David O Kennedy, Emma L Wightman
The plant defence compound caffeine is widely consumed as a performance enhancer in a sporting context, with potential benefits expected in both physiological and psychological terms. However, although caffeine modestly but consistently improves alertness and fatigue, its effects on mental performance are largely restricted to improved attention or concentration. It has no consistent effect within other cognitive domains that are important to sporting performance, including working memory, executive function and long-term memory...
November 30, 2022: Sports Medicine
Lawrence L Spriet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2022: Sports Medicine
Chris Chow Li Tee, Matthew B Cooke, Mee Chee Chong, Wee Kian Yeo, Donny M Camera
Obesity is a major global health issue and a primary risk factor for metabolic-related disorders. While physical inactivity is one of the main contributors to obesity, it is a modifiable risk factor with exercise training as an established non-pharmacological treatment to prevent the onset of metabolic-related disorders, including obesity. Exposure to hypoxia via normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitude via reduced inspired oxygen fraction), termed hypoxic conditioning, in combination with exercise has been increasingly shown in the last decade to enhance blood glucose regulation and decrease the body mass index, providing a feasible strategy to treat obesity...
November 28, 2022: Sports Medicine
Allyssa K Memmini, Michael J Popovich, Kristen H Schuyten, Stanley A Herring, Katie L Scott, James R Clugston, Meeryo C Choe, Christopher M Bailey, M Alison Brooks, Scott A Anderson, Michael A McCrea, Anthony P Kontos, Jessica S Wallace, Johna K Register Mihalik, Tricia M Kasamatsu, Tamara Valovich McLeod, Michelle L Weber Rawlins, Traci R Snedden, Matthew Kaplan, Briana Akani, La'Joya C L Orr, Rebecca E Hasson, Sami F Rifat, Steven P Broglio
BACKGROUND: Sport-related concussions (SRCs) affect millions of adolescents and young adults annually in the USA; however, current SRC consensus statements provide limited guidance on academic support for students within higher education. OBJECTIVE: To generate consensus on appropriate academic recommendations for clinicians, students, and academic stakeholders to support university students during their recovery. METHODS: Panelists participated in three stages of a modified Delphi procedure: the first stage included a series of open-ended questions after reviewing a literature review on post-SRC return-to-learn (RTL) in higher education; the second stage asked panelists to anonymously rate the recommendations developed through the first Delphi stage using a 9-point scale; and the final stage offered panelists the opportunity to change their responses and/or provide feedback based on the group's overall ratings...
November 18, 2022: Sports Medicine
Robert W Spitz, Ryo Kataoka, Scott J Dankel, Zachary W Bell, Jun Seob Song, Vickie Wong, Yujiro Yamada, Jeremy P Loenneke
BACKGROUND: Isotonic exercise is the most common mode of strength training. Isotonic strength is often measured in the movement that was exercised, but isometric and isokinetic movements are also commonly used to quantify changes in muscular strength. Previous research suggests that increasing strength in one movement may not lead to an increase in strength in a different movement. Quantifying the increase in strength in a movement not trained may be important for understanding strength training adaptations and making recommendations for resistance exercise and rehabilitation programs...
November 18, 2022: Sports Medicine
Marcus T O'Brien, Orla O'Sullivan, Marcus J Claesson, Paul D Cotter
The human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem of microorganisms that play an important role in human health, influencing functions such as vitamin uptake, digestion and immunomodulation. While research of the gut microbiome has expanded considerably over the past decade, some areas such as the relationship between exercise and the microbiome remain relatively under investigated. Despite this, multiple studies have shown a potential bidirectional relationship between exercise and the gut microbiome, with some studies demonstrating the possibility of influencing this relationship...
November 18, 2022: Sports Medicine
Morten Hostrup, Jens Bangsbo
Because physical demands are surging in football (soccer, USA), clubs are more and more seeking players who have a high capacity to perform repeated intense exercise. High-intensity interval training (HIIT), comprising exercise performed at intensities near or exceeding the capacity of aerobic energy systems, effectively enhances the physical conditioning of players. But given that HIIT imposes high loads, it increases the risk of overload-associated match performance decline and injury. This makes some coaches inclined to conduct HIIT in the weeks leading up to the season and during the season...
November 16, 2022: Sports Medicine
Urs Granacher, David G Behm
BACKGROUND: Balance and resistance training applied as single-mode interventions have proven to enhance measures of balance and/or muscular fitness in youth and youth athletes. Less is known on the effectiveness of combined or sequenced balance and resistance training in youth and youth athletes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this scoping review was to describe the effects of concurrently performed balance and resistance training (i.e., metastable resistance training) and different sequencing schemes of balance and resistance training on measures of balance and/or muscular fitness in healthy youth and youth athletes...
November 15, 2022: Sports Medicine
Ian Shrier, Tyrel Stokes, Chinchin Wang, Jorge Trejovargas, Franco M Impellizzeri, Russell J Steele
Return-to-play decision making should be based on all the advantages and disadvantages of return to play for athletes, not just the risk of injury. For competitive athletes, this includes the effect of early versus delayed return to sport on performance. In this paper, we address the questions "How can I estimate the effect of injury on the individual's performance at return to play?" and "What is the effect of delaying return to sport on the individual's performance?". To address these questions, we describe (1) some foundational concepts, design and analytical challenges related to estimating the causal effect of return to play timing on performance in the athlete, (2) additional challenges if one is interested in the effects of delaying return to play and (3) differences when the questions relate to the team's performance...
November 15, 2022: Sports Medicine
Martin C Refalo, Eric R Helms, Eric T Trexler, D Lee Hamilton, Jackson J Fyfe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This systematic review with meta-analysis investigated the influence of resistance training proximity-to-failure on muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Literature searches in the PubMed, SCOPUS and SPORTDiscus databases identified a total of 15 studies that measured muscle hypertrophy (in healthy adults of any age and resistance training experience) and compared resistance training performed to: (A) momentary muscular failure versus non-failure; (B) set failure (defined as anything other than momentary muscular failure) versus non-failure; or (C) different velocity loss thresholds...
November 5, 2022: Sports Medicine
David M Bazett-Jones, Bradley S Neal, Christopher Legg, Harvi F Hart, Natalie J Collins, Christian J Barton
BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a prevalent knee condition with many proposed biomechanically orientated etiological factors and treatments. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review and synthesize the evidence for biomechanical variables (spatiotemporal, kinematic, kinetic) during walking and running in people with PFP compared with pain-free controls, and determine if biomechanical variables contribute to the development of PFP. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis...
November 5, 2022: Sports Medicine
Dean Campelj, Andrew Philp
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) is a vital energy intermediate in skeletal muscle. The discovery of dietary-derived NAD+ precursors has led to the rapid development of NAD+ therapeutics designed to manipulate NAD+ content in target tissues. Of those developed, nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide have been reported to display health benefit in humans under clinical scenarios of NAD+ deficiency. In contrast, relatively little is known regarding the potential benefit of nicotinamide riboside and nicotinamide mononucleotide supplementation in healthy individuals, with questions remaining as to whether NAD+ therapeutics can be used to support training adaptation or improve performance in athletic populations...
November 4, 2022: Sports Medicine
Antonio Dello Iacono, Shaun J McLaren, Tom W Macpherson, Marco Beato, Matthew Weston, Viswanath B Unnithan, Tzlil Shushan
BACKGROUND: Sided games (i.e., small sided, medium sided, large sided) involve tactical, technical, physical, and psychological elements and are commonly implemented in soccer training. Although soccer sided-games research is plentiful, a meta-analytical synthesis of external load exposure during sided games is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to: (1) synthesize the evidence on high-speed and sprint running exposure induced by sided games in adult soccer players, (2) establish pooled estimates and intra-individual reliability for high-speed and sprint running exposure, and (3) explore the moderating effects of game format and playing constraints...
November 4, 2022: Sports Medicine
Maxime Bergevin, James Steele, Marie Payen de la Garanderie, Camille Feral-Basin, Samuele M Marcora, Pierre Rainville, Jeffrey G Caron, Benjamin Pageaux
BACKGROUND: The perception of effort provides information on task difficulty and influences physical exercise regulation and human behavior. This perception differs from other-exercise related perceptions such as pain. There is no consensus on the role of group III/IV muscle afferents as a signal processed by the brain to generate the perception of effort. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of pharmacologically blocking muscle afferents on the perception of effort...
November 1, 2022: Sports Medicine
Francesco Aiello, Franco M Impellizzeri, Susan J Brown, Andreas Serner, Alan McCall
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive examination of the sport-specific activities performed around the time of injury is important to hypothesise injury mechanisms, develop prevention strategies, improve management, and inform future investigations. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the current literature describing the activities performed around the time of injury in football (soccer). METHODS: A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and OpenGrey...
October 31, 2022: Sports Medicine
Diogo Luís Marques, Henrique Pereira Neiva, Daniel Almeida Marinho, Mário Cardoso Marques
BACKGROUND: Effective manipulation of the acute variables of resistance training is critical to optimizing muscle and functional adaptations in middle-aged and older adults. However, the ideal volume prescription (e.g., number of sets performed per exercise) in middle-aged and older adults remains inconclusive in the literature. OBJECTIVE: The effects of single versus multiple sets per exercise on muscle strength and size, muscle quality, and functional capacity in middle-aged and older adults were compared...
October 28, 2022: Sports Medicine
Jad Adrian Washif, Abdulaziz Farooq, Isabel Krug, David B Pyne, Evert Verhagen, Lee Taylor, Del P Wong, Iñigo Mujika, Cristina Cortis, Monoem Haddad, Omid Ahmadian, Mahmood Al Jufaili, Ramzi A Al-Horani, Abdulla Saeed Al-Mohannadi, Asma Aloui, Achraf Ammar, Fitim Arifi, Abdul Rashid Aziz, Mikhail Batuev, Christopher Martyn Beaven, Ralph Beneke, Arben Bici, Pallawi Bishnoi, Lone Bogwasi, Daniel Bok, Omar Boukhris, Daniel Boullosa, Nicola Bragazzi, Joao Brito, Roxana Paola Palacios Cartagena, Anis Chaouachi, Stephen S Cheung, Hamdi Chtourou, Germina Cosma, Tadej Debevec, Matthew D DeLang, Alexandre Dellal, Gürhan Dönmez, Tarak Driss, Juan David Peña Duque, Cristiano Eirale, Mohamed Elloumi, Carl Foster, Emerson Franchini, Andrea Fusco, Olivier Galy, Paul B Gastin, Nicholas Gill, Olivier Girard, Cvita Gregov, Shona Halson, Omar Hammouda, Ivana Hanzlíková, Bahar Hassanmirzaei, Thomas Haugen, Kim Hébert-Losier, Hussein Muñoz Helú, Tomás Herrera-Valenzuela, Florentina J Hettinga, Louis Holtzhausen, Olivier Hue, Antonio Dello Iacono, Johanna K Ihalainen, Carl James, Dina C Janse van Rensburg, Saju Joseph, Karim Kamoun, Mehdi Khaled, Karim Khalladi, Kwang Joon Kim, Lian-Yee Kok, Lewis MacMillan, Leonardo Jose Mataruna-Dos-Santos, Ryo Matsunaga, Shpresa Memishi, Grégoire P Millet, Imen Moussa-Chamari, Danladi Ibrahim Musa, Hoang Minh Thuan Nguyen, Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Adam Owen, Johnny Padulo, Jeffrey Cayaban Pagaduan, Nirmala Panagodage Perera, Jorge Pérez-Gómez, Lervasen Pillay, Arporn Popa, Avishkar Pudasaini, Alireza Rabbani, Tandiyo Rahayu, Mohamed Romdhani, Paul Salamh, Abu-Sufian Sarkar, Andy Schillinger, Stephen Seiler, Heny Setyawati, Navina Shrestha, Fatona Suraya, Montassar Tabben, Khaled Trabelsi, Axel Urhausen, Maarit Valtonen, Johanna Weber, Rodney Whiteley, Adel Zrane, Yacine Zerguini, Piotr Zmijewski, Øyvind Sandbakk, Helmi Ben Saad, Karim Chamari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2022: Sports Medicine
Luthfia Dewi, Yin-Chou Lin, Andrew Nicholls, Giancarlo Condello, Chih-Yang Huang, Chia-Hua Kuo
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle has extraordinary regenerative capabilities against challenge, mainly owing to its resident muscle stem cells, commonly identified by Pax7+ , which expediently donate nuclei to the regenerating multinucleated myofibers. This local reserve of stem cells in damaged muscle tissues is replenished by undifferentiated bone marrow stem cells (CD34+ ) permeating into the surrounding vascular system. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to provide a quantitative estimate for the changes in Pax7+ muscle stem cells (satellite cells) in humans following an acute bout of exercise until 96 h, in temporal relation to circulating CD34+ bone marrow stem cells...
October 20, 2022: Sports Medicine
Martin Behrens, Martin Gube, Helmi Chaabene, Olaf Prieske, Alexandre Zenon, Kim-Charline Broscheid, Lutz Schega, Florian Husmann, Matthias Weippert
Fatigue has been defined differently in the literature depending on the field of research. The inconsistent use of the term fatigue complicated scientific communication, thereby limiting progress towards a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. Therefore, Enoka and Duchateau (Med Sci Sports Exerc 48:2228-38, 2016, [3]) proposed a fatigue framework that distinguishes between trait fatigue (i.e., fatigue experienced by an individual over a longer period of time) and motor or cognitive task-induced state fatigue (i...
October 18, 2022: Sports Medicine
Rachel Mason, Liam T Pearson, Gillian Barry, Fraser Young, Oisin Lennon, Alan Godfrey, Samuel Stuart
BACKGROUND: Running gait assessment has traditionally been performed using subjective observation or expensive laboratory-based objective technologies, such as three-dimensional motion capture or force plates. However, recent developments in wearable devices allow for continuous monitoring and analysis of running mechanics in any environment. Objective measurement of running gait is an important (clinical) tool for injury assessment and provides measures that can be used to enhance performance...
October 15, 2022: Sports Medicine
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