Madhuri Pattamatta, Iain Chapple, Stefan Listl
This article gives an overview of the societal and economic aspects of periodontitis and periodontal care. Despite its largely preventable nature, periodontitis is highly prevalent worldwide and imposes a substantial health and economic burden on individuals and society as a whole. The worldwide estimated direct treatment costs and productivity losses due to periodontitis (including for periodontitis-related tooth loss) amounted to US$ 186 billion and US$ 142 billion in 2019, respectively...
May 14, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Muhammad H A Saleh, Debora R Dias, Purnima Kumar
Periodontal and peri-implant diseases result from a chronic inflammatory response to dysbiotic microbial communities and are characterized by inflammation in the soft tissue and the ensuing progressive destruction of supporting bone, resulting in tooth or implant loss. These diseases' high prevalence, multifactorial etiology, extensive treatment costs, and significant detriment to patients' quality-of-life underscore their status as a critical public health burden. This review delineates the economic and sociocultural ramifications of periodontal and peri-implant diseases on patient welfare and healthcare economics...
May 1, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Denis F Kinane, Joerg Gabert, George Xynopoulos, Esra Guzeldemir-Akcakanat
Liquid biopsy is a noninvasive diagnostic technique used for monitoring cancer utilizing specific genetic biomarkers present in bodily fluids, such as blood, saliva, or urine. These analyses employ multiple biomolecular sources including circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and exosomes (that contain DNA fragments) to detect genetic biomarkers that can predict, disclose, and/or monitor cancers. Levels of these biomarkers can inform on the presence of cancer, its genetic characteristics, and its potential treatment response and also provide predictive genetic predisposition information for specific cancers including oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC)...
April 27, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Sašo Ivanovski, Ryan S B Lee, Tulio Fernandez-Medina, Nelson Pinto, Catherine Andrade, Marc Quirynen
Osseointegration is defined as the direct deposition of bone onto biomaterial devices, most commonly composed from titanium, for the purpose of anchoring dental prostheses. The use of autologous platelet concentrates (APC) has the potential to enhance this process by modifying the interface between the host and the surface of the titanium implant. The rationale is to modify the implant surface and implant-bone interface via "biomimicry," a process whereby the deposition of the host's own proteins and extracellular matrix enhances the biocompatibility of the implant and hence accelerates the osteogenic healing process...
April 22, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Adolfo Contreras, Sandra Amaya Sánchez, Carolina Rodríguez-Medina, Javier Enrique Botero
This review focuses on three major aspects of oncoviruses' role in cancer development. To begin, we discuss their geographic distribution, revealing that seven oncoviruses cause 20% of all human cancers worldwide. Second, we investigate the primary carcinogenic mechanisms, looking at how these oncogenic viruses can induce cellular transformation, angiogenesis, and local and systemic inflammation. Finally, we investigate the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection reactivating latent oncoviruses, which could increase the risk of further disease...
April 20, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Denis F Kinane, David F Lappin, Shauna Culshaw
The aim of this narrative review is to relate the contribution of European researchers to the complex topic of the host immune system in periodontal disease, focusing on acquired immunity. Other chapters in this volume will address the genetics and autoantibody responses and other forms of immunity to periodontal disease. While the contribution of European authors is the focus, global literature is included in this descriptive narrative for contextual clarity, albeit many with European co-authors. The topic is relatively intense and is thus broken down into sections outlined below, tackled as descriptive narratives to enhance understanding...
April 20, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Reinhard Gruber
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is the platelet and leukocyte-containing plasmatic fraction of anticoagulated autologous blood. While evidence supporting the clinical use of PRP in dentistry is low, PRP is widely used in sports medicine, orthopedics, and dermatology. Its beneficial activity is commonly attributed to the growth factors released from platelets accumulating in PRP; however, evidence is indirect and not comprehensive. There is thus a demand to revisit PRP with respect to basic and translational science...
April 10, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Richard J Miron, Nathan E Estrin, Anton Sculean, Yufeng Zhang
Exosomes are the smallest subset of extracellular signaling vesicles secreted by most cells with the ability to communicate with other tissues and cell types over long distances. Their use in regenerative medicine has gained tremendous momentum recently due to their ability to be utilized as therapeutic options for a wide array of diseases/conditions. Over 5000 publications are currently being published yearly on this topic, and this number is only expected to dramatically increase as novel therapeutic strategies continue to be developed...
April 9, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Ralf Schulze, Emilio Couso-Queiruga, Christos Katsaros
The components and dimensions of the periodontal and peri-implant phenotype have a high relevance in contemporary dental research and should be taken into consideration in the decision-making process in the management of a variety of clinical scenarios to optimize the outcomes of therapy. Various assessment methods for quantifying and classifying the phenotypical dimensions have emerged and developed in recent decades. Nevertheless, the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans remains the most commonly used approach worldwide...
March 28, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Niklaus P Lang, Marc Schätzle, Christoph A Ramseier
Susceptibility to periodontal disease depends on individual factors within the host response to the bacterial challenge. The study of these factors requires longitudinal studies of an undisturbed development of the disease process. On the basis of the original longitudinal studies on the natural histology of periodontal disease staged in Sri Lanka and Oslo/Norway, several analyses of periodontal parameters and tooth status have been performed. The main findings were that in the first 20 years of complete absence of oral hygiene practices or preventive services attachment was lost at various rates...
March 22, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Eleanor Fleming, George W Taylor, Harold Woody Neighbors
Racial disparities in the prevalence of periodontal disease are consistent and persistent. The epidemiology of periodontal disease demonstrates racial inequities: non-Hispanic Black (14.7%), Mexican American (13.4%), and other Hispanic adults (7.8%) experience a higher prevalence of severe periodontal disease than non-Hispanic White adults (5.9%). Epidemiologic and clinical research on periodontal health suffers from the same problem that has plagued the health equity movement, an over emphasis on describing racial inequities coupled with few interventions that reduce racial health inequity...
March 19, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Georgios N Belibasakis, Chaminda Jayampath Senevirantne, Ruwan Duminda Jayasinghe, Phuc Thi-Duy Vo, Nagihan Bostanci, Youngnim Choi
It has long been considered that the oral microbiome is tightly connected to oral health and that dysbiotic changes can be detrimental to the occurrence and progression of dysplastic oral mucosal lesions or oral cancer. Improved understanding of the concepts of microbial dysbiosis together with advances in high-throughput molecular sequencing of these pathologies have charted in greater microbiological detail the nature of their clinical state. This review discusses the bacteriome and mycobiome associated with oral mucosal lesions, oral candidiasis, and oral squamous cell carcinoma, aiming to delineate the information available to date in pursuit of advancing diagnostic and prognostic utilities for oral medicine...
March 19, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Padhraig S Fleming, Nikolaos Pandis
Post-treatment change in the form of true relapse and physiological and maturational effects is common following orthodontics. The unpredictable nature of these manifestations dictates a conservative, near-universal approach to retention. Both fixed and removable forms of retention are popular with the latter constrained by variable levels of adherence particularly in the medium- to long-term. Fixed retention may offer a more predictable means of preservation of orthodontic outcomes; however, this advantage is offset by the requirement for prolonged supervision and the potential for adverse changes including periodontal breakdown...
March 18, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Elena Calciolari, Marina Dourou, Aliye Akcali, Nikolaos Donos
Autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) applied alone or combined with other biomaterials are popular bioactive factors employed in regenerative medicine. The main biological rationale of using such products is to concentrate blood-derived growth factors and cells into the wound microenvironment to enhance the body's natural healing capacity. First-generation APC is represented by platelet-rich plasma (PRP). While different protocols have been documented for PRP preparation, they overall consist of two cycles of centrifugation and have important limitations related to the use of an anticoagulant first and an activator afterward, which may interfere with the natural healing process and the release of bioactive molecules...
March 15, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Henrik Dommisch, Andrea Maria Schmidt-Westhausen
The mucosa of the oral cavity is exposed to a large number of different microorganisms such as archaea, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. Among those, viruses cause specific infections, which can easily be transmitted from one person to another. The infectious route may not only include patients and their relatives but also the dental professional team. Thus, a wide knowledge regarding specific viral infections is crucial for the daily routine. Signs and symptoms of oral viral infections can be completely absent or develop into a pronounced clinical picture, so that early detection and information determine the further course of the infection and its influence on other inflammatory diseases, such as periodontitis, as well as the safety of family members and the social environment...
February 27, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Isabel Lopez-Oliva, Jennifer Malcolm, Shauna Culshaw
Understanding the impact of oral health on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) will inform how best to manage patients with both periodontitis and RA. This review seeks to provide an update on interventional and mechanistic investigations, including a brief summary of European Research programs investigating the link between periodontitis and RA. Recent clinical studies are described that evaluate how the treatment of one disease impacts on the other, as are studies in both humans and animal models that have sought to identify the potential mechanisms linking the two diseases...
February 27, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Pascal Valentini, Elena Calciolari, Sebastien Monlezun, Aliye Akcalı, Nikos Donos, Marc Quirynen
After tooth loss in the posterior area of the maxilla, sinus floor elevation is often required to compensate the vertical bone loss due to sinus pneumatization. This narrative review reports on the potential benefits of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) during this procedure. As for transcrestal approach, APCs have been used as "sole" substitute/graft. However, because of the low number of clinical trials available with PRGF, and even none for PRP, no definitive conclusions can be made regarding their efficacy...
February 16, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Sabine Groeger, Joerg Meyle
The programmed-death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) is an immune-modulating molecule that is constitutively expressed on various immune cells, different epithelial cells and a multitude of cancer cells. It is a costimulatory molecule that may impair T-cell mediated immune response. Ligation to the programmed-death-receptor (PD)-1, on activated T-cells and further triggering of the related signaling pathways can induce T-cells apoptosis or anergy. The upregulation of PD-L1 in various cancer types, including oral squamous cell carcinomas, was demonstrated and has been linked to immune escape of tumors and poor prognosis...
February 13, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Richard J Miron, Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Michael A Pikos, Toshiaki Nakamura, Takatomo Imafuji, Yufeng Zhang, Yukiya Shinohara, Anton Sculean, Yoshinori Shirakata
Bone grafts are typically categorized into four categories: autografts, allografts, xenografts, and synthetic alloplasts. While it was originally thought that all bone grafts should be slowly resorbed and replaced with native bone over time, accumulating evidence has in fact suggested that the use of nonresorbable xenografts is favored for certain clinical indications. Thus, many clinicians take advantage of the nonresorbable properties/features of xenografts for various clinical indications, such as contour augmentation, sinus grafting, and guided bone regeneration, which are often combined with allografts (e...
February 7, 2024: Periodontology 2000
Tord Berglundh, Andrea Mombelli, Frank Schwarz, Jan Derks
Peri-implantitis is a plaque-associated pathological condition occurring in tissues around dental implants. It is characterized by inflammation in the peri-implant mucosa and progressive loss of supporting bone. Over the last 30 years, peri-implantitis has become a major disease burden in dentistry. An understanding of the diagnosis, etiology and pathogenesis, epidemiology, and treatment of peri-implantitis must be a central component in undergraduate and postgraduate training programs in dentistry. In view of the strong role of European research in periodontology and implant dentistry, the focus of this review was to address peri-implantitis from a European perspective...
February 2, 2024: Periodontology 2000
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