Zvi Artzi
Bone augmentation has become a routine procedure to enhance and/or repair a deficient or resorbed alveolar ridge for predictable and successful implant placement. The split expansion ridge i.e., the alveolar ridge splitting (ARS) procedure, is one of the less invasive procedures, and is characterized by minor morbidity. This would allow to widen narrow ridges in order to allow implant reconstruction in a sufficient bone volume. Its efficacy and long-term stability rely upon clinical opinions and long-term retrospective studies, while prospective comparative studies and randomized controlled trials are rare...
September 22, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Alberto Monje, Ramón Pons, José Nart, Richard J Miron, Frank Schwarz, Anton Sculean
Peri-implantitis is a pathogenic inflammatory condition characterized by progressive bone loss and clinical inflammation that may compromise the stability of dental implants. Therapeutic modalities have been advocated to arrest the disorder and to establish peri-implant health. Reconstructive therapy is indicated for bone defects exhibiting contained/angular components. This therapeutic modality is based upon the application of the biological and technical principles of periodontal regeneration. Nonetheless, the comparative efficacy of reconstructive therapy and nonreconstructive modalities remains unclear...
September 20, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Maria Elisa Galarraga-Vinueza, Shayan Barootchi, Marc L Nevins, Myron Nevins, Richard J Miron, Lorenzo Tavelli
Contemporary oral tissue engineering strategies involve recombinant human growth factor approaches to stimulate diverse cellular processes including cell differentiation, migration, recruitment, and proliferation at grafted areas. Recombinant human growth factor applications in oral hard and soft tissue regeneration have been progressively researched over the last 25 years. Growth factor-mediated surgical approaches aim to accelerate healing, tissue reconstruction, and patient recovery. Thus, regenerative approaches involving growth factors such as recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs) have shown certain advantages over invasive traditional surgical approaches in severe hard and soft tissue defects...
September 8, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Richard J Miron, Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Anton Sculean, Yufeng Zhang
The use of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has gained tremendous popularity in recent years owing to its ability to speed wound healing postsurgery. However, to date, many clinicians are unaware of methods designed to optimize the technology. This overview article will discuss the advancements and improvements made over the years aimed at maximizing cell and growth factor concentrations. First, a general understanding explaining the differences between RPM and RCF (g-force) is introduced. Then, the low-speed centrifugation concept, fixed angle versus horizontal centrifugation, and methods to maximize platelet concentrations using optimized protocols will be discussed in detail...
September 8, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Richard J Miron, Marc Bohner, Yufeng Zhang, Dieter D Bosshardt
The recognition and importance of immune cells during bone regeneration, including around bone biomaterials, has led to the development of an entire field termed "osteoimmunology," which focuses on the connection and interplay between the skeletal system and immune cells. Most studies have focused on the "osteogenic" capacity of various types of bone biomaterials, and much less focus has been placed on immune cells despite being the first cell type in contact with implantable devices. Thus, the amount of literature generated to date on this topic makes it challenging to extract needed information...
September 1, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Antonio Liñares, José Dopico, Gabriel Magrin, Juan Blanco
In the last 20 years, immediate implant placement has been proposed as a predictable protocol to replace failing teeth. The research conducted in preclinical and clinical studies have focused on soft and hard tissue changes following tooth extraction and immediate implant placement. Different approaches for hard and soft tissue grafting together with provisional restorations have been proposed to compensate tissue alterations. This review analyzed some relevant clinical and preclinical literature focusing on the impact of bone grafting procedures on immediate implant placement in terms of hard and soft tissue changes, aesthetic results, and patient-related outcomes...
September 1, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Peer W Kämmerer, Bilal Al-Nawas
Reconstruction of significant maxillomandibular defects is a challenge that has been much discussed over the last few decades. Fundamental principles were developed decades ago (bone bed viability, graft immobilization). Clinical decision-making criteria are highly relevant, including local/systemic factors and incision designs, the choice of material, grafting technique, and donor site morbidity. Stabilizing particulated grafts for defined defects-that is, via meshes or shells-might allow significant horizontal and vertical augmentation; the alternatives are onlay and inlay techniques...
August 31, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Nikos Mardas, Neil Macbeth, Nikolaos Donos, Ronald Ernst Jung, Anina Nives Zuercher
The morphology and dimensions of the postextraction alveolar ridge are important for the surgical and restorative phases of implant treatment. Adequate new bone formation and preservation of alveolar ridge dimensions following extraction will facilitate installation of the implant in a restorative position, while preservation of soft tissue contour and volume is essential for an aesthetic and implant-supported restoration with healthy peri-implant tissues. Alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) refers to any procedure that aims to: (i) limit dimensional changes in the alveolar ridge after extraction facilitating implant placement without additional extensive bone and soft tissue augmentation procedures (ii) promote new bone formation in the healing alveolus, and (iii) promote soft tissue healing at the entrance of the alveolus and preserve the alveolar ridge contour...
August 25, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Nikolaos Donos, Aliye Akcali, Ninad Padhye, Anton Sculean, Elena Calciolari
The key factors that are needed for bone regeneration to take place include cells (osteoprogenitor and immune-inflammatory cells), a scaffold (blood clot) that facilitates the deposition of the bone matrix, signaling molecules, blood supply, and mechanical stability. However, even when these principles are met, the overall amount of regenerated bone, its stability over time and the incidence of complications may significantly vary. This manuscript provides a critical review on the main local and systemic factors that may have an impact on bone regeneration, trying to focus, whenever possible, on bone regeneration simultaneous to implant placement to treat bone dehiscence/fenestration defects or for bone contouring...
August 24, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Yulan Wang, Richard J Miron, Xiaoxin Zhang, Hao Zeng, Yufeng Zhang
Gold nanocages (AuNCs) have been invented and developed over two decades as biomaterial in clinical medicine with great application potential. AuNCs have a characteristic structure of porous walls with hollow interior and a compact size. This makes it possible for them to transport biomolecules or drugs with the advantages of their photothermal effects that could help further destroy germs or tumors while also regulating the release of drugs inside. Furthermore, their bioactivity and application can be broadened by using cell-membrane display technology...
August 24, 2023: Periodontology 2000
P A Miguez, E Bash, M L Musskopf, S A Tuin, A Rivera-Concepcion, I L C Chapple, J Liu
Proteoglycans are core proteins associated with carbohydrate/sugar moieties that are highly variable in disaccharide composition, which dictates their function. These carbohydrates are named glycosaminoglycans, and they can be attached to proteoglycans or found free in tissues or on cell surfaces. Glycosaminoglycans such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, and heparin/heparan sulfate have multiple functions including involvement in inflammation, immunity and connective tissue structure, and integrity...
August 24, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Richard J Miron
Bone grafting is routinely performed in periodontology and oral surgery to fill bone voids. While autogenous bone is considered the gold standard because of its regenerative properties, allografts and xenografts have more commonly been utilized owing to their availability as well as their differential regenerative/biomechanical properties. In particular, xenografts are sintered at high temperatures, which allows for their slower degradation and resorption rates and/or nonresorbable features. As a result, clinicians have combined xenografts with other classes of bone grafts (most notably allografts and autografts in various ratios) for procedures requiring better long-term stability, such as contour grafting, sinus elevation procedures, and vertical bone augmentations...
August 23, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Karim M Fawzy El-Sayed, Raluca Cosgarea, Anton Sculean, Christof Doerfer
Periodontitis is a complex inflammatory disorder of the tooth supporting structures, associated with microbial dysbiosis, and linked to a number if systemic conditions. Untreated it can result in an irreversible damage to the periodontal structures and eventually teeth loss. Regeneration of the lost periodontium requires an orchestration of a number of biological events on cellular and molecular level. In this context, a set of vitamins have been advocated, relying their beneficial physiological effects, to endorse the biological regenerative events of the periodontium on cellular and molecular levels...
August 17, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Maurício G Araújo, Debora R Dias, Flavia Matarazzo
Following tooth extraction, a sequence of events takes place in order to close the wound and restore tissue homeostasis, a process called socket healing. The outcome of socket healing includes a marked reduction of the ridge dimensions. The amount of tissue loss that occurs during healing is influenced by several local and systemic factors. Thus, the aim of the present review was to describe the effect of anatomical characteristics of the alveolar process and basal bone on the socket healing outcome. The studies included showed that the quantity (number) and quality (composition) of socket walls exhibited a significant influence on the ridge diminution...
August 2, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Shan-Huey Yu, Muhammad H A Saleh, Hom-Lay Wang
Lateral ridge augmentation is a standard surgical procedure that can be performed prior to (staged) or simultaneously with implant placement. The decision between a simultaneous or staged approach involves considering multiple variables. This paper proposed a decision-making process that serves as a guideline for choosing the best treatment choice based on the available evidence and the author's clinical experience.
August 2, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Gotfredsen Klaus
Evidence-based dentistry used for decision-making and assessment of treatment includes three components: evidence from the literature, clinical expertise, and patient expectations. Patient satisfaction embraces affability, availability, and ability and can be examined using questionnaires or structured questions to the patient to evaluate patient perception of the treatment. The questions can be quantified using dichotomous, point, or visual analog scales. This would be a straightforward patient-reported outcome measure (PROM)...
July 26, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Ausra Ramanauskaite, Kathrin Becker, Emilio A Cafferata, Frank Schwarz
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) at peri-implantitis-related bone defects involves the placement of bone-filler particles in the intrabony defects and the application of a barrier membrane. The efficacy of different GBR-supported reconstructive measures as well as their potential superiority compared to non-GBR-supported treatment strategies for bone defects at peri-implantitis sites, however, remains unclear. Therefore, this analysis was designed to evaluate the long-term (≥12 months) clinical efficacy of GBR-supported reconstructive surgical therapy for peri-implantitis-related bone defects...
July 25, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Binnaz Leblebicioglu, Dimitris N Tatakis
Oral rehabilitation through implant supported dental restorations often requires a ridge augmentation procedure (RAP) prior to implant fixture placement since tooth extraction/loss results in alveolar ridge deficiencies. Although RAP-related surgical techniques and biomaterials have been in practice for several decades, outcomes are not always predictable. Post-surgical complications experienced during the early or late wound healing phases may jeopardize the targeted ideal ridge dimensions, required for implant fixture placement, and may have other consequences, such as negatively impacting the patient's quality of life...
July 25, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Gustavo Avila-Ortiz, Dániel Vegh, Khaled Mukaddam, Pablo Galindo-Moreno, Bjarni Pjetursson, Michael Payer
Rehabilitation of the edentulous maxilla with implant-supported fixed dental prostheses can represent a significant clinical challenge due to limited bone availability and surgical access, among other factors. This review addresses several treatment options to replace missing teeth in posterior maxillary segments, namely the placement of standard implants in conjunction with maxillary sinus floor augmentation, short implants, tilted implants, and distal cantilever extensions. Pertinent technical information and a concise summary of relevant evidence on the reported outcomes of these different therapeutic approaches are presented, along with a set of clinical guidelines to facilitate decision-making processes and optimize the outcomes of therapy...
July 24, 2023: Periodontology 2000
Giovanni E Salvi, Andrea Roccuzzo, Jean-Claude Imber, Alexandra Stähli, Björn Klinge, Niklaus P Lang
Periodontal diseases include pathological conditions elicited by the presence of bacterial biofilms leading to a host response. In the diagnostic process, clinical signs such as bleeding on probing, development of periodontal pockets and gingival recessions, furcation involvement and presence of radiographic bone loss should be assessed prior to periodontal therapy, following active therapy, and during long-term supportive care. In addition, patient-reported outcomes such as increased tooth mobility, migration, and tilting should also be considered...
July 14, 2023: Periodontology 2000
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