Amirhosein Nejat, Samuel Berchi Kankam, Vahid Heidari, Keyvan Tayebi Meybodi, Zohreh Habibi, Sajedeh Karami, Farideh Nejat
INTRODUCTION: To investigate and identify the predictors associated with the incidence of seizures in patients with encephalocele (EC). METHOD: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of patients treated for EC at a tertiary medical center in Tehran between 2010 and 2021. Data including age at presentation, gender, location, size and contents of EC, ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus, associated anomalies, and neurodevelopmental delay (NDD) were evaluated for their prognostic value...
September 26, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Kevin X Liu, Daphne A Haas-Kogan, Hesham Elhalawani
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system tumors are the most common solid tumors in childhood. Treatment paradigms for pediatric central nervous system malignancies depend on elements including tumor histology, age of patient, and stage of disease. Radiotherapy is an important modality of treatment for many pediatric central nervous system malignancies. SUMMARY: While radiation contributes to excellent overall survival rates for many patients, radiation also carries significant risks of long-term side effects including neurocognitive decline, hearing loss, growth impairment, neuroendocrine dysfunction, strokes, and secondary malignancies...
September 13, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Jasmine L Hect, Roberta K Sefcik, Kamil W Nowicki, Joel Katz, Stephanie Greene
INTRODUCTION: Gram-negative rod (GNR) bacterial ventriculitis is a rare complication of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus, often requiring an extended and invasive treatment course. Accumulation of purulent material, as well as empyema and septation formation, limits circulation of antibiotics and infection clearance. Supplementation of standard care with neuroendoscopic-guided intraventricular lavage with lactated Ringer solution and fenestration of septations may facilitate infection clearance and simplify the eventual shunt construct required...
September 13, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Griffin P Bins, Deborah Cull, Ryan G Layton, Samuel Kogan, Larry Zhou, Blake Dunson, Lisa R David, Christopher M Runyan
BACKGROUND: Sagittal craniosynostosis (SC) is associated with scaphocephaly, an elongated narrow head shape. Assessment of regional severity in the scaphocephalic head is limited by the use of serial CT imaging or complex computer programing. Three-dimensional measurements of cranial surface morphology provide a radiation-free alternative for assessing cranial shape. This study describes the creation of an Occipital Bulleting Index (OBI), a novel tool using surface morphology to assess the regional severity in patients with SC...
September 13, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Weiping Zhang, Jingling Wang, Hui Wu, Li Chen
INTRODUCTION: Closed spina bifida (CSB) is a rare condition with a challenging prenatal diagnosis. Herein, we assess the conventional two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) combined with three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (US) and MRI in the prenatal diagnosis of CSB. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 20 cases of fetal CSB confirmed by postnatal MRI, post-mortem pathological examination, or postpartum surgery. Prenatal 2D US complemented with the 3D US was performed in all fetuses to evaluate the characteristics of the conus, vertebral arch, and scoliosis...
September 12, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Thierry A G M Huisman, Rajan Patel, Stephen Kralik, Nilesh K Desai, Avner Meoded, Karen Chen, Howard L Weiner, Daniel J Curry, Maarten Lequin, Mariette Kranendonk, Gunes Orman, George Jallo
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging has evolved from anatomical imaging towards a multi-modality comprehensive anatomical and functional imaging in the past decades, important functional data like perfusion weighted imaging, permeability imaging, diffusion weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DWI, DTI), tractography, metabolic imaging, connectomics, event related functional imaging, resting state functional imaging, and much more is now being offered. SUMMARY: Precision diagnostics has proven to be essential for precision treatment...
August 21, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Sarah Al-Jilaihawi, Stephen Lowis
Paediatric low grade gliomas (pLGGs) are the most common primary brain tumour in children. Though considered benign, slow-growing lesions with excellent overall survival, their long-term morbidity can be significant, both from the tumour and secondary to treatment. Vast progress has been made in recent years to better understand the molecular biology underlying pLGGs, with promising implications for new targeted therapeutic strategies. A multi-layered classification system of biologic subgroups, integrating distinct molecular and histological features has evolved to further our clinical understanding of these heterogenous tumours...
August 21, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Jay I Kumar, George I Jallo, Nir Shimony
BACKGROUND: Spinal tumors are rare pathology in the pediatric population. The tumors can be classified as extradural, intradural extramedullary, or intramedullary. Any of the spinal tumors can eventually lead to spinal deformity. The progressive spinal deformity can be part of the initial presentation or evolve on long follow-up, even years after the initial intervention and treatment. SUMMARY: Management of spinal deformity associated with spinal tumors in children is not well defined...
August 2, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Fardad T Afshari, Muhammad Zubair Tahir
Not Applicable (Letter to the editor).
June 30, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Benjamin Hall, John Charles Duddy, Katerina Apostolopoulou, Raenette David, Arthur Kurzbuch, Abhishek Nadkarni, Sandhya Trichinopoly Krishna, Ben Cooper, Hayley Gouldbourne, Dawn Hennigan, William Dawes, Jonathan Ellenbogen, Chris Parks, Benedetta Pettorini, Ajay Sinha, Conor Mallucci
Introduction We present the largest series of paediatric intracranial empyemas occurring after COVID-19 infection to date, and discuss the potential implications of the pandemic on this neurosurgical pathology. Methods Patients admitted to our centre between January 2016 and December 2021 with a confirmed radiological diagnosis of intracranial empyema were retrospectively reviewed, excluding non-otorhinological source cases. Patients were grouped according to onset before or after onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, and COVID-19 status...
June 30, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Shane Shahrestani, Nathan Shlobin, Julian L Gendreau, Nolan J Brown, Alexander Himstead, Neal A Patel, Noah Pierzchajlo, Sachiv Chakravarti, Darrin Jason Lee, Peter A Chiarelli, Carli L Bullis, Jason Chu
Introduction Hydrocephalus is a common pediatric neurosurgical pathology typically treated with a ventricular shunt, yet approximately 30% of patients experience shunt failure within the first year after surgery. As a result, the objective of the present study to validate a predictive model of pediatric shunt complications with data retrieved from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) National Readmissions Database (NRD). Methods The HCUP NRD was queried from 2016 to 2017 for pediatric patients undergoing shunt placement using ICD-10 codes...
June 30, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Elena Filimonova, Azniv Martirosyan, Konstantin Ovsiannikov, Anton Pashkov, Jamil Rzaev
INTRODUCTION: Surgical revascularization is very effective in patients with moyamoya angiopathy (MMA) and leads to improvements in cortical perfusion parameters. However, changes in white matter hemodynamics are still underestimated. To date, only a few studies have examined brain perfusion changes within deep white matter after bypass surgery in patients with MMA. METHODS: Ten children with moyamoya angiopathy were evaluated using the CT perfusion technique before and after revascularization surgery...
June 28, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Marina Saga, Akira Yamaura, Tadashi Miyagawa
INTRODUCTION: Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis are rare benign mesenchymal adipose tumors that originate from embryonic white adipocytes and occur most commonly in infancy and early childhood. Lipoblastomas occur in the extremities and trunk, including the retroperitoneum and peritoneal cavity. Therefore, infiltration into the spinal canal has rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year-old girl presented to our clinic because of difficulty sitting on the floor with her legs straight...
June 14, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Mervyn Jr Lim, Enrica Ek Tan, Ru Xin Wong, Kenneth Te Chang, Marielle V Fortier, Tien Meng Cheong, Lee Ping Ng, Sharon Yy Low
INTRODUCTION: Primary intracranial malignant melanoma (PIMM) is an extremely rare primary brain tumor with most cases diagnosed in adults. To date, there are only a few cases reported in the pediatric population. Owing to its infrequency, there are no established guidelines to treat this aggressive neoplasm. Recent insights suggest that PIMM are molecularly different between adults and children, whereby NRAS mutations drives tumor growth in the latter group. We present a unique case of PIMM in a pediatric patient and discuss the case in corroboration with current literature...
June 14, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Julia Austein, Friederike Austein, Katja A L├╝ders, Lena Braunschweig, Konstantinos Tsaknakis, Heiko M Lorenz, Anna Kathrin Hell
INTRODUCTION: Children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and progressive neuromuscular scoliosis often require early growth-friendly spinal implant (GFSI) treatment for deformity correction with implant fixation either through pedicle screws or bilateral to the spine using rib to pelvis fixation. It has been proposed that the latter fixation may change the collapsing parasol deformity via changes in the rib-vertebral angle (RVA) with a positive effect on thoracic and lung volume. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of paraspinal GFSI with bilateral rib to pelvis fixation on the parasol deformity, rib-vertebral angle (RVA), thoracic and lung volumes...
June 14, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Tom Rosenberg, Tabitha Cooney
BACKGROUND: Embryonal tumors are highly malignant cancers of the central nervous system, with a relatively high incidence in infants and young children. Even with intensive multimodal treatment the prognosis of many types is guarded, and treatment related toxicity is significant. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics allowed the discovery of novel entities and inter-tumor subgroups, with opportunities for improved risk-stratification and treatment approaches. SUMMARY: Medulloblastomas separate into four distinct subgroups with distinct clinicopathologic characteristics, and data from recent clinical trials for newly diagnosed medulloblastoma supports subgroup-specific treatment approaches...
May 26, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Scott Boop, David Bonda, Stephanie Randle, Sarah Leary, Nicholas Vitanza, Erin Crotty, Edward Novotny, Seth Friedman, Richard G Ellenbogen, Sharon Durfy, Hannah Goldstein, Jeffrey G Ojemann, Jason S Hauptman
Introduction Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is the most common CNS tumor in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Although these are benign, their proximity to the foramen of Monroe frequently causes obstructive hydrocephalus, a potentially fatal complication. Open surgical resection has been the mainstay of treatment; however, this can cause significant morbidity. The development of mTOR inhibitors has changed the treatment landscape, but there are limitations to their use. Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is an emerging treatment modality that has shown promise in treatment of a variety of intracranial lesions, including SEGAs...
May 24, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Kadir Oktay, Araz Aliyev, Halil Emre Alcan, Seyda Erdogan, Kerem Mazhar Ozsoy, Nuri Eralp Cetinalp, Tahsin Erman
INTRODUCTION: Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the jugular foramen is rare clinical entities, especially in the pediatric population. Thus, it can be confused with other pathologies. CASE PRESENTATION: We report an extremely rare case of a 14-year-old female patient with jugular foramen myxoid chondrosarcoma that was completely removed through microsurgical resection. CONCLUSION: The primary purpose of the treatment is gross total resection of the chondrosarcomas...
May 18, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Michael Jeffrey Vinzani, Mohammed Alshareef, Ramin Eskandari
INTRODUCTION: Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) malfunction rates are as high has 40% in the first year with post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) patients having the highest proximal occlusion risk. Debris, protein, and cellular ingrowth most commonly obstruct the proximal ventricular catheter and/or valve. Historically, no preventative methods have demonstrated efficacy. We present a technical note and case series describing the use of a retrograde proximal flushing device and prophylactic flushing protocol to maintain ventricular catheter patency and reduce proximal shunt occlusions...
May 5, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Vignan Kappagantu, Tej Prakash Sinha, Deepak Agrawal, Nayer Jamshed, Akshay Kumar, Atin Kumar, R M Pandey, Bharath Gopinath, Vidhya Bhushan, Atul Kumar Tiwari, Sanjeev Kumar Bhoi
INTRODUCTION: Role of CT scan, MRI, ophthalmoscopy, direct monitoring by a transducer probe in identifying raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in emergency department (ED) is limited. There are few studies correlating elevated optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measured by point of care ultrasound (POCUS) with raised ICP in pediatrics emergencies. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of ONSD, crescent sign and optic disc elevation in identifying increased ICP in pediatrics. METHODS: Prospective observational study was done between April 2018 and August 2019 after ethics approval...
May 5, 2023: Pediatric Neurosurgery
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