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Sandra E Juul, Richard J Derman, Michael Auerbach
Iron deficiency, with or without anemia, is common in pregnant women. In fact, nearly 30% of reproductive-age women are anemic worldwide, and anemia in pregnancy has an estimated global prevalence of 38%. Severe anemia can substantially increase the risk of maternal mortality, and can adversely affect fetal development. In this review, we examine the available data regarding epidemiology and consequences of iron deficiency in mothers and infants, current treatment strategies, and make recommendations for screening and treatment of iron deficiency anemia in gravidas and neonates...
February 13, 2019: Neonatology
Floris Groenendaal, Peter G J Nikkels, Maarten H Lequin, Joline L H de Sévaux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Neonatology
Susan C Shelmerdine, Willemijn Klein, Owen J Arthurs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Neonatology
Francesco Raimondi, Nadya Yousef, Javier Rodriguez Fanjul, Daniele De Luca, Iuri Corsini, Shivani Shankar-Aguilera, Carlo Dani, Vito Di Guardo, Silvia Lama, Fabio Mosca, Fiorella Migliaro, Angela Sodano, Gianfranco Vallone, Letizia Capasso
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Discordant results that demand clarification have been published on diagnostic lung ultrasound (LUS) signs of transient tachypnea of the neonate (TTN) in previous cross-sectional, single-center studies. This work was conducted to correlate clinical and imaging data in a longitudinal and multicenter fashion. METHODS: Neonates with a gestational age of 34-40 weeks and presenting with TTN underwent a first LUS scan at 60-180 min of life. LUS scans were repeated every 6-12 h if signs of respiratory distress persisted...
February 7, 2019: Neonatology
Sushma Nangia, Vinoth Vadivel, Anu Thukral, Arvind Saili
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of early total enteral feeding (ETEF) when compared with conventional enteral feeding (CEF) in stable very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; 1,000-1,499 g) infants on the postnatal age (in days) at attaining full enteral feeds. METHODS: In this unblinded randomised controlled trial, 180 infants were allocated to an ETEF (n = 91) or a CEF group (n = 89). Feeds were initiated as total enteral feeds in the ETEF group and as minimal enteral nutrition (20 mL/kg) in the CEF group...
January 30, 2019: Neonatology
Irina Meledin, Hilla Tzur-Sebton, Iris Noyman, Michael Friger, Guy Hazan, Eilon Shany
BACKGROUND: The incidence of seizures in the neonatal period is thought to be high due to a lower seizure threshold of the immature brain. Data on seizures in extremely premature infants are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether seizures are an independent risk factor for in-hospital death and to determine the incidence of seizures in extremely premature infants. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Included were infants born under 28 weeks' gestation and monitored with amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) over the first 3 days of life...
January 22, 2019: Neonatology
William W Hay, Paul J Rozance
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2019: Neonatology
Nienke Wagenaar, Lucas H Rijsman, Astrid Nieuwets, Floris Groenendaal
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants show a decreased tortuosity in all proximal segments of the cerebral vasculature at term-equivalent age (TEA). Recently MRI techniques were developed to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) based on phase-contrast images. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that arterial CBF corrected for brain size differs between full-term and preterm infants at TEA. METHODS: 344 infants without major brain abnormalities had a cranial MRI for clinical reasons including phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PC-MRA) around TEA (mean 41...
January 22, 2019: Neonatology
Timothy M Bahr, Robert D Christensen, Archana M Agarwal, Tracy I George, Vinod K Bhutani
BACKGROUND: Acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE) is a potentially devastating condition that can lead to death or life-long neurodevelopmental handicaps. ABE is particularly tragic because it is, in theory, completely preventable. Progress toward its prevention has been hampered by the perception that the extreme hyperbilirubinemia giving rise to ABE typically has no clear causation, with the majority of previous cases being labeled as "idiopathic" neonatal jaundice. OBJECTIVES: This research briefing is intended to inform readers of a new prospective study aimed at clarifying the causes of ABE...
January 22, 2019: Neonatology
Deborah L Harris, Philip J Weston, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Feeding is often used for the initial treatment of hypoglycaemia, but it is not known if pre-feed alertness and observed quality of breastfeeding are related to the subsequent change in blood glucose concentration. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if assessment of pre-feed alertness and the observed quality of the breastfeed were related to the subsequent change in blood glucose concentration in hypoglycaemic babies. METHODS: Babies were ≥35 weeks, ≤48 h old, identified as being at-risk for hypoglycaemia (infants of diabetic mothers, small [< 2,500 g or < 10th centile] or large [birthweight > 4,500 g or > 90th centile] birthweight) and hypoglycaemic (< 2...
January 22, 2019: Neonatology
Ann Carolin Longardt, Andrea Loui, Christoph Bührer, Monika Berns
BACKGROUND: Milk curd obstruction as a cause of intestinal obstruction has been known since 1959, but has nearly disappeared. However, in recent years it has experienced a revival in small premature infants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of milk curd obstruction (lactobezoar) in preterm infants. METHODS: Data of preterm infants with milk curd obstruction cared for at a large tertiary neonatal intensive care unit between 2012 and 2016 were retrieved from the electronic registry and paper records...
January 15, 2019: Neonatology
Gerdina H Dubbink-Verheij, Remco Visser, Ratna N G B Tan, Arno A W Roest, Enrico Lopriore, Arjan B Te Pas
BACKGROUND: Migration of umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) has been described anecdotally. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper was to investigate migration of UVCs using ultrasonography (US). METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the position of UVCs was determined using serial US within 24 h, at midweek, and at the end of the week after umbilical catheterization. Migration was recorded in distance and direction. Malposition was defined as a position of the UVC in the heart (right atrium or more distal along the UVC-route), umbilicoportal confluence, or in the umbilical vein...
January 15, 2019: Neonatology
Carlo Dani, Simone Pratesi, Alice Ilari, Daniele Lana, Maria Grazia Giovannini, Daniele Nosi, Daniele Buonvicino, Elisa Landucci, Daniele Bani, Guido Mannaioni, Elisabetta Gerace
BACKGROUND: The physiopathology of bilirubin-induced neurological disorders is not completely understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to assess the effect on bilirubin neurotoxicity of the maturity or immaturity of exposed cells, the influence of different unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) and human serum albumin (HSA) concentrations, and time of UCB exposure. METHODS: Organotypic hippocampal slices were exposed for 48 h to different UCB and HSA concentrations after 14 (mature) or 7 (immature) days of in vitro culture...
January 15, 2019: Neonatology
Francesco Bonsante, Duksha Ramful, Christine Binquet, Sylvain Samperiz, Sandrine Daniel, Jean-Bernard Gouyon, Silvia Iacobelli
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in preterm infants, and the identification of early markers of renal hypoperfusion is a chief challenge in neonatal intensive care units. OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between early markers of cardiovascular function and renal perfusion with AKI occurrence in a cohort of preterm infants < 32 weeks' gestation. METHODS: 128 infants were prospectively included from birth to discharge...
January 15, 2019: Neonatology
Pak Cheung Ng
Recent advances in molecular and mass screening technologies have paved the way for discovery of novel diagnostic tests and/or biomarkers for accurate identification of specific diseases and organ injuries. However, new diagnostic tests/biomarkers should be subjected to thorough evaluation before introduction into routine clinical practice. This review focuses on the up-to-date methodology in designing and evaluating diagnostic tests/biomarkers, and assessing their clinical utilities for improving health care efficiency, cost-effectiveness and outcomes...
December 21, 2018: Neonatology
Jane Marie Alsweiler, Frank Harry Bloomfield, Jane Elizabeth Harding
BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical research, which encompasses studies in animals and in the laboratory, has made significant contributions to the improvement of neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Here, we describe examples of how pre-clinical research can be the starting point on the journey to the development of new interventions to improve neonatal care and outcomes and discuss recent progress in ensuring methodological and ethical rigour in pre-clinical research involving animal models...
December 6, 2018: Neonatology
Monika Kamianowska, Marek Szczepański, Elżbieta Ewa Kulikowska, Barbara Bebko, Anna Wasilewska
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a poorly understood complication of pregnancy. It may be associated with various diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and end-stage renal disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to check whether IUGR affects the function of renal tubules, as assessed by the tubular damage markers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1)...
December 4, 2018: Neonatology
Sanja Zivanovic, Alexandra Scrivens, Raffaella Panza, Peter Reynolds, Nicola Laforgia, Kevin N Ives, Charles C Roehr
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of nasal high-flow therapy (nHFT) as primary respiratory support for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in two tertiary neonatal units. METHODS: A retrospective outcome analysis of initial respiratory support strategies was performed in two tertiary neonatal units in the UK: John Radcliffe Hospital (JRH), Oxford and St Peter's Hospital (SPH), Chertsey. Infants born between 28+0 and 36+6 weeks gestational age (GA) between May 2013 and June 2015 were included...
December 4, 2018: Neonatology
Waleed Kurtom, Deepak Jain, Meiying Quan, Silvia Vanbuskirk, Eduardo Bancalari, Nelson Claure
BACKGROUND: In extremely premature infants, arterial hypotension in the first days after birth has been associated with an increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Some infants present with hypotension at a later postnatal age, but the relationship between late onset hypotension (LOH) and BPD has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between LOH and BPD and to identify pre- and postnatal factors associated with LOH. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from a cohort of 23-28 weeks gestational age (GA) infants born during years 2005-2015 and alive at day 28 were analyzed...
November 28, 2018: Neonatology
Dominique Bremond-Gignac, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain, Hendy Abdoul, Alejandra Daruich, Ariel Beresniak, Olivier Baud, Corinne Alberti
BACKGROUND: Eye drop treatment routinely used to obtain mydriasis prior to fundoscopy in neonates requires repeated instillations of mydriatic agents that can lead to systemic side effects. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the mydriatic efficacy and tolerance of administration of phenylephrine and tropicamide via the ophthalmic insert Mydriasert® versus standard eye drop treatment in neonates. METHODS: In this prospective, single-blinded, noninferiority study, 80 hospitalized neonates (age < 18 months) requiring bilateral fundus examination were randomized to receive eye drops (repeated instillations of 2...
November 27, 2018: Neonatology
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