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Sports Medicine

Ken Quarrie, Simon Gianotti, Ian Murphy
Page 11, column 2, section 4.2 Injury Epidemiology, paragraph 4.
October 9, 2019: Sports Medicine
Gordon Dunlop, Clare L Ardern, Thor Einar Andersen, Colin Lewin, Gregory Dupont, Ben Ashworth, Gary O'Driscoll, Andrew Rolls, Susan Brown, Alan McCall
PURPOSE: Return-to-play (RTP) is an on-going challenge in professional football. Return-to-play related research is increasing. However, it is unknown to what extent the recommendations presented within research are being implemented by professional football teams, and where there are gaps between research and practice. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if premier-league football teams worldwide follow a RTP continuum, (2) to identify RTP criteria used and (3) to understand how RTP decision-making occurs in applied practice...
October 8, 2019: Sports Medicine
Shiqi Thng, Simon Pearson, Justin W L Keogh
No sources of funding were used in the preparation of this article.
October 3, 2019: Sports Medicine
Despoina V Tryfidou, Conor McClean, Michalis G Nikolaidis, Gareth W Davison
Page 17, Fig. 2.
October 1, 2019: Sports Medicine
Wolfram Müller, Alfred Fürhapter-Rieger, Helmut Ahammer, Timothy G Lohman, Nanna L Meyer, Luis B Sardinha, Arthur D Stewart, Ronald J Maughan, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Tom Müller, Margaret Harris, Nuwanee Kirihennedige, Joao P Magalhaes, Xavier Melo, Wolfram Pirstinger, Alba Reguant-Closa, Vanessa Risoul-Salas, Timothy R Ackland
INTRODUCTION: Fat is a metabolic fuel, but excess body fat is ballast mass, and therefore, many elite athletes reduce body fat to dangerously low levels. Uncompressed subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness measured by brightness-mode ultrasound (US) provides an estimate of body fat content. METHODS: The accuracy for determining tissue borders is about 0.1-0.2 mm and reliability (experienced measurers) was within ± 1.4 mm (95% limit of agreement, LOA)...
September 30, 2019: Sports Medicine
Benedict Low, Diogo Coutinho, Bruno Gonçalves, Robert Rein, Daniel Memmert, Jaime Sampaio
BACKGROUND: Performance analysis research in association football has recently cusped a paradigmatic shift in the way tactical behaviours are studied. Based on insights from system complexity research, a growing number of studies now analyse tactical behaviours in football based on the collective movements of team players. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to provide a summary of empirical research on collective tactical behaviours in football, with a particular focus on organising the methods used and their key findings...
September 30, 2019: Sports Medicine
Luca Maestroni, Paul Read, Chris Bishop, Anthony Turner
Injuries have a detrimental impact on team and individual athletic performance. Deficits in maximal strength, rate of force development (RFD), and reactive strength are commonly reported following several musculoskeletal injuries. This article first examines the available literature to identify common deficits in fundamental physical qualities following injury, specifically strength, rate of force development and reactive strength. Secondly, evidence-based strategies to target a resolution of these residual deficits will be discussed to reduce the risk of future injury...
September 26, 2019: Sports Medicine
Paul J Collings, Diane Farrar, Joanna Gibson, Jane West, Sally E Barber, John Wright
OBJECTIVE: Physical activity is advocated for a range of benefits to the uncomplicated pregnancy. We investigated associations of mid-pregnancy physical activity with maternal and neonatal health in white British and Pakistani-origin women from a deprived urban setting. METHODS: The study was performed in 6921 pregnant women (53% Pakistani-origin) who contributed data for 7305 singleton births. At 26-28 weeks gestation, women were grouped into four activity levels (inactive/somewhat active/moderately active/active) based on their self-reported physical activity...
September 26, 2019: Sports Medicine
Dahan da Cunha Nascimento, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jonato Prestes
Blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise (a.k.a. occlusion training) has emerged as a viable surrogate to traditional heavy-load strength rehabilitation training for a broad range of clinical populations including elderly subjects and rehabilitating athletes. A particular benefit of BFR exercise is the lower stress upon the joints as compared to traditional heavy resistance training, with similar gains in muscle strength and size. The application of an inflatable cuff to the proximal portion of the limbs increases the pressure required for venous return, leading to changes in venous compliance and wall tension...
September 26, 2019: Sports Medicine
Antonio García-Hermoso, Alicia M Alonso-Martinez, Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Mikel Izquierdo
BACKGROUND: No previous systematic review has quantitatively examined the effect of physical exercise interventions on health-related physical fitness and blood pressure in children younger than 6 years old. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on health-related physical fitness (i.e., physical fitness components and body composition) and blood pressure in preschoolers. METHODS: We searched four databases. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), evaluating the effectiveness of exercise intervention on weight-related outcomes, blood pressure, and physical fitness components in preschoolers (1-5...
September 25, 2019: Sports Medicine
Roland Loh, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Dirk Folkerts, Judith E Allgrove, Hannah J Moir
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) breaks in sitting time might attenuate metabolic markers relevant to the prevention of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this paper was to systematically review and meta-analyse trials that compared the effects of breaking up prolonged sitting with bouts of PA throughout the day (INT) versus continuous sitting (SIT) on glucose, insulin and triacylglycerol (TAG) measures. A second aim was to compare the effects of INT versus continuous exercise (EX) on glucose, insulin and TAG measures...
September 24, 2019: Sports Medicine
Garcia Ashdown-Franks, Joseph Firth, Rebekah Carney, Andre F Carvalho, Mats Hallgren, Ai Koyanagi, Simon Rosenbaum, Felipe B Schuch, Lee Smith, Marco Solmi, Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND: Exercise may improve neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms in people with mental disorders, but the totality of the evidence is unclear. We conducted a meta-review of exercise in (1) serious mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum, bipolar disorder and major depression (MDD)); (2) anxiety and stress disorders; (3) alcohol and substance use disorders; (4) eating disorders (anorexia nervosa bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorders, and (5) other mental disorders (including ADHD, pre/post-natal depression)...
September 20, 2019: Sports Medicine
Danielle Trowell, Bill Vicenzino, Natalie Saunders, Aaron Fox, Jason Bonacci
BACKGROUND: Concurrent strength and endurance (CSE) training improves distance running performance more than endurance training alone, but the mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are unclear. It has been hypothesised that biomechanical or neuromuscular adaptations are responsible for improvements in running performance; however, evidence on this topic has not been synthesised in a review. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of CSE training on biomechanical and neuromuscular variables in distance runners...
September 20, 2019: Sports Medicine
Yu-Kai Chang, Kirk I Erickson, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Tsung-Min Hung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2019: Sports Medicine
Jeffrey A Rothschild, David J Bishop
Endurance training leads to a variety of adaptations at the cellular and systemic levels that serve to minimise disruptions in whole-body homeostasis caused by exercise. These adaptations are differentially affected by training volume, training intensity, and training status, as well as by nutritional choices that can enhance or impair the response to training. A variety of supplements have been studied in the context of acute performance enhancement, but the effects of continued supplementation concurrent to endurance training programs are less well characterised...
September 17, 2019: Sports Medicine
Joao Beleboni Marques, Darren James Paul, Phil Graham-Smith, Paul James Read
Change of direction (CoD) has been indicated as a key mechanism in the occurrence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during invasion sports. Despite these associations, assessments of knee function in athletic populations at the time of return to sport following ACL reconstruction (ACLr) have often focused on strength and single-leg hop tests, with a paucity of evidence to describe the CoD characteristics. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review was to describe the movement strategies exhibited following ACLr during CoD tasks and to critically analyze the range of tests that have been used...
September 17, 2019: Sports Medicine
Tim Gabbett, Trish King, David Jenkins
The original article 'Science of Rugby League Football: A Review'.
September 16, 2019: Sports Medicine
Despoina V Tryfidou, Conor McClean, Michalis G Nikolaidis, Gareth W Davison
BACKGROUND: Exercise is widely recognised for its health enhancing benefits. Despite this, an overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), outstripping antioxidant defence mechanisms, can lead to a state of (chronic) oxidative stress. DNA is a vulnerable target of RONS attack and, if left unrepaired, DNA damage may cause genetic instability. OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed to systematically investigate and assess the overall effect of studies reporting DNA damage following acute aerobic exercise...
September 16, 2019: Sports Medicine
Carlijn M Maasakkers, Jurgen A H R Claassen, Paul A Gardiner, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Darren M Lipnicki, Nikolaos Scarmeas, Efthimios Dardiotis, Mary Yannakoulia, Kaarin J Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin, Mary N Haan, Shuzo Kumagai, Kenji Narazaki, Tao Chen, Tze Pin Ng, Qi Gao, Ma S Z Nyunt, John D Crawford, Nicole A Kochan, Steve R Makkar, Perminder S Sachdev, Dick H J Thijssen, René J F Melis
BACKGROUND: Besides physical activity as a target for dementia prevention, sedentary behaviour is hypothesized to be a potential target in its own right. The rising number of persons with dementia and lack of any effective treatment highlight the urgency to better understand these modifiable risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether higher levels of sedentary behaviour are associated with reduced global cognitive functioning and slower cognitive decline in older persons without dementia...
September 16, 2019: Sports Medicine
Christopher Latella, Wei-Peng Teo, Eric J Drinkwater, Kristina Kendall, G Gregory Haff
BACKGROUND: Cluster sets (CSs) are a popular resistance training (RT) strategy categorised by short rest periods implemented between single or groups of repetitions. However, evidence supporting the effectiveness of CSs on acute intra-session neuromuscular performance is still equivocal. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of a single session of CSs to attenuate losses in force, velocity and power compared to traditional set (TS) training...
September 11, 2019: Sports Medicine
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