Alan M Nevill, Roger Ramsbottom, Gavin Sandercock, Carlos Eduardo Bocachica-González, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Grant Tomkinson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Doubts have been raised concerning the validity of the 20-m shuttle-run test (20 mSRT) as a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth based on Léger's equation/model. An alternative allometric model has been published recently that is thought to provide, not only a superior fit (criterion validity) but also a more biologically and physiologically interpretable model (construct validity). The purposes of this study were to explore whether allometry can provide a more valid predictor of CRF using 20 mSRT compared with Léger's equation/model...
September 24, 2020: Sports Medicine
An De Meester, Lisa M Barnett, Ali Brian, Steven J Bowe, Judith Jiménez-Díaz, Femke Van Duyse, J Megan Irwin, David F Stodden, Eva D'Hondt, Matthieu Lenoir, Leen Haerens
BACKGROUND: Actual and perceived motor competence are important correlates of various health-related behaviors. As such, numerous studies have examined the association between both constructs in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: The first aim of this review and meta-analysis was to systematically examine, analyze and summarize the scientific evidence on the relationship between actual and perceived motor competence (and by extension more general physical self-perception) in children, adolescents and young adults with typical and atypical development...
September 24, 2020: Sports Medicine
Morteza Khodaee, Mindaugas Gudelis, Craig C Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2020: Sports Medicine
Joshua Hanel, Patrick J Owen, Steffen Held, Scott D Tagliaferri, Clint T Miller, Lars Donath, Daniel L Belavy
BACKGROUND: Fear of pain and movement is an important factor in the development of hypervigilance and avoidance behaviours. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effectiveness of exercise training on improving fear-avoidance beliefs. METHODS: A systematic review (data sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, CENTRAL) and metaanalysis of randomised controlled/clinical trials of exercise training in adults versus relevant nonexercise comparators that quantified fear-avoidance was conducted...
September 18, 2020: Sports Medicine
Ian Rollo, Javier T Gonzalez, Cas J Fuchs, Luc J C van Loon, Clyde Williams
The purpose of this current opinion paper is to describe the journey of ingested carbohydrate from 'mouth to mitochondria' culminating in energy production in skeletal muscles during exercise. This journey is conveniently described as primary, secondary, and tertiary events. The primary stage is detection of ingested carbohydrate by receptors in the oral cavity and on the tongue that activate reward and other centers in the brain leading to insulin secretion. After digestion, the secondary stage is the transport of monosaccharides from the small intestine into the systemic circulation...
September 16, 2020: Sports Medicine
Ali Brian, Nancy Getchell, Larissa True, An De Meester, David F Stodden
In 1980, Seefeldt introduced the concept of a motor skill "proficiency barrier" that provides a conceptual basis for understanding the importance of a motor skill barrier as it relates to critical public health initiatives. While the intent of Seefeldt's proficiency barrier hypothesis had great potential to advance the field of motor development, the notion of a proficiency barrier was not empirically tested. Instead, this concept lay dormant for several decades. The purpose of this paper was to expand upon Seefeldt's proficiency barrier concept in greater detail by addressing the following questions: (1) what constitutes a motor proficiency barrier? (2) how do we assess/measure the existence of a proficiency barrier? and (3) how do we break through the proficiency barrier in order to maximize the likelihood of participation in health-enhancing levels of physical activity later on in life? We conclude with a future research suggestion to explore the existence of the proficiency barrier...
September 15, 2020: Sports Medicine
Trevor J Dufner, John S Fitzgerald, Justin J Lang, Grant R Tomkinson
BACKGROUND: Handgrip strength (HGS) is an excellent marker of functional capability and health in adults, although little is known about temporal trends in adult HGS. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically analyze national (country-level) temporal trends in adult HGS, and to examine the relationships between national trends in adult HGS and national trends in health-related and socioeconomic/demographic indicators. METHODS: Data were obtained from a systematic search of studies reporting temporal trends in HGS for adults (aged ≥ 20 years) and by examining national fitness datasets...
September 11, 2020: Sports Medicine
Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Daniel Castillo, Javier Raya-González, Jason Moran, Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal, Rhodri S Lloyd
BACKGROUND: Even from a young age, modern soccer requires high levels of physical fitness development, particularly jumping and sprinting. Plyometric jump training (PJT), combined with young athletes' regular soccer sessions, has the potential to improve jumping and sprinting. However, studies exploring the effects of PJT are generally limited by small sample sizes. This problem of underpowered studies may, thus, be resolved by pooling study results in a meta-analysis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review with meta-analysis (SRMA) was to assess the effects of plyometric jump training (PJT) on jumping and sprinting among young male soccer players...
September 11, 2020: Sports Medicine
Rikhard Mäki-Heikkilä, Jussi Karjalainen, Jari Parkkari, Maarit Valtonen, Lauri Lehtimäki
INTRODUCTION: In cross-country skiing, the repetitive ventilation of large amounts of cold and dry air strains the airways. The aim of this systematic review was to establish an overview of the current literature on asthma in cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers. METHODS: Six databases were searched on August 29, 2019. The search yielded 2161 articles. Thirty articles fulfilled the search criteria and were pooled together for a qualitative synthesis...
September 11, 2020: Sports Medicine
Hayao Ozaki, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke, Shizuo Katamoto
An increased ability to supply energy to skeletal muscle is expected to contribute to greater athletic performance, and therefore, a variety of training methods are used for improving these energy supply systems. These methods are classified into two broad categories: a bout of continuous exercise at a given load/intensity and intermittent bouts of exercise at a given load/intensity with recovery intervals. Interestingly, recent work suggests that a training method which starts at a high load/intensity and gradually decreases the exercise load/intensity within a given training set (stepwise load reduction training) may provide a range of adaptations...
September 11, 2020: Sports Medicine
Ivan Jukic, Amador García Ramos, Eric R Helms, Michael R McGuigan, James J Tufano
BACKGROUND: The alteration of individual sets during resistance training (RT) is often used to allow for greater velocity and power outputs, reduce metabolite accumulation such as lactate and also reduce perceived exertion which can ultimately affect the resultant training adaptations. However, there are inconsistencies in the current body of evidence regarding the magnitude of the effects of alternative set structures (i.e., cluster sets and rest redistribution) on these acute mechanical, metabolic, and perceptual responses during and after RT...
September 8, 2020: Sports Medicine
Jason Moran, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Bernard Liew, Helmi Chaabene, David G Behm, Antonio García-Hermoso, Mikel Izquierdo, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: In accordance with the principle of training specificity, adaptations to vertically or horizontally orientated plyometric training (VPT, HPT) directly transfer to athletic tasks that are carried out in the same direction as they are performed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the relative effect of VPT and HPT on both vertical and horizontal measures of physical performance. DATA SOURCES: Google Scholar, CrossRef, Microsoft Academic, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus...
September 8, 2020: Sports Medicine
Jeffrey J Hébert, Martin Sénéchal, Timothy Fairchild, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Niels Wedderkopp
OBJECTIVES: Describe the trajectories of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and aerobic fitness in children and identify different outcomes of guideline-recommended physical activity (PA) in a subset of active children. METHODS: We recruited students from 10 public primary schools and obtained repeated measures of BMI, waist circumference, and aerobic fitness over 30 months. Aerobic fitness was measured with the Andersen test. We objectively measured physical activity behaviour with accelerometers and classified children as 'physically active' when they achieved ≥ 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous PA per day (guideline concordance)...
September 3, 2020: Sports Medicine
Gregory C S MacMillan, Alan M Batterham, Paul Chesterton, Warren Gregson, Lorenzo Lolli, Matthew Weston, Greg Atkinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 27, 2020: Sports Medicine
Brooklyn J Fraser, Leigh Blizzard, Marie-Jeanne Buscot, Michael D Schmidt, Terence Dwyer, Alison J Venn, Costan G Magnussen
BACKGROUND: Although low child and adult grip strength is associated with adverse cardiometabolic health, how grip strength across the life course associates with type 2 diabetes is unknown. This study identified the relative contribution of grip strength measured at specific life stages (childhood, young adulthood, mid-adulthood) with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in mid-adulthood. METHODS: Between 1985 and 2019, 263 participants had their grip strength measured using an isometric dynamometer in childhood (9-15 years), young adulthood (28-36 years) and mid-adulthood (38-49 years)...
August 19, 2020: Sports Medicine
Leon Greig, Ben Hayden Stephens Hemingway, Rodrigo R Aspe, Kay Cooper, Paul Comfort, Paul A Swinton
Autoregulation is a process that is used to manipulate training based primarily on the measurement of an individual's performance or their perceived capability to perform. Despite being established as a training framework since the 1940s, there has been limited systematic research investigating its broad utility. Instead, researchers have focused on disparate practices that can be considered specific examples of the broader autoregulation training framework. A primary limitation of previous research includes inconsistent use of key terminology (e...
August 19, 2020: Sports Medicine
Billy Mason, Andrew McKune, Kate Pumpa, Nick Ball
BACKGROUND: The use of exercise as a priming strategy to enhance sport performance is becoming increasingly popular in professional sports and as an area of research interest. Early research suggests that the acute physiological responses to exercise can positively influence performance for up to 48 h. There is yet to be a comprehensive review of exercise strategies which could be implemented specifically on the day of competition. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to provide a synthesis of research investigating acute exercise interventions as game day priming strategies for team-sport athletes to improve physical performance and athlete readiness when implemented in the 1-12 h prior to competition...
August 10, 2020: Sports Medicine
Melanie Lesinski, Michael Herz, Alina Schmelcher, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, an exponential growth has occurred with regards to the number of scientific publications including meta-analyses on youth resistance training (RT). Accordingly, it is timely to summarize findings from meta-analyses in the form of an umbrella review. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and summarise the findings of published meta-analyses that investigated the effects of RT on physical fitness in children and adolescents. DESIGN: Systematic umbrella review of meta-analyses...
August 5, 2020: Sports Medicine
Craig Paterson, Simon Fryer, Gabriel Zieff, Keeron Stone, Daniel P Credeur, Bethany Barone Gibbs, Jaume Padilla, John K Parker, Lee Stoner
BACKGROUND: Exposure to acute prolonged sitting can result in vascular dysfunction, particularly within the legs. This vascular dysfunction, assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD), is likely the consequence of decreased blood flow-induced shear stress. With mixed success, several sitting interruption strategies have been trialled to preserve vascular function. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this meta-analysis were to (1) assess the effects of acute prolonged sitting exposure on vascular function in the upper- and lower-limb arteries, and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of sitting interruption strategies in preserving vascular function...
August 5, 2020: Sports Medicine
Sergio T Fonseca, Thales R Souza, Evert Verhagen, Richard van Emmerik, Natalia F N Bittencourt, Luciana D M Mendonça, André G P Andrade, Renan A Resende, Juliana M Ocarino
The understanding that sports injury is the result of the interaction among many factors and that specific profiles could increase the risk of the occurrence of a given injury was a significant step in establishing programs for injury prevention. However, injury forecasting is far from being attained. To be able to estimate future states of a complex system (forecasting), it is necessary to understand its nature and comply with the methods usually used to analyze such a system. In this sense, sports injury forecasting must implement the concepts and tools used to study the behavior of self-organizing systems, since it is by self-organizing that systems (i...
August 5, 2020: Sports Medicine
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