Allyssa K Memmini, Kelly M Mosesso, Susan M Perkins, Benjamin L Brett, Paul F Pasquina, Thomas W McAllister, Michael A McCrea, Steven P Broglio
BACKGROUND: Previous sport-related concussion research highlights post-injury characteristics that influence recovery trajectories; however, there is limited information regarding premorbid factors that affect sport-related concussion risk. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to (a) compare premorbid demographic factors among a large cohort of collegiate student athletes who did or did not sustain a sport-related concussion and (b) assess differences in acute injury characteristics based on biological sex and contact level...
March 16, 2023: Sports Medicine
Nithin Jacob, Isis So, Bhanu Sharma, Susan Marzolini, Maria Carmela Tartaglia, Paul Oh, Robin Green
BACKGROUND: Some health benefits from high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are facilitated by peripheral blood lactate levels. However, the lactate response from HIIT is variable and dependent on protocol parameters. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the HIIT protocol parameters that elicited peak lactate levels, and how these levels are associated with post-HIIT cognitive performance. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review with meta-regression...
March 14, 2023: Sports Medicine
Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Rohit K Thapa, José Afonso, Alejandro Perez-Castilla, Chris Bishop, Paul J Byrne, Urs Granacher
BACKGROUND: The reactive strength index (RSI) is meaningfully associated with independent markers of athletic (e.g., linear sprint speed) and neuromuscular performance [e.g., stretch-shortening cycle (SSC)]. Plyometric jump training (PJT) is particularly suitable to improve the RSI due to exercises performed in the SSC. However, no literature review has attempted to meta-analyse the large number of studies regarding the potential effects of PJT on the RSI in healthy individuals across the lifespan...
March 11, 2023: Sports Medicine
William Hughes, Robin Healy, Mark Lyons, Alan Nevill, Clement Higginbotham, Aoife Lane, Kris Beattie
BACKGROUND: There has been a rise in the participation, professionalism, and profile of female sports in recent years. Sprinting ability is an important quality for successful athletic performance in many female team sports. However, much of the research to date on improving sprint performance in team sports is derived from studies with male participants. Given the biological differences between the sexes, this may be problematic for practitioners when programming to enhance sprint performance in female team-sport athletes...
March 6, 2023: Sports Medicine
Julen Fernández-Landa, Asier Santibañez-Gutierrez, Nikola Todorovic, Valdemar Stajer, Sergej M Ostojic
BACKGROUND: There is robust evidence that creatine monohydrate supplementation can enhance short-term high-intensity exercise in athletes. However, the effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on aerobic performance and its role during aerobic activities is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the supplementation effects of creatine monohydrate on endurance performance in a trained population...
March 6, 2023: Sports Medicine
Gina Wood, Emily Taylor, Vanessa Ng, Anna Murrell, Aditya Patil, Tom van der Touw, Mitch Wolden, Nick Andronicos, Neil A Smart
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise training (AET) prescribed as lipid management treatment positively affects the standard lipid profile and reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Apolipoproteins, lipid and apolipoprotein ratios, and lipoprotein sub-fractions may more effectively predict CVD risk than the standard lipid profile but an AET response in these biomarkers has not been established. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to (1) determine the effects of AET on lipoprotein sub-fractions, apolipoproteins and relevant ratios; and (2) identify study or intervention covariates associated with change in these biomarkers...
March 2, 2023: Sports Medicine
Melanie Knopp, Borja Muñiz-Pardos, Henning Wackerhage, Martin Schönfelder, Fergus Guppy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Daniel Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Advanced footwear technology improves average running economy compared with racing flats in sub-elite athletes. However, not all athletes benefit as performance changes vary from a 10% drawback to a 14% improvement. The main beneficiaries from such technologies, world-class athletes, have only been analyzed using race times. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure running economy on a laboratory treadmill in advanced footwear technology compared to a traditional racing flat in world-class Kenyan (mean half-marathon time: 59:30 min:s) versus European amateur runners...
March 2, 2023: Sports Medicine
Jorn Trommelen, Glenn A A van Lieshout, Pardeep Pabla, Jean Nyakayiru, Floris K Hendriks, Joan M Senden, Joy P B Goessens, Janneau M X van Kranenburg, Annemie P Gijsen, Lex B Verdijk, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Luc J C van Loon
BACKGROUND: Casein protein ingestion prior to sleep has been shown to increase myofibrillar protein synthesis rates during overnight sleep. It remains to be assessed whether pre-sleep protein ingestion can also increase mitochondrial protein synthesis rates. Though it has been suggested that casein protein may be preferred as a pre-sleep protein source, no study has compared the impact of pre-sleep whey versus casein ingestion on overnight muscle protein synthesis rates. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the impact of casein and whey protein ingestion prior to sleep on mitochondrial and myofibrillar protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery from a bout of endurance-type exercise...
March 1, 2023: Sports Medicine
James M Smoliga
Monkeypox virus infections (mpox) in humans have become increasingly common since the virus was first identified in 1970. Coverage of the ongoing mpox outbreak has emphasized the role of skin-to-skin contact in monkeypox virus transmission and has focused on the community of men who have sex with men. While close contact from sexual activity is currently the main mechanism of monkeypox virus transmission, the potential for contact sports to exacerbate the 2022 outbreak has largely been overlooked. Infectious diseases rapidly spread in sports with significant skin-to-skin contact (i...
February 27, 2023: Sports Medicine
Stefano Amatori, Carlo Ferri Marini, Erica Gobbi, Davide Sisti, Germana Giombini, Rosalba Rombaldoni, Marco B L Rocchi, Francesco Lucertini, Ario Federici, Fabrizio Perroni, Giorgio Calcagnini
BACKGROUND: Workplace exercise interventions showed good results, but lack of time was often reported as a barrier to participation. To overcome this problem, several studies attempted to implement short high-intensity interval training (HIT) within the workplace. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of HIT interventions within the workplace setting. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and SPORTDiscus to identify articles related to HIT within the workplace...
February 25, 2023: Sports Medicine
Thomas Zandonai, Francesco Botrè, Maria Gabriella Abate, Ana María Peiró, Toby Mündel
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is a psychostimulant drug with purported use in sports environments, though the use of nicotine among athletes has not been studied extensively. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the nicotine positivity rate in 60,802 anti-doping urine samples from 2012 to 2020. METHODS: Urine samples obtained in-competition at different national and international sports events held in Italy during the period 2012-2020 were analysed...
February 24, 2023: Sports Medicine
Franck Le Mat, Mathias Géry, Thibault Besson, Cyril Ferdynus, Nicolas Bouscaren, Guillaume Y Millet
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the gap in endurance performance between men and women is reduced as distances increase, i.e. if there is a sex difference in endurance, one can analyse the performance of elite runners, all participants, or one can pair women and men during short-distance events and examine the difference over longer distances. The first two methods have caveats, and the last method has never been performed with a large dataset. This was the goal of the present study...
February 21, 2023: Sports Medicine
Maxwell J Stone, Camilla J Knight, Ross Hall, Catherine Shearer, Ross Nicholas, David A Shearer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2023: Sports Medicine
Adam Tenforde, Tim Hoenig, Amol Saxena, Karsten Hollander
The introduction of carbon fiber plate footwear has led to performance benefits in runners. The mechanism for these changes in running economy includes altered biomechanics of the foot and ankle. The association of this footwear with injuries has been a topic of debate clinically, but not described in the literature. In this Current Opinion article, illustrated by a case series of five navicular bone stress injuries in highly competitive running athletes, we discuss the development of running-related injuries in association with the use of carbon fiber plate footwear...
February 13, 2023: Sports Medicine
Alan McCall, Adrian Wolfberg, Andreas Ivarsson, Gregory Dupont, Amelie Larocque, Johann Bilsborough
BACKGROUND: Athlete monitoring trends appear to be favouring objective over subjective measures. One reason of potentially several is that subjective monitoring affords athletes to give dishonest responses. Indeed, athletes have never been systematically researched to understand why they are honest or not. OBJECTIVE: Because we do not know what motivates professional athletes to be honest or not when responding to subjective monitoring, our objective is to explore the motives for why the athlete may or may not respond honestly...
February 10, 2023: Sports Medicine
Babette M Pluim, Marleen G T Jansen, Samuel Williamson, Cain Berry, Silvia Camporesi, Kristina Fagher, Neil Heron, Dina C Janse van Rensburg, Víctor Moreno-Pérez, Andrew Murray, Seán R O'Connor, Fábio C L de Oliveira, Machar Reid, Miriam van Reijen, Tobias Saueressig, Linda J Schoonmade, Jane S Thornton, Nick Webborn, Clare L Ardern
BACKGROUND: Tennis is a multidirectional high-intensity intermittent sport for male and female individuals played across multiple surfaces. Although several studies have attempted to characterise the physical demands of tennis, a meta-analysis is still lacking. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe and synthesise the physical demands of tennis across the different court surfaces, performance levels and sexes. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus were searched from inception to 19 April, 2022...
February 8, 2023: Sports Medicine
Rilind Obërtinca, Ilir Hoxha, Rina Meha, Arber Lama, Altina Bimbashi, Dorentina Kuqi, Bujar Shabani, Tim Meyer, Karen Aus der Fünten
BACKGROUND: Playing football is associated with a high risk of injury. Injury prevention is a priority as injuries not only negatively impact health but also potentially performance. Various multi-component exercise-based injury prevention programs for football players have been examined in studies. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of multi-component exercise-based injury prevention programs among footballers of all age groups in comparison to a control group...
February 8, 2023: Sports Medicine
Nikolaus C Netzer, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer, Tobias Dünnwald, Wolfgang Schobersberger, Kingman P Strohl, Stephan Pramsohler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2023: Sports Medicine
Fabian Arntz, Adrian Markov, David G Behm, Martin Behrens, Yassine Negra, Masatoshi Nakamura, Jason Moran, Helmi Chaabene
BACKGROUND: The current literature on the chronic effects of static stretching (SS) exercises on muscle strength and power is unclear and controversial. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the chronic effects of SS exercises on muscle strength and power as well as flexibility in healthy individuals across the lifespan. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of (randomized) controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and SPORTDiscus up to May 2022...
January 31, 2023: Sports Medicine
James M Smoliga, Z Taggart Wilber, Brooks Taylor Robinson
Premature deaths in bodybuilders regularly make headlines and are cited as evidence that bodybuilding is a dangerous activity. A wealth of research has revealed elite athletes typically enjoy lower mortality rates than non-athletes, but research on bodybuilder lifespan is surprisingly limited. Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use is commonly cited as a key contributor to morbidity and premature mortality in bodybuilders, but this area of research is highly nuanced and influenced by numerous confounders unique to bodybuilding...
January 30, 2023: Sports Medicine
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