Karin Jepsen, Anton Sculean, Søren Jepsen
In this review, typical clinical complications involving periodontal tissues are illustrated that can be encountered in conjunction with orthodontic therapy (OT). Special considerations are given for various clinical scenarios, such as the patient presenting in periodontal health, with periodontitis, or with mucogingival conditions. While some of the complications are seen as common side effects of OT, other, more severe, problems that could have been avoided may be viewed as treatment errors. Recommendations are made on how to prevent these complications, based on the currently available evidence, on clinical practice guidelines, and on expert opinion...
March 15, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Ian Needleman, Neil Almond, Natalie Leow, Jim Phillips
Periodontitis is a long-term condition affecting up to half of the population globally and causing significant impacts on life quality. Successful management depends on taking life-long ownership of the condition by those affected. There is a wealth of research to inform on management options. However, most of the research has been designed by professional experts with outcomes to gauge benefits and harms based on parameters that inform on the disease process but which might not be informative to support decision-making in people with lived experience (PWLE) of periodontal ill-health (including both patients and carers)...
February 14, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Mattia Severi, Leonardo Trombelli, Lisa Heitz-Mayfield, Roberto Farina, Anna Simonelli
The presence of a peri-implant bone dehiscence (BD) or fenestration (BF) is a common finding after implant placement in a crest with a reduced bucco-lingual bone dimension. The presence of a residual BD is associated with a relevant incidence of peri-implant biological complications over time. Guided bone regeneration (GBR), performed at implant placement, is the most validated treatment to correct a BD. In the present systematic review, the evidence evaluating factors which could reduce the invasiveness of a GBR procedure with respect to patient-reported outcomes, intra- and post- surgical complications, was summarized...
February 8, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Andrea Roccuzzo, Jean-Claude Imber, Giovanni Edoardo Salvi, Mario Roccuzzo
Peri-implantitis is a plaque-associated pathologic condition occurring in tissues around dental implants, characterized by inflammation in the peri-implant mucosa and subsequent progressive loss of supporting bone. It is a highly prevalent disease, as extensively estimated by large-population, cross-sectional studies. As peri-implant diseases represent opportunistic infections, it is reasonable to assume that nonideal conditions, local and/or general, may favor the progression of peri-implant inflammation. Some of these conditions could be a result of poor planning and/or inadequate execution of any step of the entire process treatment...
February 6, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Istvan A Urban, Eduardo Montero, Ettore Amerio, David Palombo, Alberto Monje
Vertical ridge augmentation techniques have been advocated to enable restoring function and esthetics by means of implant-supported rehabilitation. There are three major modalities. The first is guided bone regeneration, based on the principle of compartmentalization by means of using a barrier membrane, which has been demonstrated to be technically demanding with regard to soft tissue management. This requisite is also applicable in the case of the second modality of bone block grafts. Nonetheless, space creation and maintenance are provided by the solid nature of the graft...
January 31, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Istvan Urban, Eduardo Montero, Ignacio Sanz-Sánchez, David Palombo, Alberto Monje, Grazia Tommasato, Matteo Chiapasco
Vertical ridge augmentation is one of the most challenging procedures in implant dentistry because of the advanced skills required by the operator and the fact that bone augmentation is aimed outside the bony contour, in an environment of reduced blood supply. What is more, the flap management required to ensure soft tissue closure frequently leads to associated comorbidities in terms of swelling and hematomas. For these reasons, and even if autologous onlay block grafts are still the gold standard, new techniques and biomaterials have favored the development of potentially less invasive approaches...
January 26, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Francesco Cairo, Rino Burkhardt
Minimally invasive surgical procedures aim at optimal wound healing, a reduction of postoperative morbidity and, thus, at increased patient satisfaction. The present article reviews the concept of minimal invasiveness in gingival augmentation and root coverage procedures, and critically discusses the influencing factors, technical and nontechnical ones, and relates them to the underlying biological mechanisms. Furthermore, the corresponding outcomes of the respective procedures are assessed and evaluated in relation to a possible impact of a minimized surgical invasiveness on the clinical, aesthetic, and patient-related results...
January 24, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Stephen T Chen, Daniel Buser, Anton Sculean, Urs C Belser
Incorrect implant positioning can lead to functional and aesthetic compromise. Implant positioning errors can occur in three dimensions: mesiodistal, corono-apical, and orofacial. Treatment solutions to manage adverse outcomes through positioning errors require an understanding of the underlying conditions and of those factors that may have led to the error being committed in the first place. These types of complications usually occur because of human factors. If errors do occur with adverse aesthetic outcomes, they are difficult and sometimes impossible to correct...
January 22, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Anna Simonelli, Mattia Severi, Leonardo Trombelli, Roberto Farina
The modern approach to regenerative treatment of periodontal intraosseous defects should aim at maximizing the clinical outcomes while minimizing the invasiveness (pain, complications, aesthetic impairment, chair time, and costs) of the procedure. The present systematic review evaluated the effect of flap design, regenerative technology, and perioperative and postoperative adjunctive protocols on invasiveness. Overall, the results of the 13 included trials indicate that: (a) the elevation of a single (buccal or lingual) flap positively influences the intensity of postoperative pain and improves the quality of early wound healing compared with double flaps; (b) while the adjunctive use of a membrane is associated with significantly longer surgery-related chair time and higher postoperative pain, the adjunctive use of enamel matrix derivative at sites receiving a graft significantly reduces postoperative pain; also, graft materials showed no significant impact on invasiveness; (c) open flap debridement performed through the elevation of a single flap may lead to substantial clinical improvements of the lesion with reduced surgery-related chair time and costs, thus representing a promising alternative to regenerative treatment...
January 22, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Fernanda V Ribeiro, Jaimini J Mehta, Mabelle F Monteiro, Jatinder Moore, Marcio Z Casati, Luigi Nibali
Periodontal treatment is quickly moving towards a philosophy consisting of a less invasive approach. In this context, minimally invasive nonsurgical therapy (MINST) is a promising option. This paper reviews the concepts behind minimal invasiveness in nonsurgical periodontology and reports the state-of the art evidence for this topic. Instruments used and protocols suggested for these applications are introduced and discussed. The original papers reviewed show probing pocket depth (PPD) reductions and clinical attachment level (CAL) gains ranging from 2 to 4 mm between baseline and 6 months to 5 years posttreatment for intrabony defects and from 1...
January 20, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Georgios N Belibasakis, Daniel Belstrøm, Sigrun Eick, Ulvi K Gursoy, Anders Johansson, Eija Könönen
This narrative review summarizes the collective knowledge on periodontal microbiology, through a historical timeline that highlights the European contribution in the global field. The etiological concepts on periodontal disease culminate to the ecological plaque hypothesis and its dysbiosis-centered interpretation. Reference is made to anerobic microbiology and to the discovery of select periodontal pathogens and their virulence factors, as well as to biofilms. The evolution of contemporary molecular methods and high-throughput platforms is highlighted in appreciating the breadth and depth of the periodontal microbiome...
January 20, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Leandro Chambrone, Francisco Salvador Garcia-Valenzuela, Gustavo Avila-Ortiz
Different types of errors and complications may arise during and after the execution of periodontal or implant-related procedures. Some of the most relevant, although also controversial, and less commented, causative agents of errors and complications are methodological biases and bad interpretation of the evidence. Proper assessment of the literature requires of solid clinical knowledge combined with a systematic approach built on the recognition of common methodological biases and the avoidance of interpretive errors to critically retrieve, dissect, and judiciously apply available information for the promotion of periodontal and peri-implant health...
January 5, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Martina Stefanini, Matteo Marzadori, Matteo Sangiorgi, Alexandra Rendon, Tiziano Testori, Giovanni Zucchelli
Inadequate quality, quantity, or aesthetics of the peri-implant soft tissues can result from a combination of factors related to the outcome of treatments performed before, during, or after implant placement. In this paper, we describe in detail the treatment errors that can pave the way for the onset of mucositis or give rise to soft tissue complications such as peri-implant soft tissue discoloration or dehiscence, graft exposure, or scar formation. By tracing the error back to the planning or surgical stage, clinical insights on surgical soft tissue management are provided to avoid or treat complications that affect the status of the peri-implant soft tissues...
January 3, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Claudio Mazzotti, Ilham Mounssif, Alexandra Rendón, Monica Mele, Matteo Sangiorgi, Martina Stefanini, Giovanni Zucchelli
Root coverage procedures have become very common in clinical dental practice. Even though these techniques are considered safe, the clinician may face several issues during the therapy due to their surgical nature. Some of these issues can be defined strictly as complications inherent to the procedure, whereas others are medical errors or treatment errors. This review will focus on describing treatment errors and complications that may arise during different phases of the root coverage therapeutic process and on how to prevent and manage them...
January 3, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Filippo Graziani, Manuel Tinto, Chiara Orsolini, Rossana Izzetti, Cristiano Tomasi
Nonsurgical periodontal therapy can be subject to iatrogenesis, which includes all the complications directly or indirectly related to a treatment. These complications include both operator-dependent harms and errors and the consequences and adverse effects of the therapeutic procedures. The complications arising following nonsurgical periodontal treatment can be categorized as intraoperative and postoperative and can affect both soft and hard tissues at an intra-oral and extraoral level. Soft-tissues damage or damage to teeth and restorations can occur while performing the procedure...
January 2, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Lorenzo Tavelli, Shayan Barootchi, Martina Stefanini, Giovanni Zucchelli, William V Giannobile, Hom-Lay Wang
Palatal-tissue harvesting is a routinely performed procedure in periodontal and peri-implant plastic surgery. Over the years, several surgical approaches have been attempted with the aim of obtaining autogenous soft-tissue grafts while minimizing patient morbidity, which is considered the most common drawback of palatal harvesting. At the same time, treatment errors during the procedure may increase not only postoperative discomfort or pain but also the risk of developing other complications, such as injury to the greater palatine artery, prolonged bleeding, wound/flap sloughing, necrosis, infection, and inadequate graft size or quality...
December 30, 2022: Periodontology 2000
Shayan Barootchi, Lorenzo Tavelli, Jad Majzoub, Martina Stefanini, Hom-Lay Wang, Gustavo Avila-Ortiz
Alveolar ridge preservation is routinely indicated in clinical practice with the purpose of attenuating postextraction ridge atrophy. Over the past two decades numerous clinical studies and reviews on this topic have populated the literature. In recent years the focus has primarily been on analyzing efficacy outcomes pertaining to postextraction dimensional changes, whereas other relevant facets of alveolar ridge preservation therapy have remained unexplored. With this premise, we carried out a comprehensive evidence-based assessment of the complications associated with different modalities of alveolar ridge preservation and modeled the cost-effectiveness of different therapeutic modalities as a function of changes in ridge width and height...
December 29, 2022: Periodontology 2000
Alessandro Quaranta, Orlando D'Isidoro, Adriano Piattelli, Wang Lai Hui, Vittoria Perrotti
In recent years, the practice of dentistry and periodontology has become complicated by several risk factors, including the treatment of an increasing number of patients with substance use disorder. This review presents an update in the current literature of the impact of illegal drug use on periodontal conditions and their possible effect as risk factors or indicators. The main illegal drugs that may have an impact on periodontal health and conditions are described, including their effect, medical manifestations, risks, and the overall effect on oral health and on the periodontium...
October 2022: Periodontology 2000
Danae Anastasia Apatzidou
Tobacco smoking has been implicated in periodontal pathology through various mechanisms, including perturbations of the inflammatory and host responses to putative periodontal pathogens, alterations in the subgingival microbial communities, and a compromised healing potential of the tissues leading to imbalance of tissue homeostasis. This review provides the evidence for the relationship between cigarette smoking and periodontal disease in an attempt to explain possible mechanisms of how tobacco smoking may exert its negative effects on the periodontal tissues via systemic and localized pathways...
October 2022: Periodontology 2000
Amin Khajavi, Mehrdad Radvar, Amir Moeintaghavi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2022: Periodontology 2000
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