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Journal of Dental Research

N C Ramos, M R Kaizer, T M B Campos, J Kim, Y Zhang, R M Melo
Novel silica-based infiltrations on the surface of zirconia have the potential to improve their bondability, allowing for the etching/silane adhesive bonding technique. Nonetheless, adhesively bonded joints are subject to mixed tensile and shear stresses when the restoration is in occlusal service. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of 2 novel silica-based infiltrations on the interfacial toughness of adhesively bonded zirconia using the Brazil nut method, which allows for controlled types of stresses to be applied at the interfaces...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
H Yamazaki, B Tran, E Beniash, S Y Kwak, H C Margolis
The present study was conducted to investigate the role of proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) in regulating the initial formation of the enamel mineral structure during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, utilizing Mmp20-null mice that lack this essential protease. Ultrathin sagittal sections of maxillary incisors from 8-wk-old wild-type (WT), Mmp20-null (KO), and heterozygous (HET) littermates were prepared. Secretory-stage enamel ultrastructures from each genotype as a function of development were compared using transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and Raman microspectroscopy...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
M R Kaizer, S Bano, M Borba, V Garg, M B F Dos Santos, Y Zhang
Monolithic zirconia crowns have become very popular; their surface finish is considered a key factor for restoration longevity. While polishing has shown excellent results in vivo, the surface glass infiltration of zirconia may offer superior damage resistance and aesthetic advantages by using tooth-colored glasses. Thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of polishing and glass infiltration on the wear behavior of monolithic zirconia crowns. The wear behavior of intact natural molar teeth was investigated as a reference...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
F Chmilewsky, R Liang, M Kanazawa, I About, L F Cooper, A George
The presence of stem cells within the dental-pulp tissue as well as their differentiation into a new generation of functional odontoblast-like cells constitutes an important step of the dentin-pulp regeneration. Recent investigations demonstrated that the complement system activation participates in 2 critical steps of dentin-pulp regeneration: pulp progenitor's recruitment and pulp nerve sprouting. Surprisingly, its implication in odontoblastic differentiation has not been addressed yet. Since the complement receptor C5a receptor-like 2 (C5L2) is expressed by different stem cells, the aim of this study is to investigate if the dental pulp stem cells express C5L2 and if this receptor participates in odontoblastic differentiation...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
O Redha, A Strange, A Maeva, R Sambrook, N Mordan, A McDonald, L Bozec
Carbamide peroxide (CP) is widely used as a tooth-whitening agent in self-administered tooth-bleaching products. In this study, the effects of 5% and 10% CP on dentinal collagen structure and chemical properties were evaluated in vitro. Thirty-five intact teeth were exposed to 2 whitening protocols (2 or 4 h daily) with either 5% or 10% CP gel for 1 wk. Shade changes before and after the whitening protocol were captured colorimetrically using a spectroshade. Collagen scaffold models and demineralized dentine disc samples were prepared and exposed to CP droplets (5% or 10%)...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
T M Taira, V Lima, D S Prado, T A Silva, J P M Issa, L A B da Silva, D S Zamboni, F Q Cunha, S Y Fukada
Apical periodontitis is an inflammatory disorder that results from the host immune response to microbial infection through the dental pulp, leading to alveolar bone destruction. The nod-like receptor 12 (NLRP12) is an atypical intracellular sensor of the NLR family that is involved in the negative regulation of several inflammatory conditions and also osteoclastogenesis. However, the role of NLRP12 in the regulation of immune response and bone loss induced by bacterial infection remains unclear. Here we investigated the development of apical periodontitis in wild-type (WT) and NLRP12 knockout (NLRP12-/- ) mice by using micro-computed tomography together with histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
Z Ren, D Kim, A J Paula, G Hwang, Y Liu, J Li, H Daniell, H Koo
Biofilm formation is a key virulence factor responsible for a wide range of infectious diseases, including dental caries. Cariogenic biofilms are structured microbial communities embedded in an extracellular matrix that affords bacterial adhesion-cohesion and drug tolerance, making them difficult to treat using conventional antimicrobial monotherapy. Here, we investigated a multitargeted approach combining exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix-degrading glucanohydrolases with a clinically used essential oils-based antimicrobial to potentiate antibiofilm efficacy...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
C Peng, F B de Sousa, H Y Gan, H J Kwon, S Park, L Kilpatrick-Liverman, W Wang, S Lavender, S Pilch, J Han
As the outermost layer of the tooth crown, dental enamel is the most mineralized tissue in mammals, consisting of hydroxyapatite crystallites separated by long and narrow nanochannels. A major challenge in dentistry is how various molecules can be infiltrated into these nanopores in an efficient and controlled way. Here we show a robust method to transport various ions of interest, such as fluoride (F- ), potassium (K+ ), calcium (Ca++ ), and sodium (Na+ ), into these nanopores by electrokinetic flows. It is verified by fluorescence microscopy, laser-scanning confocal microscopy, mass spectrometry, and ion selective electrode technique...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
R Akhi, C Wang, A E Nissinen, J Kankaanpää, R Bloigu, S Paju, P Mäntylä, K Buhlin, J Sinisalo, P J Pussinen, S Hörkkö
A large body of literature has established the link between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (OxLDLs) have a crucial role in atherosclerosis progression through initiation of immunological response. Monoclonal IgM antibodies to malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and to malondialdehyde acetaldehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MAA-LDL) have been shown to cross-react with the key virulence factors of periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
M Arioka, X Zhang, Z Li, U S Tulu, Y Liu, L Wang, X Yuan, J A Helms
Osteoporosis is associated with decreased bone density and increased bone fragility, but how this disease affects alveolar bone healing is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which osteoporosis affects the jaw skeleton and then to evaluate possible mechanisms whereby an osteoporotic phenotype might affect the rate of alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction. Using an ovariectomized mouse model coupled with micro-computed tomographic imaging, histologic, molecular, and cellular assays, we first demonstrated that the appendicular and jaw skeletons both develop osteoporotic phenotypes...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
X Wu, W Qiu, Z Hu, J Lian, Y Liu, X Zhu, M Tu, F Fang, Y Yu, P Valverde, Q Tu, Y Yu, J Chen
Periodontitis is twice as prevalent in diabetics as in nondiabetics, and type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated periodontitis is severe in many cases due to the altered and aberrant functions of bone cells in hyperglycemic conditions. Therefore, developing an effective method to halt the disease process, as well as restore and regenerate lost alveolar bone to reserve the natural teeth in diabetics, is critically important. In the current study, we applied a newly discovered adiponectin receptor agonist AdipoRon (APR) in experimental periodontitis in diabetic animal models and demonstrated the underlying molecular mechanisms...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
J K Cha, J S Lee, C S Kim
The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical, microbial, and radiographic effects of local minocycline combined with surgical treatment of peri-implantitis. Fifty patients with peri-implantitis were recruited, and surgical treatment with the local application of either minocycline or placebo ointment was performed. The application of minocycline was repeated with supragingival debridement at 1, 3, and 6 mo postoperatively. Plaque index, gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and bleeding/suppuration on probing were measured at baseline and 1-, 3-, and 6-mo evaluations...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
M N Michalski, L E Zweifler, B P Sinder, A J Koh, J Yamashita, H Roca, L K McCauley
Ineffective oral wound healing is detrimental to patients' oral health-related quality of life. Delineating the cellular mechanisms involved in optimal healing will elicit better approaches to treating patients with compromised healing. Osteal macrophages have recently emerged as important positive regulators of bone turnover. The contributions of macrophages to long bone healing have been studied, but their role in oral osseous wound healing following tooth extraction is less clear. Clodronate-loaded liposomes were used as a tool to deplete macrophages in C57BL/6J mice and assess oral osseous bone fill after extraction...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
M V Bais
The most common type of head and neck cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), can develop therapeutic resistance that complicates its treatment. The 5-y survival rate for HNSCC remains at ~50%, and improving these outcomes requires a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HNSCC. Studies of HNSCC using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo approaches provide a novel conceptual framework based on epigenetic mechanisms for developing future clinical applications. Normal oral tissues are influenced by environmental factors that induce pathological changes affecting the network of epigenetic enzymes and signaling pathways to induce HNSCC growth and metastasis...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
X Zhang, X Yuan, Q Xu, M Arioka, L A Van Brunt, Y Shi, J Brunski, J A Helms
A soft food diet leads to changes in the periodontal ligament (PDL). These changes, which have been recognized for more than a century, are ascribed to alterations in mechanical loading. While these adaptive responses have been well characterized, the molecular, cellular, and mechanical mechanisms underlying the changes have not. Here, we implicate Wnt signaling in the pathoetiology of PDL responses to underloading. We show that Wnt-responsive cells and their progeny in the PDL space exhibit a burst in proliferation in response to mastication...
January 5, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
J P de Sousa, R G Carvalho, L F Barbosa-Martins, R J S Torquato, K C U Mugnol, F D Nascimento, I L S Tersariol, R M Puppin-Rontani
The major goal in restorative dentistry is to develop a true regenerative approach that fully recovers hydroxyapatite crystals within the caries lesion. Recently, a rationally designed self-assembling peptide P11 -4 (Ace-QQRFEWEFEQQ-NH2 ) has been developed to enhance remineralization on initial caries lesions, yet its applicability on dentin tissues remains unclear. Thus, the present study investigated the interaction of P11 -4 with the organic dentin components as well as the effect of P11 -4 on the proteolytic activity, mechanical properties of the bonding interface, and nanoleakage evaluation to artificial caries-affected dentin...
January 5, 2019: Journal of Dental Research
R Li, Z Chen, Q Yu, M Weng, Z Chen
Cleft palate, a common congenital deformity, can arise from disruptions in any stage of palatogenesis, including palatal shelf growth, elevation, adhesion, and fusion. Paired box gene 9 (Pax9) is recognized as a vital regulator of palatogenesis with great relevance to cleft palate in humans and mice. Pax9-deficient murine palatal shelves displayed deficient elongation, postponed elevation, failed contact, and fusion. Pax9 is expressed in epithelium and mesenchyme, exhibiting a dynamic expression pattern that changes according to the proceeding of palatogenesis...
December 24, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
W Qiao, X M Lan, H X Ma, J Y K Chan, V W Y Lui, K W K Yeung, D L W Kwong, Z Hu, J K H Tsoi, J P Matinlinna, Y X Su
Magnesium (Mg) has been known to play vital roles in regulating growth and various metabolic processes. In recent years, the association between Mg and tumorigenesis has raised more and more attention. However, the effects of Mg on the progression of head and neck carcinoma (HNC), as well as the mechanism behind it, remain undefined. In this study, the roles of Mg in tumorigenic activities were tested in CAL27 and FaDu cells as well as in a xenograft tumor model in nude mice. We demonstrated that a moderate increase in extracellular Mg contributed to the proliferation, migration, and invasion of 2 HNC cell lines, while the addition of Mg in drinking water promoted the growth of xenograft tumors in mice without altering their serum Mg levels...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
J S Shim, B Kim, H C Park, J J Ryu
Wnts determine cell polarity, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation during embryogenesis and play an essential role during tooth development initiation and morphogenesis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling has a time-dependent role in development because various signaling molecules that mutually interact are involved in the pathway, and tight regulation of the pathway is essential for normal development. Studies investigating how the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway controls the different stages of tooth development are rare...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
S Aponso, J G Ummadi, H Davis, J Ferracane, D Koley
The chemical microenvironment surrounding dental composites plays a crucial role in controlling the bacteria grown on these specialized surfaces. In this study, we report a scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM)-based analytic technique to design and optimize metal ion-releasing bioactive glass (BAG) composites, which showed a significant reduction in biofilm growth. SECM allows positioning of the probe without touching the substrate while mapping the chemical parameters in 3-dimensional space above the substrate...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
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