Henrik Dommisch, Andrea Maria Schmidt-Westhausen
The mucosa of the oral cavity is exposed to a large number of different microorganisms such as archaea, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. Among those, viruses cause specific infections, which can easily be transmitted from one person to another. The infectious route may not only include patients and their relatives but also the dental professional team. Thus, a wide knowledge regarding specific viral infections is crucial for the daily routine. Signs and symptoms of oral viral infections can be completely absent or develop into a pronounced clinical picture, so that early detection and information determine the further course of the infection and its influence on other inflammatory diseases, such as periodontitis, as well as the safety of family members and the social environment...
February 27, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Isabel Lopez-Oliva, Jennifer Malcolm, Shauna Culshaw
Understanding the impact of oral health on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) will inform how best to manage patients with both periodontitis and RA. This review seeks to provide an update on interventional and mechanistic investigations, including a brief summary of European Research programs investigating the link between periodontitis and RA. Recent clinical studies are described that evaluate how the treatment of one disease impacts on the other, as are studies in both humans and animal models that have sought to identify the potential mechanisms linking the two diseases...
February 27, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Pascal Valentini, Elena Calciolari, Sebastien Monlezun, Aliye Akcalı, Nikos Donos, Marc Quirynen
After tooth loss in the posterior area of the maxilla, sinus floor elevation is often required to compensate the vertical bone loss due to sinus pneumatization. This narrative review reports on the potential benefits of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) during this procedure. As for transcrestal approach, APCs have been used as "sole" substitute/graft. However, because of the low number of clinical trials available with PRGF, and even none for PRP, no definitive conclusions can be made regarding their efficacy...
February 16, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Sabine Groeger, Joerg Meyle
The programmed-death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) is an immune-modulating molecule that is constitutively expressed on various immune cells, different epithelial cells and a multitude of cancer cells. It is a costimulatory molecule that may impair T-cell mediated immune response. Ligation to the programmed-death-receptor (PD)-1, on activated T-cells and further triggering of the related signaling pathways can induce T-cells apoptosis or anergy. The upregulation of PD-L1 in various cancer types, including oral squamous cell carcinomas, was demonstrated and has been linked to immune escape of tumors and poor prognosis...
February 13, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Richard J Miron, Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Michael A Pikos, Toshiaki Nakamura, Takatomo Imafuji, Yufeng Zhang, Yukiya Shinohara, Anton Sculean, Yoshinori Shirakata
Bone grafts are typically categorized into four categories: autografts, allografts, xenografts, and synthetic alloplasts. While it was originally thought that all bone grafts should be slowly resorbed and replaced with native bone over time, accumulating evidence has in fact suggested that the use of nonresorbable xenografts is favored for certain clinical indications. Thus, many clinicians take advantage of the nonresorbable properties/features of xenografts for various clinical indications, such as contour augmentation, sinus grafting, and guided bone regeneration, which are often combined with allografts (e...
February 7, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Tord Berglundh, Andrea Mombelli, Frank Schwarz, Jan Derks
Peri-implantitis is a plaque-associated pathological condition occurring in tissues around dental implants. It is characterized by inflammation in the peri-implant mucosa and progressive loss of supporting bone. Over the last 30 years, peri-implantitis has become a major disease burden in dentistry. An understanding of the diagnosis, etiology and pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of peri-implantitis must be a central component in undergraduate and postgraduate training programs in dentistry. In view of the strong role of European research in periodontology and implant dentistry, the focus of this review was to address peri-implantitis from a European perspective...
February 2, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Richard J Miron, Nathan E Estrin, Anton Sculean, Yufeng Zhang
Exosomes are the smallest subset of extracellular signaling vesicles secreted by most cells with the ability to communicate with other tissues and cell types over long distances. Their use in regenerative medicine has gained tremendous momentum recently due to their ability to be utilized as therapeutic options for a wide array of various diseases. Over 5000 publications are currently being published on this topic yearly, many of which in the dental space. This extensive review article is the first scoping review aimed at summarizing all therapeutic uses of exosomes in regenerative dentistry...
February 2024: Periodontology 2000
Avi-Hai Hovav, Asaf Wilensky
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) arises in the oral epithelium, a tissue in which immune surveillance is mediated by its primary resident leukocytes, Langerhans cells (LCs), and γδT cells. Under steady-state conditions, LCs and γδT cells play a critical role in maintaining oral mucosal homeostasis. As antigen-presenting cells of stratified epithelia, LCs respond to various challenges faced by the epithelium, orchestrating innate, and adaptive immune responses in order to resolve them...
January 25, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Jochen Winter, Søren Jepsen
It is nowadays well accepted that chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in tumor initiation and progression. Under this aspect, the oral cavity is predestined to examine this connection because periodontitis is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory disease and oral squamous cell carcinomas are the most common oral malignant lesions. In this review, we describe how particular molecules of the human innate host defense system may participate as molecular links between these two important chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs)...
January 24, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Mark Bartold, Saso Ivanovski
Wound healing is a complex and iterative process involving myriad cellular and biologic processes that are highly regulated to allow satisfactory repair and regeneration of damaged tissues. This review is intended to be an introductory chapter in a volume focusing on the use of platelet concentrates for tissue regeneration. In order to fully appreciate the clinical utility of these preparations, a sound understanding of the processes and factors involved in soft and hard tissue healing. This encompasses an appreciation of the cellular and biological mediators of both soft and hard tissues in general as well as specific consideration of the periodontal tissues...
January 20, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Jasim M Albandar
Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent in populations worldwide and are a major global public health problem, with major negative impacts on individuals and communities. This study investigates evidence of disparities in periodontal diseases by age groups, gender, and socioeconomic factors. There is ample evidence that these diseases disproportionally affect poorer and marginalized groups and are closely associated with certain demographics and socioeconomic status. Disparities in periodontal health are associated with social inequalities, which in turn are caused by old age, gender inequality, income and education gaps, access to health care, social class, and other factors...
January 13, 2024: Periodontology 2000
G A Fridus Van der Weijden, Cor van Loveren
Maintaining a regular oral hygiene routine is essential for taking care of our mouths, ensuring healthy teeth, and achieving fresh breath. Patient education on oral hygiene is an important component of their overall treatment. Firstly, patients should be informed about the direct connection between bacteria in dental plaque and oral diseases. It is important for patients to understand that these conditions can be treated, but the success of treatment greatly depends on their level of oral hygiene. This journey begins by selecting the appropriate toothbrush and mastering the correct brushing technique to effectively remove dental plaque while avoiding any potential damage to the gums...
December 26, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Giacomo Baima, Margherita Minoli, Dominique S Michaud, Mario Aimetti, Mariano Sanz, Bruno G Loos, Mario Romandini
This review aims to critically analyze the pathways of interaction and the pathogenic mechanisms linking periodontitis and oral bacteria with the initiation/progression of cancer at different body compartments. A higher risk of head and neck cancer has been consistently associated with periodontitis. This relationship has been explained by the local promotion of dysbiosis, chronic inflammation, immune evasion, and direct (epi)genetic damage to epithelial cells by periodontal pathobionts and their toxins. Epidemiological reports have also studied a possible link between periodontitis and the incidence of other malignancies at distant sites, such as lung, breast, prostate, and digestive tract cancers...
December 15, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Allan Radaic, Pachiyappan Kamarajan, Alex Cho, Sandy Wang, Guo-Chin Hung, Fereshteh Najarzadegan, David T Wong, Hung Ton-That, Cun-Yu Wang, Yvonne L Kapila
The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) 5 year survival rate of 41% has marginally improved in the last few years, with less than a 1% improvement per year from 2005 to 2017, with higher survival rates when detected at early stages. Based on histopathological grading of oral dysplasia, it is estimated that severe dysplasia has a malignant transformation rate of 7%-50%. Despite these numbers, oral dysplasia grading does not reliably predict its clinical behavior. Thus, more accurate markers predicting oral dysplasia progression to cancer would enable better targeting of these lesions for closer follow-up, especially in the early stages of the disease...
December 10, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Richard J Miron, Reinhard Gruber, Nima Farshidfar, Anton Sculean, Yufeng Zhang
The use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has seen widespread advantages over platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in many fields of medicine. However, until 2014, PRF remained clinically available only in its solid clotted form. Modifications to centrifugation protocols and tube technology have led to the development of a liquid injectable version of PRF (i-PRF). This narrative review takes a look back at the technological developments made throughout the past decade and further elaborates on their future clinical applications...
November 30, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Maria Clotilde Carra, Hélène Rangé, Giuseppina Caligiuri, Philippe Bouchard
In spite of intensive research efforts driving spectacular advances in terms of prevention and treatments, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain a leading health burden, accounting for 32% of all deaths (World Health Organization. "Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs)." WHO, February 1, 2017, Cardiovascular diseases are a group of disorders affecting the heart and blood vessels. They encompass a collection of different conditions, among which atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the most prevalent...
November 23, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Richard J Miron, Michael A Pikos, Nathan E Estrin, Masako Kobayashi-Fujioka, Alan Rene Espinoza, Hussein Basma, Yufeng Zhang
Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been characterized as a regenerative biomaterial that is fully resorbed within a typical 2-3 week period. Very recently, however, a novel heating process was shown to extend the working properties of PRP/PRF from a standard 2-3 week period toward a duration of 4-6 months. Numerous clinicians have now utilized this extended-PRF (e-PRF) membrane as a substitute for collagen barrier membranes in various clinical applications, such as guided tissue/bone regeneration...
November 20, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Angel Insua, Pablo Galindo-Moreno, Richard J Miron, Hom-Lay Wang, Alberto Monje
Implant dentistry has evolved to the point that standard implant osseointegration is predictable. This is attributed in part to the advancements in material sciences that have led toward improvements in implant surface technology and characteristics. Nonetheless, there remain several cases where implant therapy fails (specifically at early time points), most commonly attributed to factors affecting bone metabolism. Among these patients, smokers are known to have impaired bone metabolism and thus be subject to higher risks of early implant failure and/or late complications related to the stability of the peri-implant bone and mucosal tissues...
October 30, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Thomas Kocher, Peter Meisel, Reiner Biffar, Henry Völzke, Birte Holtfreter
In this descriptive analysis of the 21-year follow-up data from the SHIP-START cohort and the 7-year follow-up data from the SHIP-TREND cohort, we report the progression of clinical attachment levels (CAL), age effects on CAL change, and a detailed description of CAL progression and remission. At baseline, 4307 and 4420 persons participated in SHIP-START and SHIP-TREND, respectively. At the final follow-up, 1181 and 2507 subjects were available for evaluation, respectively. In SHIP-START and SHIP-TREND participants, the mean CAL progressed by 0...
October 25, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Crystal Marruganti, Jean E Suvan, Francesco D'Aiuto
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are multifactorial, long-term, chronic conditions that represent a burden to health-care systems worldwide as they can only be controlled rather than cured; hence, they require long-term care. With the exponential increase in NCDs, the occurrence of individuals presenting with more than one chronic disease is also rapidly rising. "Multimorbidity," defined as the presence of two or more long-term physical or mental disorders, is now considered a worldwide epidemic, affecting around 20% of the adult population...
October 16, 2023: Periodontology 2000
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