Adam Grainger, Paul Comfort, Craig Twist, Shane M Heffernan, Giampiero Tarantino
BACKGROUND: Professional rugby union is a high-intensity contact sport with position-specific high training and match volumes across a season that may lead to periods of fatigue if above a typically experienced threshold. This study assesses the influence of match play and/or training on fatigue levels in rugby union players. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of measures used to assess fatigue status in male professional rugby union players...
December 20, 2023: Sports Medicine
Nitin Kumar Arora, Lars Donath, Patrick J Owen, Clint T Miller, Tobias Saueressig, Felicitas Winter, Marina Hambloch, Christopher Neason, Vera Karner, Daniel L Belavy
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain conditions are the largest contributors to disability and healthcare burden globally. Exercise interventions improve physical function and quality of life in individuals with musculoskeletal pain, yet optimal exercise prescription variables (e.g. duration, frequency, intensity) are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine evidence gaps, methodological quality and exercise prescription recommendations in systematic reviews of exercise for musculoskeletal pain...
December 14, 2023: Sports Medicine
Johannes Burtscher, Antoine Raberin, Franck Brocherie, Davide Malatesta, Giorgio Manferdelli, Tom Citherlet, Bastien Krumm, Nicolas Bourdillon, Juliana Antero, Letizia Rasica, Martin Burtscher, Grégoire P Millet
The (patho-)physiological responses to hypoxia are highly heterogeneous between individuals. In this review, we focused on the roles of sex differences, which emerge as important factors in the regulation of the body's reaction to hypoxia. Several aspects should be considered for future research on hypoxia-related sex differences, particularly altitude training and clinical applications of hypoxia, as these will affect the selection of the optimal dose regarding safety and efficiency. There are several implications, but there are no practical recommendations if/how women should behave differently from men to optimise the benefits or minimise the risks of these hypoxia-related practices...
December 12, 2023: Sports Medicine
Kristin J Terry, Dusty Narducci, Byron Moran, Patrick Chang, David Orlando, Bradford Bindas, Elizabeth Botto, Austin Retzloff, Daniel Esan, Eric Coris
Amidst the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, myocarditis in athletes has demanded increased attention primarily because of the risk of sudden cardiac death. While most athletes who experience myocardial inflammation recover, extensive measures for screening and diagnosis are taken because of the possibility of cardiac necrosis, fibrosis, and remodeling. Several risk factors have been identified that may contribute to the development of this inflammatory response, predominantly a history of viral or bacterial upper-respiratory infections...
December 11, 2023: Sports Medicine
Christopher Latella, Daniel van den Hoek, Milo Wolf, Patroklos Androulakis-Korakakis, James P Fisher, James Steele
INTRODUCTION: Several retrospective studies of strength sport athletes have reported strength adaptations over months to years; however, such adaptations are not linear. METHODS: We explored changes in strength over time in a large, retrospective sample of powerlifting (PL) athletes. Specifically, we examined the rate and magnitude of strength adaptation based on age category and weight class for PL competition total, and the squat, bench press, and deadlift, respectively...
December 7, 2023: Sports Medicine
Harry A Brown, Thomas H Topham, Brad Clark, Leonidas G Ioannou, Andreas D Flouris, James W Smallcombe, Richard D Telford, Ollie Jay, Julien D Périard
BACKGROUND: Athletes and military personnel are often expected to compete and work in hot and/or humid environments, where decrements in performance and an increased risk of exertional heat illness are prevalent. A physiological strategy for reducing the adverse effects of heat stress is to acclimatise to the heat. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the effects of relocating to a hotter climate to undergo heat acclimatisation in athletes and military personnel...
December 5, 2023: Sports Medicine
Yuri Lopes Lima, Tyler J Collings, Michelle Hall, Matthew N Bourne, Laura E Diamond
BACKGROUND: One mechanism by which exercise interventions may be effective in reducing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk is through changes in lower limb biomechanics. Understanding how training programmes affect lower-limb kinematics and kinetics may help refine injury prevention programmes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of injury prevention programmes on kinematics and kinetics during tasks related to ACL injury in female team field and court sports...
December 4, 2023: Sports Medicine
Fraser Thurlow, Minh Huynh, Andrew Townshend, Shaun J McLaren, Lachlan P James, Jonathon M Taylor, Matthew Weston, Jonathon Weakley
BACKGROUND: Repeated-sprint training (RST) is a common training method for enhancing physical fitness in athletes. To advance RST prescription, it is important to understand the effects of programming variables on physical fitness and physiological adaptation. OBJECTIVES: This study (1) quantifies the pooled effects of running RST on changes in 10 and 20 m sprint time, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ), Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YYIR1) distance, repeated-sprint ability (RSA), countermovement jump (CMJ) height and change of direction (COD) ability in athletes, and (2) examines the moderating effects of program duration, training frequency, weekly volume, sprint modality, repetition distance, number of repetitions per set and number of sets per session on changes in these outcome measures...
December 2, 2023: Sports Medicine
Matthew Buckthorpe, Alli Gokeler, Lee Herrington, Mick Hughes, Alberto Grassi, Ross Wadey, Stephen Patterson, Alessandro Compagnin, Giovanni La Rosa, Francesco Della Villa
Outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) need improving, with poor return-to-sport rates and a high risk of secondary re-injury. There is a need to improve rehabilitation strategies post-ACLR, if we can support enhanced patient outcomes. This paper discusses how to optimise the early-stage rehabilitation process post-ACLR. Early-stage rehabilitation is the vital foundation on which successful rehabilitation post-ACLR can occur. Without high-quality early-stage (and pre-operative) rehabilitation, patients often do not overcome major aspects of dysfunction, which limits knee function and the ability to transition through subsequent stages of rehabilitation optimally...
January 2024: Sports Medicine
Lawrence L Spriet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2023: Sports Medicine
Alexandra M Coates, Michael J Joyner, Jonathan P Little, Andrew M Jones, Martin J Gibala
Interval training is a simple concept that refers to repeated bouts of relatively hard work interspersed with recovery periods of easier work or rest. The method has been used by high-level athletes for over a century to improve performance in endurance-type sports and events such as middle- and long-distance running. The concept of interval training to improve health, including in a rehabilitative context or when practiced by individuals who are relatively inactive or deconditioned, has also been advanced for decades...
December 2023: Sports Medicine
Shelley E Keating, Angelo Sabag, Kate Hallsworth, Ingrid J Hickman, Graeme A Macdonald, Jonathan G Stine, Jacob George, Nathan A Johnson
Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide, affecting 25% of people globally and up to 80% of people with obesity. MAFLD is characterised by fat accumulation in the liver (hepatic steatosis) with varying degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. MAFLD is strongly linked with cardiometabolic disease and lifestyle-related cancers, in addition to heightened liver-related morbidity and mortality. This position statement examines evidence for exercise in the management of MAFLD and describes the role of the exercise professional in the context of the multi-disciplinary care team...
December 2023: Sports Medicine
Nicklas Junge, Tobias B Jørgensen, Lars Nybo
BACKGROUND: According to the principle of specific adaptations to imposed demands, training induces specific adaptations that predominantly transfer towards performance tasks of similar physiological and/or biomechanical characteristics. Functional performance improvements secondary to resistance and plyometric training have been hypothesized to be force-vector specific; however, the literature pertaining to this matter appears somewhat equivocal. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present systematic review with meta-analysis was to synthesize the available body of literature regarding the performance implications of vertically and horizontally oriented resistance- and plyometric training...
December 2023: Sports Medicine
Darren G Candow, Scott C Forbes, Sergej M Ostojic, Konstantinos Prokopidis, Matt S Stock, Kylie K Harmon, Paul Faulkner
There is emerging interest regarding the potential beneficial effects of creatine supplementation on indices of brain health and function. Creatine supplementation can increase brain creatine stores, which may help explain some of the positive effects on measures of cognition and memory, especially in aging adults or during times of metabolic stress (i.e., sleep deprivation). Furthermore, creatine has shown promise for improving health outcome measures associated with muscular dystrophy, traumatic brain injury (including concussions in children), depression, and anxiety...
December 2023: Sports Medicine
Peter Peeling, Marc Sim, Alannah K A McKay
Vitamins and minerals are of fundamental importance to numerous human functions that are essential to optimise athlete performance. Athletes incur a high turnover of key vitamins and minerals and are therefore dependent on sufficient energy intake to replenish nutrient stores. However, many athletes are poor at servicing their energy replenishment needs, especially female athletes, and although a 'food first approach' to meeting nutrient requirements is the primary goal, it may be important for some athletes to consider a vitamin and/or mineral supplement to meet their daily needs...
December 2023: Sports Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2023: Sports Medicine
Anna Cronström, Eva Tengman, Charlotte K Häger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2023: Sports Medicine
Alejandra Duarte, Silvia González-Gómez, Maria Rueda, Jose David Cardona Ortegón
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2023: Sports Medicine
Bradley Sprouse, Jon Alty, Steve Kemp, Charlotte Cowie, Ritan Mehta, Alicia Tang, John Morris, Simon Cooper, Ian Varley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2023: Sports Medicine
Evan D Crotty, Laura-Anne M Furlong, Andrew J Harrison
Maximal sprinting in humans requires the contribution of various muscle-tendon units (MTUs) and joints to maximize performance. The plantar flexor MTU and ankle joint are of particular importance due to their role in applying force to the ground. This narrative review examines the contribution of the ankle joint and plantar flexor MTUs across the phases of sprinting (start, acceleration, and maximum velocity), alongside the musculotendinous properties that contribute to improved plantar flexor MTU performance...
November 21, 2023: Sports Medicine
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