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Gait & Posture

Olivia J Surgent, Olga I Dadalko, Kristen A Pickett, Brittany G Travers
BACKGROUND: Balance challenges are associated with not only the aging process but also a wide variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. However, relatively little is known regarding the neural basis of balance and the effects of balance interventions on the brain. RESEARCH QUESTION: This review synthesizes the existing literature to answer the question: What are the key brain structures associated with balance? METHODS: This review examined 37 studies that assessed brain structures in relation to balance assessment or intervention...
May 6, 2019: Gait & Posture
Shiva Sharif Bidabadi, Iain Murray, Gabriel Yin Foo Lee, Susan Morris, Tele Tan
BACKGROUND: Recently, the study of walking gait has received significant attention due to the importance of identifying disorders relating to gait patterns. Characterisation and classification of different common gait disorders such as foot drop in an effective and accurate manner can lead to improved diagnosis, prognosis assessment, and treatment. However, currently visual inspection is the main clinical method to evaluate gait disorders, which is reliant on the subjectivity of the observer, leading to inaccuracies...
May 4, 2019: Gait & Posture
Kuan-Wen Wu, Jia-Da Li, Hsing-Po Huang, Yen-Hung Liu, Ting-Ming Wang, Ya-Ting Ho, Tung-Wu Lu
INTRODUCTION: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common three-dimensional spinal deformity pathology during adolescence, often accompanied with sensory integration and proprioception problems, which may lead to abnormal postural control and altered end-point control during functional activities. This paper identifies the effects of AIS on the end-point control and on angular kinematics of the trunk and pelvis-leg apparatus during obstacle-crossing for both the concave- and convex-side limb leading...
May 3, 2019: Gait & Posture
Hiroki Tanaka, Manabu Nankaku, Toru Nishikawa, Takuya Hosoe, Honami Yonezawa, Hiroki Mori, Takayuki Kikuchi, Hidehisa Nishi, Yasushi Takagi, Susumu Miyamoto, Ryosuke Ikeguchi, Shuichi Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Robotic rehabilitation has been attracting attention as a means to carry out "intensive", "repetitive", "task-specific", gait training. The newly developed robotic device, the Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL), is thought to have the possibility of having an excellent effect on gait speed improvement over the conventional automatic programed assist robot. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics related to gait speed improvement using the HAL in chronic stroke patients...
May 3, 2019: Gait & Posture
Vicki L Gray, Chieh-Ling Yang, Masahiro Fujimoto, Sandy McCombe Waller, Mark W Rogers
BACKGROUND: Stepping is critical for responding to perturbations, whether externally induced or self-initiated. Falls post-stroke is equally likely to happen from either mechanism. The objective of the study was, to examine lateral stepping performance during waist-pull induced reactive steps and voluntary choice reaction time steps in chronic stroke and controls. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study participants with chronic stroke (N = 10) and age- and gender-matched controls (N = 10) performed reactive and voluntary lateral steps...
May 3, 2019: Gait & Posture
Elizabeth A Walshe, Richard A P Roche, Christina Ward, Matt Patterson, Desmond O'Neill, Ronan Collins, Seán Commins
BACKGROUND: Falls are a serious problem among stroke survivors due to subsequent injuries, recovery setbacks, dependence, and mortality. A growing body of dual-task (DT) studies suggests a role of executive functions in gait control and falls, particularly in subacute stroke. However, few studies have compared distinct executive and non-executive tasks, nor their effects on chronic stroke gait. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the effects of distinct working memory (2-back) and inhibition (Stroop) tasks on walking gait performance in chronic stroke survivors...
May 3, 2019: Gait & Posture
Mira Ambrus, Jose A Sanchez, Jose A Sanchez Miguel, Fernandez Del-Olmo
INTRODUCTION: The gait pattern in Parkinson´s disease (PD) subjects is characterized by a specific deficit of the internal regulation of the stride length (SL), while the control of the cadence (Cad) remains intact. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of the stride length-cadence relationship (SLCrel) in a group of PD subjects. METHODS: Thirty five PD subjects performed two sessions, separated by a three month resting period. In each session Gait speed, SL and Cad were evaluated at five different self-selected speed conditions: preferred, slow, very slow, fast and very fast...
May 3, 2019: Gait & Posture
Frank Berenpas, Alexander C Geurts, Jasper den Boer, Roos van Swigchem, Frans Nollet, Vivian Weerdesteyn
BACKGROUND: Implanted peroneal functional electrical stimulation (FES) is an effective alternative treatment to ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) in people with drop foot after stroke. With FES no constraints on ankle mobility are imposed which might particularly be exploited in challenging walking environments that require adaptations of the gait pattern to environmental disturbances. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is gait adaptability, by means of the capacity to avoid sudden obstacles while walking on a treadmill, superior with implanted FES compared to AFO in people with drop foot after stroke? METHODS: A 4-channel peroneal nerve stimulator (ActiGait®) was implanted in 22 persons with stroke (>6 months) who regularly used an AFO...
May 3, 2019: Gait & Posture
Shuyang Han, Ryan S Kim, Joshua D Harris, Philip C Noble
BACKGROUND: In treating patients with limitations of hip motion, it is generally assumed that correction of bony morphology will provide the patient with the joint motion required to resume their activities. However, the positions of impingement and the specific excursions of joint motion required by each sport may vary. This systematic review aimed to define the envelope of active hip joint motion for participation in different sporting, recreational, and daily-living activities. METHODS: The EMBASE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were searched to identify studies that reported kinematics of the hip in sporting, recreational, and daily-living activities...
May 2, 2019: Gait & Posture
Heather K Vincent, Christopher Massengill, Andrew Harris, Cong Chen, Joseph G Wasser, Michelle Bruner, Kevin R Vincent
BACKGROUND: Distance runners can approach long descents with slow cadence and long steps, or a fast cadence with shorter steps. These approaches differentially affect mechanical loading and energy demand. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study determined the cadence range in which biomechanical loads, caloric unit cost and energy cost were simultaneously minimized during downhill running (DR). METHODS: Trained runners (N = 40; 25.6 ± 7.2 yr; 42...
May 2, 2019: Gait & Posture
Steffen Ringhof, Andrea Arensmann, Thorsten Stein
BACKGROUND: Falls are common and serious events, which mostly occur during locomotion, that are associated with deficient dynamic balance. An experimental approach that simulates falling forward has become increasing popular to investigate dynamic balance. However, research has not been conducted to examine the test-retest reliability of this experimental approach. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the reliability of dynamic stability measures that are used for the assessment of balance recovery after forward loss of balance? METHODS: Nineteen healthy young adults (24...
May 1, 2019: Gait & Posture
Kelley M Kempski, Nicole T Ray, Brian A Knarr, Jill S Higginson
BACKGROUND: Overground locomotion exhibits greater movement variability and less dynamic stability compared to typical fixed-speed treadmill walking. To minimize the differences between treadmill and overground locomotion, researchers are developing user-driven treadmill systems that adjust the speed of the treadmill belts in real-time based on how fast the subject is trying to walk. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does dynamic structure of variability, quantified by the Lyapunov exponent (LyE), of joint angles and center of mass (COM) position differ between a fixed-speed treadmill (FTM) and user-driven treadmill (UTM) for healthy subjects? METHODS: Eleven healthy, adult subjects walked on a user-driven treadmill that updated its speed in real-time based on the subjects' propulsive forces, location, step length, and step time, and at a matched speed on a typical, fixed-speed treadmill for 1-minute...
May 1, 2019: Gait & Posture
Woohyoung Jeon, Jody L Jensen, Lisa Griffin
BACKGROUND: Rising from a sit to a stand has biomechanical factors that are dependent on initial foot position. Little is known about the effect of initial foot position on leg muscle activation patterns during a sit-to-stand and balance maintenance of stance after a sit-to-stand. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the effects of different symmetric and asymmetric initial foot positions on leg muscle activation patterns and balance during and after a sit-to-stand? METHODS: Three symmetric (neutral; both ankles positioned under the knees at a 90° flexion; one-third; and two-thirds foot length posterior to neutral) and three asymmetric (neutral non-dominant leg with one-third back dominant leg, neutral non-dominant with two-thirds back dominant leg, and one-third back non-dominant leg with two-thirds back dominant leg) initial foot positions were tested...
May 1, 2019: Gait & Posture
Rui Tsukagoshi, Mika Goto, Haruka Senoo, Riho Honda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2019: Gait & Posture
Harald Böhm, Claudia Oestreich, Roman Rethwilm, Peter Federolf, Leonhard Döderlein, Albert Fujak, Chakravarty U Dussa
INTRODUCTION: The paediatric flexible flatfoot constitutes the major cause of clinic visits for orthopaedic foot problems. It shows variations of deformities in different planes and locations of the foot and its indication for treatment have been extensively discussed. Despite its high prevalence there exists no classification of flatfeet during walking as a prerequisite for treatment decision. Therefore, the aim of this study is to classify flexible flatfeet based on 3D foot kinematics during walking...
April 26, 2019: Gait & Posture
Susannah M Engdahl, Deanna H Gates
BACKGROUND: Quantitative assessments of an individual's functional status commonly involve the use of movement quality metrics. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this work was to quantify the reliability of movement quality metrics in healthy adults during a variety of unconstrained activities of daily living (ADLs). METHODS: Nineteen participants performed six ADLs (lifting a laundry basket, applying deodorant, turning a doorknob, placing a pill in a pillbox, placing a pushpin in a bulletin board, and drinking water from a glass) during two separate sessions...
April 25, 2019: Gait & Posture
Tengyu Zhang, Xuefei Bai, Fei Liu, Yubo Fan
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate biomechanical loading usually leads to a high incidence of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) in individuals with lower-limb amputation, and prosthetic alignment may be an important influencing factor. The effect of alignment on the lower limb loading remains quantitatively unclear, and the relationship between malalignment and joint diseases is undefined. RESEARCH QUESTION: How does alignment affect spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force (GRF) in individuals with transfemoral amputation? METHODS: Gait tests of 10 individuals with transfemoral amputation were performed with recommended alignment and eight malalignments, including 10 mm socket translation (anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral) and 6° socket angular changes (flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction)...
April 25, 2019: Gait & Posture
Kuba Ptaszkowski, Romuald Zdrojowy, Lucyna Ptaszkowska, Janusz Bartnicki, Jakub Taradaj, Malgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz
BACKGROUND: Pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training is recommended to increase their strength and endurance. Muscles which act synergistically with PFM are taken into consideration in the therapeutic management of weakened PFM. RESEARCH QUESTION: how does electromyography activity of the synergists muscle to PFM change concerning pelvis position and does the greater bioelectric activity of synergist muscles affect PFM function? METHODS: A prospective, observational study evaluating the surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of selected synergist muscles of the PFM depending on the orientation of the pelvis...
April 25, 2019: Gait & Posture
Charlotte Le Mouel, Romain Tisserand, Thomas Robert, Romain Brette
BACKGROUND: In numerous laboratory-based perturbation experiments, differences in the balance recovery performance of elderly fallers and non-fallers are moderate or absent. This performance may be affected by the subjects adjusting their initial posture in anticipation of the perturbation. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: Do elderly fallers and non-fallers adjust their posture in anticipation of externally-imposed perturbations in a laboratory setting? How does this impact their balance recovery performance? METHODS: 21 elderly non-fallers, 18 age-matched elderly fallers and 11 young adults performed both a forward waist-pull perturbation task and a Choice Stepping Reaction Time (CSRT) task...
April 25, 2019: Gait & Posture
Simon McSweeney, Lloyd F Reed, Scott C Wearing
BACKGROUND: Heightened vertical load beneath the foot has been anecdotally implicated in the development of activity-related heel pain of the calcaneal apophysis in children but is supported by limited evidence. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study investigated whether vertical loading patterns during walking and running differed in children with and without calcaneal apophysitis. METHODS: Vertical ground reaction force, peak plantar pressure (forefoot, midfoot, heel) and temporospatial gait parameters (cadence, step length, stride, stance and swing phase durations) were determined in children with (n = 14) and without (n = 14) calcaneal apophysitis...
April 25, 2019: Gait & Posture
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