Amelia Staats, Peter W Burback, Nadia N Casillas-Ituarte, Daniel Li, Michaela R Hostetler, Anne Sullivan, Alexander R Horswill, Steven K Lower, Paul Stoodley
Considerable progress has been made toward elucidating the mechanism of Staphylococcus aureus aggregation in synovial fluid. In this study, aggregate morphology was assessed following incubation under several simulated postsurgical joint conditions. Using fluorescently labeled synovial fluid polymers, we show that aggregation occurs through two distinct mechanisms: (i) direct bridging between S. aureus cells and host fibrinogen and (ii) an entropy-driven depletion mechanism facilitated by hyaluronic acid and albumin...
March 23, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Jory A Goldsmith, Vincent Dewar, Philippe Hermand, Normand Blais, Jason S McLellan
Clostridioides difficile is a Gram-positive opportunistic human pathogen that causes 15,000 deaths annually in the United States, prompting a need for vaccine development. In addition to the important toxins TcdA and TcdB, binary toxin (CDT) plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of certain C. difficile ribotypes by catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of actin in host cells. However, the mechanisms of CDT neutralization by antibodies have not been studied, limiting our understanding of key epitopes for CDT antigen design...
March 23, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Gilberto C Padron, Alexander M Shuppara, Jessica-Jae S Palalay, Anuradha Sharma, Joseph E Sanfilippo
Bacteria thrive in environments rich in fluid flow, such as the gastrointestinal tract, bloodstream, aquatic systems, and the urinary tract. Despite the importance of flow, how flow affects bacterial life is underappreciated. In recent years, the combination of approaches from biology, physics, and engineering has led to a deeper understanding of how bacteria interact with flow. Here, we highlight the wide range of bacterial responses to flow, including changes in surface adhesion, motility, surface colonization, quorum sensing, virulence factor production, and gene expression...
March 23, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Juanmei He, Xiaoman Kang, Jiacheng Wu, Zhihui Shao, Zhenhua Zhang, Yuqian Wu, Hua Yuan, Guoping Zhao, Jin Wang
As a master nitrogen regulator in most actinomycetes, GlnR both governs central nitrogen metabolism and regulates many carbon, phosphate, and secondary metabolic pathways. To date, most studies have been focused on the GlnR regulon, while little is known about the transcriptional regulator for glnR itself. It has been observed that glnR transcription can be upregulated in Mycobacterium smegmatis under nitrogen-limited growth conditions; however, the detailed regulatory mechanism is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the glnR gene in M...
March 21, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Mohammad Shahnaij, Mohammed Badrul Amin, M Mozammel Hoque, Abdus Salam Mondol, Kazi Jewel Rana, Ishrat J Azmi, Kaisar A Talukder
A significant cause of shigellosis in Bangladesh and other developing countries is Shigella flexneri serotype 6. This serotype has been subtyped, on the basis of the absence or presence of a group-specific antigen, E1037, into S. flexneri 6a and 6b, respectively. Here, we provided rationales for the subclassification, using several phenotypic and molecular tools. A set of S. flexneri 6a and 6b strains isolated between 1997 and 2015 were characterized by analyzing their biochemical properties, plasmid profiles, virulence markers, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results, and ribotype...
March 16, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Céline Plainvert, Isabelle Rosinski-Chupin, Antonin Weckel, Clara Lambert, Gérald Touak, Elisabeth Sauvage, Claire Poyart, Philippe Glaser, Agnès Fouet
Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus, causes a wide variety of diseases ranging from mild noninvasive to severe invasive infections. To identify possible causes of colonization-to-invasive switches, we determined the genomic sequences of 10 isolates from five pairs each composed of an invasive strain and a carriage strain originating from five infectious clusters. Among them, one pair displayed a single-nucleotide difference in covS , encoding the sensor histidine kinase of the two-component CovRS system that controls the expression of 15% of the genome...
March 15, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Garrett T Dow, Anna M Young, George A Garcia
A novel approach to treat the highly virulent and infectious enteric pathogen Shigella flexneri, with the potential for reduced resistance development, is to target virulence pathways. One promising such target is the AraC-family transcription factor VirF, which activates downstream virulence factors. VirF harbors a conserved C-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD) and an N-terminal dimerization domain (NTD). Previously, we studied the wild type (WT) and seven alanine DBD mutants of VirF binding to the virB promoter (N...
March 15, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Julia Schwarz, Sophie Brameyer, Elisabeth Hoyer, Kirsten Jung
Bacteria have evolved different systems to sense and adapt to acid stress. For example, Vibrio campbellii, a marine pathogen for invertebrates, encounters acidic conditions in the digestive glands of shrimp. The main acid resistance system of V. campbellii is the Cad system, which is activated when cells are in a low-pH, amino acid-rich environment. The Cad system consists of the pH-responsive transcriptional activator CadC, the lysine decarboxylase CadA, and the lysine/cadaverine antiporter CadB. In many Vibrio species, the LysR-type transcriptional regulator AphB is involved in the regulation of the Cad system, but its precise role is unclear...
March 15, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Tatiana N Castro-Padovani, Timothy C Saylor, Olivia T Husted, Andrew C Krusenstjerna, Nerina Jusufovic, Brian Stevenson
The OspC outer-surface lipoprotein is essential for the Lyme disease spirochete's initial phase of vertebrate infection. Bacteria within the midguts of unfed ticks do not express OspC but produce high levels when ticks begin to ingest blood. Lyme disease spirochetes cease production of OspC within 1 to 2 weeks of vertebrate infection, and bacteria that fail to downregulate OspC are cleared by host antibodies. Thus, tight regulation of OspC levels is critical for survival of Lyme borreliae and, therefore, an attractive target for development of novel treatment strategies...
March 15, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Ashvini Ray, Stephen Spiro
The periplasmic (NAP) and membrane-associated (Nar) nitrate reductases of Paracoccus denitrificans are responsible for nitrate reduction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Expression of NAP is elevated in cells grown on a relatively reduced carbon and energy source (such as butyrate); it is believed that NAP contributes to redox homeostasis by coupling nitrate reduction to the disposal of excess reducing equivalents. Here, we show that deletion of either dksA1 (one of two dksA homologs in the P...
March 15, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Pierre Dupuy, Michael S Glickman
RNase H enzymes participate in various processes that require processing of RNA-DNA hybrids, including DNA replication, transcription, and ribonucleotide excision from DNA. Mycobacteria encode multiple RNase H enzymes, and prior data indicate that RNase HI activity is essential for mycobacterial viability. However, the additional roles of mycobacterial RNase Hs are unknown, including whether RNase HII (RnhB and RnhD) excises chromosomal ribonucleotides misincorporated during DNA replication and whether individual RNase HI enzymes (RnhA and RnhC) mediate additional phenotypes...
March 14, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Cornelia Große, Judith Scherer, Grit Schleuder, Dietrich H Nies
Metal resistance of Cupriavidus metallidurans is based on determinants that were acquired in the past by horizontal gene transfer during evolution. Some of these determinants encode transmembrane metal efflux systems. Expression of most of the respective genes is controlled by two-component regulatory systems composed of a membrane-bound sensor/sensory histidine kinase (HK) and a cytoplasmic, DNA-binding response regulator (RR). Here, we investigated the interplay between the three closely related two-component regulatory systems CzcRS, CzcR2 S2 , and AgrRS...
March 9, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Pamela J B Brown, Jeff H Chang, Clay Fuqua
Agrobacterium tumefaciens incites the formation of readily visible macroscopic structures known as crown galls on plant tissues that it infects. Records from biologists as early as the 17th century noted these unusual plant growths and began examining the basis for their formation. These studies eventually led to isolation of the infectious agent, A. tumefaciens, and decades of study revealed the remarkable mechanisms by which A. tumefaciens causes crown gall through stable horizontal genetic transfer to plants...
March 9, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Helen C Blaine, Lyle A Simmons, Christina L Stallings
Initiation of DNA replication is required for cell viability and passage of genetic information to the next generation. Studies in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis have established <u>A</u>TPases <u>a</u>ssociated with diverse cellular <u>a</u>ctivities (AAA+) as essential proteins required for loading of the replicative helicase at replication origins. AAA+ ATPases DnaC in E. coli and DnaI in B. subtilis have long been considered the paradigm for helicase loading during replication in bacteria...
March 6, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Sandra Man-Bovenkerk, Kim Schipper, Nina M van Sorge, Dave Speijer, Arie van der Ende, Yvonne Pannekoek
Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) colonizes the human nasopharynx, primarily as a commensal, but sporadically causing septicemia and meningitis. During colonization and invasion, it encounters different niches with specific nutrient compositions. Small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) are used to fine-tune expression of genes, allowing adaptation to their physiological differences. We have previously characterized sRNAs ( Neisseria metabolic switch regulators [NmsRs]) controlling switches between cataplerotic and anaplerotic metabolism...
March 1, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Lisbeth M Næss, Ingunn S Maugesten, Dominique A Caugant, Afework Kassu, Abraham Aseffa, Bente Børud
Neisseria meningitidis exhibits a general O -linked protein glycosylation system in which pili and other extracytoplasmic proteins are glycosylated. To investigate glycan antigenicity in humans and the significance of high glycan diversity on immune escape mechanisms, we exploited serogroup A meningococcal strains and serum samples obtained from laboratory-confirmed Ethiopian patients with meningococcal disease. The 37 meningococcal isolates were sequenced, and their <u>p</u>rotein <u>gl</u>ycosylation ( pgl ) genotypes and protein glycosylation phenotypes were investigated in detail...
February 28, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Matthew B Cooke, Christophe Herman
Bacterial conjugation, a form of horizontal gene transfer, relies on a type 4 secretion system (T4SS) and a set of nonstructural genes that are closely linked. These nonstructural genes aid in the mobile lifestyle of conjugative elements but are not part of the T4SS apparatus for conjugative transfer, such as the membrane pore and relaxosome, or the plasmid maintenance and replication machineries. While these nonstructural genes are not essential for conjugation, they assist in core conjugative functions and mitigate the cellular burden on the host...
February 27, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
David R Thomas, Hayley J Newton
A recent study by S. Wachter, C. L. Larson, K. Virtaneva, K. Kanakabandi, et al. (J Bacteriol 205:e00416-22, 2023, utilizes new technologies to examine the role of two-component systems in Coxiella burnetii. This research demonstrates that the zoonotic pathogen C. burnetii mediates complex transcriptional control, throughout different bacterial phases and environmental conditions, with relatively few regulatory elements.
February 27, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Shaun Wachter, Charles L Larson, Kimmo Virtaneva, Kishore Kanakabandi, Benjamin Darwitz, Ben Crews, Keelee Storrud, Robert A Heinzen, Paul A Beare
Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the etiological agent of Q fever in humans. C. burnetii transitions between a replicative, metabolically active large-cell variant (LCV) and a spore-like, quiescent small-cell variant (SCV) as a likely mechanism to ensure survival between host cells and mammalian hosts. C. burnetii encodes three canonical two-component systems, four orphan hybrid histidine kinases, five orphan response regulators, and a histidine phosphotransfer protein, which have been speculated to play roles in the signaling required for C...
February 27, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
Megan Keller, Xiang Han, Tobias Dörr
Antibiotic tolerance, the ability of bacteria to sustain viability in the presence of typically bactericidal antibiotics for extended time periods, is an understudied contributor to treatment failure. The Gram-negative pathogen Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, becomes highly tolerant to β-lactam antibiotics (penicillin and related compounds) in a process requiring the two-component system VxrAB. VxrAB is induced by exposure to cell wall damaging conditions, which results in the differential regulation of >100 genes...
February 22, 2023: Journal of Bacteriology
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