Sports Medicine | Page 2

Yutaka Igarashi, Yoshie Nogami
BACKGROUND: According to previous epidemiological studies, there are pros and cons for the relationship between running regularly and changes in resting blood pressure (RBP), and the changes may depend on the form of exercise. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the current systematic review were to summarize the effects of running regularly on RBP and to investigate the most efficacious form of running in reducing RBP for this purpose. METHODS: The inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled trials, involving healthy adults or adults with hypertension, the exercise group only performed regular running and the control group did not exercise, and the study reported the mean resting systolic blood pressure (RSBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (RDBP)...
November 1, 2019: Sports Medicine
Belinda Thompson, Ashley Almarjawi, Dean Sculley, Xanne Janse de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Resistance training is well known to increase strength and lean body mass, and plays a key role in many female athletic and recreational training programs. Most females train throughout their reproductive years when they are exposed to continuously changing female steroid hormone profiles due to the menstrual cycle or contraceptive use. Therefore, it is important to focus on how female hormones may affect resistance training responses. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to identify and critically appraise current studies on the effect of the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptives on responses to resistance training...
November 1, 2019: Sports Medicine
Javier Raya-González, Tara Rendo-Urteaga, Raúl Domínguez, Daniel Castillo, Alejandro Rodríguez-Fernández, Jozo Grgic
BACKGROUND: Several studies investigated the effects of caffeine supplementation on movement velocity in resistance exercise. However, these studies presented inconsistent findings. OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to: (a) review the studies that explored the effects of caffeine supplementation on movement velocity in resistance exercise; and (b) pool their results using a meta-analysis. METHODS: A search for studies was performed through seven databases...
October 23, 2019: Sports Medicine
Richard A Brindle, Jeffrey B Taylor, Coty Rajek, Anika Weisbrod, Kevin R Ford
BACKGROUND: Temporal spatial parameters during running are measurable outside of clinical and laboratory environments using wearable technology. Data from wearable technology may be useful for injury prevention, however the association of temporal spatial parameters with overuse injury in runners remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between overuse injury and temporal spatial parameters during running. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases were searched using keywords related to temporal spatial parameters, running, and overuse injury, and authors' personal article collections through hand search...
October 23, 2019: Sports Medicine
Gabrielle E W Giersch, Nisha Charkoudian, Rebecca L Stearns, Douglas J Casa
Although it is well understood that dehydration can have a major impact on exercise performance and thermoregulatory physiology, the potential for interactions between female sex hormone influences and the impact of dehydration on these variables is poorly understood. Female reproductive hormonal profiles over the course of the menstrual cycle have significant influences on thermoregulatory and volume regulatory physiology. Increased insight into the interactions among dehydration and menstrual cycle hormonal influences may have important implications for safety, nutritional recommendations, as well as optimal mental and physical performance...
October 22, 2019: Sports Medicine
James T Eckner, Jingshen Wang, Lindsay D Nelson, Richard Bancroft, Melissa Pohorence, Xuming He, Steven P Broglio, Christopher C Giza, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Jeffrey S Kutcher, Michael McCrea
OBJECTIVES: To compare pre-season to post-season changes on a battery of clinical neurological outcome measures between non-contact, contact, and collision sport athletes over multiple seasons of play. METHODS: 244 high school and collegiate athletes participating in multiple non-contact, contact, and collision sports completed standardized annual pre-season and post-season assessments over 1-4 years. Pre/post-season changes in 10 outcome measures assessing concussion symptoms, neurocognitive performance, and balance were compared between the groups using linear mixed models...
October 21, 2019: Sports Medicine
Jan Wilke, Anna-Lena Müller, Florian Giesche, Gerard Power, Hamid Ahmedi, David G Behm
BACKGROUND: Foam rolling (FR) has been demonstrated to acutely enhance joint range of motion (ROM). However, data syntheses pooling the effect sizes across studies are scarce. It is, furthermore, unknown which moderators affect the treatment outcome. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the immediate effects of FR on ROM in healthy adults. METHODS: A multilevel meta-analysis with a robust random effects meta-regression model was used to pool the standardized mean differences (SMD) between FR and no-exercise (NEX) as well as FR and stretching...
October 18, 2019: Sports Medicine
Fernando González-Mohíno, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Inmaculada Yustres, José M González-Ravé
BACKGROUND: Oxygen cost of running is largely influenced by endurance training strategies, including interval and continuous training. However, which training method better reduces the oxygen cost remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically review the scientific literature and performs a meta-analysis to address the effects of different endurance training modalities on the oxygen cost of running. METHODS: A literature search on 3 databases (MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science) was conducted on February 28, 2019...
October 12, 2019: Sports Medicine
Ken Quarrie, Simon Gianotti, Ian Murphy
Page 11, column 2, section 4.2 Injury Epidemiology, paragraph 4.
October 9, 2019: Sports Medicine
Gordon Dunlop, Clare L Ardern, Thor Einar Andersen, Colin Lewin, Gregory Dupont, Ben Ashworth, Gary O'Driscoll, Andrew Rolls, Susan Brown, Alan McCall
PURPOSE: Return-to-play (RTP) is an on-going challenge in professional football. Return-to-play related research is increasing. However, it is unknown to what extent the recommendations presented within research are being implemented by professional football teams, and where there are gaps between research and practice. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if premier-league football teams worldwide follow a RTP continuum, (2) to identify RTP criteria used and (3) to understand how RTP decision-making occurs in applied practice...
October 8, 2019: Sports Medicine
Shiqi Thng, Simon Pearson, Justin W L Keogh
No sources of funding were used in the preparation of this article.
October 3, 2019: Sports Medicine
Despoina V Tryfidou, Conor McClean, Michalis G Nikolaidis, Gareth W Davison
Page 17, Fig. 2.
October 1, 2019: Sports Medicine
Wolfram Müller, Alfred Fürhapter-Rieger, Helmut Ahammer, Timothy G Lohman, Nanna L Meyer, Luis B Sardinha, Arthur D Stewart, Ronald J Maughan, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Tom Müller, Margaret Harris, Nuwanee Kirihennedige, Joao P Magalhaes, Xavier Melo, Wolfram Pirstinger, Alba Reguant-Closa, Vanessa Risoul-Salas, Timothy R Ackland
INTRODUCTION: Fat is a metabolic fuel, but excess body fat is ballast mass, and therefore, many elite athletes reduce body fat to dangerously low levels. Uncompressed subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness measured by brightness-mode ultrasound (US) provides an estimate of body fat content. METHODS: The accuracy for determining tissue borders is about 0.1-0.2 mm and reliability (experienced measurers) was within ± 1.4 mm (95% limit of agreement, LOA)...
September 30, 2019: Sports Medicine
Benedict Low, Diogo Coutinho, Bruno Gonçalves, Robert Rein, Daniel Memmert, Jaime Sampaio
BACKGROUND: Performance analysis research in association football has recently cusped a paradigmatic shift in the way tactical behaviours are studied. Based on insights from system complexity research, a growing number of studies now analyse tactical behaviours in football based on the collective movements of team players. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to provide a summary of empirical research on collective tactical behaviours in football, with a particular focus on organising the methods used and their key findings...
September 30, 2019: Sports Medicine
Luca Maestroni, Paul Read, Chris Bishop, Anthony Turner
Injuries have a detrimental impact on team and individual athletic performance. Deficits in maximal strength, rate of force development (RFD), and reactive strength are commonly reported following several musculoskeletal injuries. This article first examines the available literature to identify common deficits in fundamental physical qualities following injury, specifically strength, rate of force development and reactive strength. Secondly, evidence-based strategies to target a resolution of these residual deficits will be discussed to reduce the risk of future injury...
September 26, 2019: Sports Medicine
Paul J Collings, Diane Farrar, Joanna Gibson, Jane West, Sally E Barber, John Wright
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is advocated for a range of benefits to the uncomplicated pregnancy. We investigated associations of mid-pregnancy physical activity with maternal and neonatal health in white British and Pakistani-origin women from a deprived urban setting. METHODS: The study was performed in 6921 pregnant women (53% Pakistani-origin) who contributed data for 7305 singleton births. At 26-28 weeks gestation, women were grouped into four activity levels (inactive/somewhat active/moderately active/active) based on their self-reported physical activity...
September 26, 2019: Sports Medicine
Dahan da Cunha Nascimento, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jonato Prestes
Blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise (a.k.a. occlusion training) has emerged as a viable surrogate to traditional heavy-load strength rehabilitation training for a broad range of clinical populations including elderly subjects and rehabilitating athletes. A particular benefit of BFR exercise is the lower stress upon the joints as compared to traditional heavy resistance training, with similar gains in muscle strength and size. The application of an inflatable cuff to the proximal portion of the limbs increases the pressure required for venous return, leading to changes in venous compliance and wall tension...
September 26, 2019: Sports Medicine
Antonio García-Hermoso, Alicia M Alonso-Martinez, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Mikel Izquierdo
BACKGROUND: No previous systematic review has quantitatively examined the effect of physical exercise interventions on health-related physical fitness and blood pressure in children younger than 6 years old. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on health-related physical fitness (i.e., physical fitness components and body composition) and blood pressure in preschoolers. METHODS: We searched four databases. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), evaluating the effectiveness of exercise intervention on weight-related outcomes, blood pressure, and physical fitness components in preschoolers (1-5...
September 25, 2019: Sports Medicine
Roland Loh, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Dirk Folkerts, Judith E Allgrove, Hannah J Moir
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) breaks in sitting time might attenuate metabolic markers relevant to the prevention of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this paper was to systematically review and meta-analyse trials that compared the effects of breaking up prolonged sitting with bouts of PA throughout the day (INT) versus continuous sitting (SIT) on glucose, insulin and triacylglycerol (TAG) measures. A second aim was to compare the effects of INT versus continuous exercise (EX) on glucose, insulin and TAG measures...
September 24, 2019: Sports Medicine
Garcia Ashdown-Franks, Joseph Firth, Rebekah Carney, Andre F Carvalho, Mats Hallgren, Ai Koyanagi, Simon Rosenbaum, Felipe B Schuch, Lee Smith, Marco Solmi, Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND: Exercise may improve neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in people with mental disorders, but the totality of the evidence is unclear. We conducted a meta-review of exercise in (1) serious mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum, bipolar disorder and major depression (MDD)); (2) anxiety and stress disorders; (3) alcohol and substance use disorders; (4) eating disorders (anorexia nervosa bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorders, and (5) other mental disorders (including ADHD, pre/post-natal depression)...
September 20, 2019: Sports Medicine
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