Cuong Viet Nguyen, Tung Duc Phung
This study assesses the impact of financial incentives on hygienic latrine ownership by poor/near-poor households in Vietnam. Rural communes were randomly assigned to a control group and three treatment arm groups: (T1) a rebate for households that installed a hygienic latrine; (T2) a financial reward for commune governments if the proportion of hygienic latrines in their commune increased by 30 percentage points; (T3) both a household rebate and a commune reward. We find a strong and positive effect from the household rebate (treatment arms 1 and 3) but an insignificant effect from the commune reward (treatment arm 2) on household ownership of a septic tank latrine...
July 7, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Margarita Petrusevich
Alcohol control policies are implemented to reduce alcoholism and related harms around the globe. This work examines the effects of a policy that restricted when alcohol could be purchased on child outcomes in Russia. To identify causal impacts, I exploit variation in the timing and severity of the restriction, which was implemented in Russian states between 2005 and 2010. Utilizing household survey data and a difference-in-differences estimation approach, I find that the policy has improved children's physical health, with younger children being more affected, and additionally has decreased a variety of risky behavior indicators...
June 26, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Miriam Gensowski, Mette Gørtz
Is the education-health gradient inflated because both education and health are associated with unobserved socio-emotional skills? We find that the gradient in health behaviors and outcomes is reduced by about 15 to 50% from accounting for fine-grained personality facets and up to another 50% from Locus of Control. Traditional aggregated Big-Five scales, however, have a much smaller contribution to the gradient. We use sibling-fixed effects to net out the contribution from genes and shared childhood environment, decomposing the gradient into its components with an order-invariant method...
June 19, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Amanda R Kreider, Timothy J Layton, Mark Shepard, Jacob Wallace
Health plans for the poor increasingly limit access to specialty hospitals. We investigate the role of adverse selection in generating this equilibrium among private plans in Medicaid. Studying a network change, we find that covering a top cancer hospital causes severe adverse selection, increasing demand for a plan by 50% among enrollees with cancer versus no impact for others. Medicaid's fixed insurer payments make offsetting this selection, and the contract distortions it induces, challenging, requiring either infeasibly high payment rates or near-perfect risk adjustment...
June 6, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Michael R Richards, Christopher M Whaley
Private equity is an increasing presence in US healthcare, with unclear consequences. Leveraging unique data sources and difference-in-differences designs, we examine the largest private equity hospital takeover in history. The affected hospital chain sharply shifts its advertising strategy and pursues joint ventures with ambulatory surgery centers. Inpatient throughput is increased by allowing more patient transfers, and crucially, capturing more patients through the emergency department. The hospitals also manage shorter, less treatment-intensive stays for admitted patients...
May 29, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Jan Boone, Minke Remmerswaal
Demand-side cost-sharing reduces moral hazard in healthcare but increases exposure to out-of-pocket expenditure. We introduce a structural microsimulation model to evaluate both total and out-of-pocket expenditure for different cost-sharing schemes. We use a Bayesian mixture model to capture the healthcare expenditure distributions across different age-gender categories. We estimate the model using Dutch data and simulate outcomes for a number of policies. The model suggests that for a deductible of 300 euros shifting the starting point of the deductible away from zero to 400 euros leads to an average 4% reduction in healthcare expenditure and 47% lower out-of-pocket payments...
May 27, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Melissa Newham, Marica Valente
This paper investigates the influence of gifts - monetary and in-kind payments - from drug firms to US physicians on prescription behavior and drug costs. Using causal models and machine learning, we estimate physicians' heterogeneous responses to payments on antidiabetic prescriptions. We find that payments lead to increased prescription of brand drugs, resulting in a cost rise of $23 per dollar value of transfer received. Paid physicians show higher responses when they treat higher proportions of patients receiving a government-funded low-income subsidy that lowers out-of-pocket drug costs...
May 8, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Kristian S Hansen, Juan D Moreno-Ternero, Lars P Østerdal
We develop a unified framework for the measurement and valuation of health and productivity. Within this framework, we characterize evaluation functions allowing for compromises between the classical quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and its polar productivity-adjusted life years (PALYs). Our framework and characterization results provide a new normative basis for the economic evaluation of health care interventions, as well as occupational health and safety policies, aimed to impact both health and productivity of individuals...
April 29, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Jiayi Wen, Haili Huang
This study examines the gender-specific and enduring impacts of parental health shocks on adult children's employment in China, where both formal care and health insurance are limited. Using an event-study approach, we establish a causal link between parental health shocks and a notable decline in female employment, which persists for at least six years following the shock. Male employment, however, exhibits minimal change on average, although this conceals an increase among poor families, indicating a channel beyond heightened informal care...
April 29, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Thiemo Fetzer, Christopher Rauh, Clara Schreiner
Seasonal infectious diseases can cause demand and supply pressures that reduce the ability of healthcare systems to provide high-quality care. This may generate negative spillover effects on the health outcomes of patients seeking medical help for unrelated reasons. Separating these indirect burdens from the direct consequences for infected patients is usually impossible due to a lack of suitable data and an absence of population testing. However, this paper finds robust empirical evidence of excess mortality among non-COVID-19 patients in an integrated public healthcare system: the English National Health Service (NHS)...
April 20, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Stephenson Strobel
Healthcare is often free at the point-of-care so that price does not deter patients. However, the dis-utility from waiting for care that often occurs could also lead to deterrence. I investigate responses in the volume and types of patients that demand emergency care when predicted waiting times quasi-randomly change. I leverage a discontinuity to compare emergency sites with similar predicted wait times but with different apparent wait times displayed to patients. I use impulse response functions estimated by local projections to estimate effects of predicted wait times on patient demand for care...
June 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Alex Armand, Britta Augsburg, Antonella Bancalari, Kalyan Kumar Kameshwara
We investigate how religion concordance influences the effectiveness of preventive health campaigns. Conducted during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in two major Indian cities marked by Hindu-Muslim tensions, we randomly assigned a representative sample of slum residents to receive either a physician-delivered information campaign promoting health-related preventive practices, or uninformative control messages on their mobile phones. Messages, introduced by a local citizen (the sender), were cross-randomized to start with a greeting signaling either a Hindu or a Muslim identity, manipulating religion concordance between sender and receiver...
June 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Stephen O'Neill, Richard Grieve, Kultar Singh, Varun Dutt, Timothy Powell-Jackson
Childhood vaccinations are among the most cost-effective health interventions. Yet, in India, where immunisation services are widely available free of charge, a substantial proportion of children remain unvaccinated. We revisit households 30 months after a randomised experiment of a health information intervention designed to educate mothers on the benefits of child vaccination in Uttar Pradesh, India. We find that the large short-term effects on the uptake of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus and measles vaccination were sustained at 30 months, suggesting the intervention did not simply bring forward vaccinations...
June 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Priyanka Anand, Lisa B Kahn
We examine whether a friend or older sibling's teen pregnancy impacts one's own sexual behavior. Employing an event study design and rich retrospective data on sexual activity, we find that those who observe a peer's teen pregnancy change sexual behavior after the pregnancy ends to put themselves at lower risk of their own teen pregnancy; specifically, they are less likely to have unprotected sex and have fewer sexual partners in the year following the end of the teen pregnancy. We find that females are more likely to change their sexual behavior compared to males, and the effects are primarily driven by peer live births, as opposed to other pregnancies...
June 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Thorben Korfhage, Björn Fischer-Weckemann
We estimate a dynamic structural model of labor supply, retirement, and informal caregiving to study short and long-term costs of informal caregiving in Germany. Incorporating labor market frictions and the German tax and benefit system, we find that in the absence of Germany's public long-term insurance scheme, informal elderly care has adverse and persistent effects on labor market outcomes and, thus, negatively affects lifetime earnings and future pension benefits. These consequences of caregiving are heterogeneous and depend on age, previous earnings, and institutional regulations...
June 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Hoa Vu, Tiffany L Green, Laura E T Swan
Prior research has found that a high level of residential racial segregation, or the degree to which racial/ethnic groups are isolated from one another, is associated with worsened infant health outcomes, particularly among non-Hispanic (NH) Black infant populations. However, because exposure to segregation is non-random, it is unclear whether and to what extent segregation is causally linked to infant health. To overcome this empirical limitation, we leverage exogenous variation in the placement of railroad tracks in the 19th century to predict contemporary segregation, an approach first introduced by Ananat (2011)...
May 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Igor Francetic, Rachel Meacock, Matt Sutton
Unexpected peaks in volumes of attendances at hospital emergency departments (EDs) have been found to affect waiting times, intensity of care and outcomes. We ask whether these effects of ED crowding on patients are caused by poor clinical prioritisation or a quality-quantity trade-off generated by a binding capacity constraint. We study the effects of crowding created by lower-severity patients on the outcomes of approximately 13 million higher-severity patients attending the 140 public EDs in England between April 2016 and March 2017...
April 10, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Zack Cooper, Amanda Kowalski, Eleanor Neff Powell, Jennifer D Wu
This paper analyzes the interplay between congressional politics, the actions of the executive branch, and hospitals' regulated Medicare payments. We focus on the 2003 Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) and analyze a provision in the law - Section 508 - that raised certain hospitals' regulated payments. We show, via our analysis of the Section 508 program, that Medicare payments are malleable and can be influenced by political dynamics. In the cross-section, hospitals represented by members of Congress who voted "yea" on the MMA were more likely to receive Section 508 payment increases...
April 4, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Rahi Abouk, Prabal K De, Michael F Pesko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
Kurt R Brekke, Luigi Siciliani, Odd Rune Straume
Integration of health care services has been promoted in several countries to improve the quality and coordination of care. We investigate the effects of such integration in a model where providers compete on quality to attract patients under regulated prices. We identify countervailing effects of integration on quality of care. While integration makes coordination of care more profitable for providers due to bundled payments, it also softens competition as patient choice is restricted. We also identify circumstances due to asymmetries across providers and/or services under which integration either increases or reduces the quality of services provided...
March 28, 2024: Journal of Health Economics
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