Paul-Christian Bürkner, Rainer Schwabe, Heinz Holling
Analysing ordinal data is becoming increasingly important in psychology, especially in the context of item response theory. The generalized partial credit model (GPCM) is probably the most widely used ordinal model and has found application in many large-scale educational assessment studies such as PISA. In the present paper, optimal test designs are investigated for estimating persons' abilities with the GPCM for calibrated tests when item parameters are known from previous studies. We find that local optimality may be achieved by assigning non-zero probability only to the first and last categories independently of a person's ability...
November 19, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Ken A Fujimoto
Many item response theory (IRT) models take a multidimensional perspective to deal with sources that induce local item dependence (LID), with these models often making an orthogonal assumption about the dimensional structure of the data. One reason for this assumption is because of the indeterminacy issue in estimating the correlations among the dimensions in structures often specified to deal with sources of LID (e.g., bifactor and two-tier structures), and the assumption usually goes untested. Unfortunately, the mere fact that assessing these correlations is a challenge for some estimation methods does not mean that data seen in practice support such orthogonal structure...
November 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Hyeon-Ah Kang, Ya-Hui Su, Hua-Hua Chang
A monotone relationship between a true score (τ) and a latent trait level (θ) has been a key assumption for many psychometric applications. The monotonicity property in dichotomous response models is evident as a result of a transformation via a test characteristic curve. Monotonicity in polytomous models, in contrast, is not immediately obvious because item response functions are determined by a set of response category curves, which are conceivably non-monotonic in θ. The purpose of the present note is to demonstrate strict monotonicity in ordered polytomous item response models...
November 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Po-Hsien Huang
In the past two decades, statistical modelling with sparsity has become an active research topic in the fields of statistics and machine learning. Recently, Huang, Chen and Weng (2017, Psychometrika, 82, 329) and Jacobucci, Grimm, and McArdle (2016, Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 23, 555) both proposed sparse estimation methods for structural equation modelling (SEM). These methods, however, are restricted to performing single-group analysis. The aim of the present work is to establish a penalized likelihood (PL) method for multi-group SEM...
November 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Fien Gistelinck, Tom Loeys, Mieke Decuyper, Marieke Dewitte
When considering dyadic data, one of the questions is whether the roles of the two dyad members can be considered equal. This question may be answered empirically using indistinguishability tests in the actor-partner interdependence model. In this paper several issues related to such indistinguishability tests are discussed: the difference between maximum likelihood and restricted maximum likelihood based tests for equality in variance parameters; the choice between the structural equation modelling and multilevel modelling framework; and the use of sequential testing rather than one global test for a set of indistinguishability tests...
November 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Oscar L Olvera Astivia, Bruno D Zumbo
The Fleishman third-order polynomial algorithm is one of the most-often used non-normal data-generating methods in Monte Carlo simulations. At the crux of the Fleishman method is the solution of a non-linear system of equations needed to obtain the constants to transform data from normality to non-normality. A rarely acknowledged fact in the literature is that the solution to this system is not unique, and it is currently unknown what influence the different types of solutions have on the computer-generated data...
November 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
R Philip Chalmers
An efficient and accurate numerical approximation methodology useful for obtaining the observed information matrix and subsequent asymptotic covariance matrix when fitting models with the EM algorithm is presented. The numerical approximation approach is compared to existing algorithms intended for the same purpose, and the computational benefits and accuracy of this new approach are highlighted. Instructive and real-world examples are included to demonstrate the methodology concretely, properties of the estimator are discussed in detail, and a Monte Carlo simulation study is included to investigate the behaviour of a multi-parameter item response theory model using three competing finite-difference algorithms...
November 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Jenő Reiczigel, Márton Ispány, Gábor Tusnády, György Michaletzky, Marco Marozzi
Rudas, Clogg, and Lindsay (1994, J. R Stat Soc. Ser. B, 56, 623) introduced the so-called mixture index of fit, also known as pi-star (π*), for quantifying the goodness of fit of a model. It is the lowest proportion of 'contamination' which, if removed from the population or from the sample, makes the fit of the model perfect. The mixture index of fit has been widely used in psychometric studies. We show that the asymptotic confidence limits proposed by Rudas et al. (1994, J. R Stat Soc. Ser. B, 56, 623) as well as the jackknife confidence interval by Dayton (, Br...
November 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Herbert Hoijtink, Xin Gu, Joris Mulder
The software package Bain can be used for the evaluation of informative hypotheses with respect to the parameters of a wide range of statistical models. For pairs of hypotheses the support in the data is quantified using the approximate adjusted fractional Bayes factor (BF). Currently, the data have to come from one population or have to consist of samples of equal size obtained from multiple populations. If samples of unequal size are obtained from multiple populations, the BF can be shown to be inconsistent...
October 21, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
Marie-Ann Sengewald, Peter M Steiner, Steffi Pohl
The average causal treatment effect (ATE) can be estimated from observational data based on covariate adjustment. Even if all confounding covariates are observed, they might not necessarily be reliably measured and may fail to obtain an unbiased ATE estimate. Instead of fallible covariates, the respective latent covariates can be used for covariate adjustment. But is it always necessary to use latent covariates? How well do analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) or propensity score (PS) methods estimate the ATE when latent covariates are used? We first analytically delineate the conditions under which latent instead of fallible covariates are necessary to obtain the ATE...
October 21, 2018: British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology
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