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International Journal of Sports Medicine

Federico Formenti, Cameron Dockerill, Lasitha Kankanange, Luyu Zhang, Tetsuo Takaishi, Koji Ishida
The aim of this study was to assess the changes determined by increased cadence on skeletal muscle oxygenation during cycling at an exercise intensity equal to the ventilatory threshold (Tvent ).Nine healthy, active individuals with different levels of cycling experience exercised at a power output equal to Tvent , pedaling at cadences of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 rpm, each for 4 min. Cadences were tested in a randomized counterbalanced sequence. Cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses were studied using an ECG for heart rate, and gas calorimetry for pulmonary oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Kenji Masumoto, Kendell Galor, Andrew Craig-Jones, John A Mercer
We investigated metabolic costs, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), stride frequency (SF), and preferred speed (PS) during forward and backward running at different levels of body weight support (BWS). Participants completed forward and backward running on a lower body positive pressure treadmill at their preferred speed for forward and backward running at 0%BWS, 20%BWS, and 50%BWS. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2 ), heart rate (HR), RPE, SF, and PS were measured. HR, RPE, and SF during forward and backward running decreased with increasing BWS (P<0...
February 4, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Daniel P Bailey, Charlie J Orton, Benjamin D Maylor, Julia K Zakrzewski-Fruer
This study compared the effects of interrupting prolonged sedentary time with high-intensity physical activity (SED-ACT), a volume- and duration-matched high-intensity interval exercise session followed by prolonged sedentary time (HIIE), and prolonged uninterrupted sedentary time (SED) on postprandial glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations. Twelve sedentary and inactive but otherwise healthy adults completed 3, 6.5 h conditions in an incomplete counterbalanced order. During SED, participants sat continuously...
February 4, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Patrick de Souza Pfeiffer, Maria Socorro Cirilo-Sousa, Heleodório Honorato Dos Santos
The study aimed to analyze the effect of different levels of blood flow restriction (BFR) on energy expenditure (EE) and subjective perceptions of discomfort (SPD) during aerobic exercises. A sample group of 24 young men was required to walk on a treadmill for 14 min at 40% of their maximum speed, with 4 different percentages of BFR (0, 50, 80 and 100%) applied in the lower limbs (LL) once a week with a 7-day interval between the 4 evaluations. EE data were collected during the exercise periods; SPD data were collected after the exercises...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Tobias Dünnwald, Andreas Melmer, Hannes Gatterer, Karin Salzmann, Christoph Ebenbichler, Martin Burtscher, Wolfgang Schobersberger, Wilhelm Grander
Irisin is a myokine involved in adipocyte transformation. Its main beneficial effects arise from increased energy expenditure. Irisin production is particularly stimulated by physical exercise. The present study investigates the changes of plasma irisin in type 2 diabetic patients performing 2 different training modalities. Fourteen type 2 diabetic patients underwent 4 week of supervised high-intensity interval training (HIT; n=8) or continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT; n=6), with equivalent total amounts of work required...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Vinícius de Oliveira Ottone, Karine Beatriz Costa, Rosalina Tossige-Gomes, Mariana Aguiar de Matos, Gustavo Brito-Melo, Flavio de Castro Magalhaes, Elizabethe Adriana Esteves, Fabiano Amorim, Etel Rocha-Vieira
This study evaluated the effect of an acute high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) session on the function of human neutrophils. Twelve sedentary men performed a HIIE session (8 bouts of 60 s at 90% of peak power, intercalated with 75 s of active recovery at 30 W). Neutrophils were collected before, 30 min and 24 h after the exercise session for the evaluation of phagocytic capacity, expression of phagocytic receptors, reactive oxygen species generation, and redox status. 24 h after the HIIE session, an increase was observed in both neutrophil phagocytic capacity and yeast-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, which indicates neutrophil priming in response to an acute HIIE session...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Antonio Silva-Filho, Luana Anaisse Azoubel, Rodrigo França Barroso, Erika Carneiro, Carlos Alberto Alves Dias-Filho, Rachel Melo Ribeiro, Alessandra Magalhães Campos Garcia, Carlos José Dias, Bruno Rodrigues, Cristiano Teixeira Mostarda
We aimed to analyze the effect of an exercise training program in autonomic modulation, and exercise tolerance of hemodialysis and kidney-transplanted patients. 4 groups of exercised and non-exercised patients undergoing hemodialysis and kidney-transplanted subjects had their biochemical tests, and heart rate variability evaluations analyzed. Also, sleep quality, anxiety and depression questionnaires were evaluated. Both exercised groups showed improvements in cardiovascular autonomic modulation, biochemical markers, and exercise tolerance after the exercise training program...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Jeff W Barfield, Adam W Anz, Catherine L Osterman, James R Andrews, Gretchen D Oliver
The purpose of this study was to determine whether glove arm kinematics during a windmill softball pitch impact pelvic and trunk kinematics as well as pitching arm shoulder kinetics. Thirty-Nine college softball pitchers (20.0±1.4 yrs.; 174.7±6.1 cm; 82.0±13.0 kg; 10.7±2.7 yrs. of experience) threw 3 pitches to a catcher while kinematic and kinetic data were collected. Pearson product moment correlations were run, and significant correlations found with glove arm kinematics, occurring before pelvis kinematics, trunk kinematics, and shoulder kinetics, were then put through a linear regression to identify whether there was any potential cause and effect...
January 17, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
David M Keohane, Trevor Woods, Yvonne McCarthy, Patrick O'Connor, Sean Underwood, Michael G Molloy
This repeated-measures case series describes the changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and systemic inflammation in 4 well-trained athletes pre- and post-completion of an unsupported transatlantic rowing race. The acute effects of endurance exercise have been well described previously, but the enduring consequences of ultra-endurance on the cardiorespiratory, metabolic and immune systems are largely unknown. This study explores these physiological adaptations following 2 weeks of recovery. Cardiorespiratory fitness testing, body composition analysis, and blood sampling for inflammatory cytokines were recorded immediately before race departure and repeated 14 days following race completion...
January 14, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Michael Landram, Steven McAnulty, Alan Utter, Carlo Baldari, Laura Guidetti, Scott Collier
The aim of this study was to examine the cardiac autonomic nervous system differences following either continuous vs. discontinuous exercise in males and females. Forty-seven healthy male and female subjects (M=19, F=28; Age=36.95±13.79) underwent a baseline test for VO2peak and tilt table testing. They were assigned to a one-month control period before returning to repeat the testing and then begin one month of either continuous aerobic treadmill work for 30 min at 70% peak heart rate (N=23) or 3 bouts of 10 min at 70% of peak heart rate with two 10-min break periods in between (N=24)...
January 10, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Gillian Weir, Jacqueline Alderson, Natalie Smailes, Bruce Elliott, Cyril Donnelly
This study aimed to develop a 2-dimensional (2D) video screening tool capable of predicting an athlete's peak 3-dimensional (3D) knee moments during unplanned sidestepping. 2D video-based kinematic measures were simultaneously captured with 3D peak knee moments for 30 female field hockey players (15 junior, 15 senior). Intra- and intertester repeatability of 2D kinematic measures was performed. Then, linear regression models were used to model 3D knee moments from 2D kinematic variables utilizing 80% of the sample (n=24)...
January 10, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Jose Daniel Jiménez-García, Antonio Martínez-Amat, M J De la Torre-Cruz, Raquel Fábrega-Cuadros, David Cruz-Díaz, Agustín Aibar-Almazán, Alexander Achalandabaso-Ochoa, Fidel Hita-Contreras
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 12-week high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) training program involving suspension exercises (TRX) on the muscle strength, body composition, gait speed, and quality of life of older adults. A total of 82 older adults were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a HIIT group (n=28), a continuous intensity training group (MIIT group, n=27), or a control group (CG, n=27). Compared to MIIT and CG, participants of the HIIT group showed significant post-intervention improvements in BMI (p=...
January 3, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Mahdi Sareban, David Zügel, Paul Hartveg, Martina Zügel, Thomas Gary, Josef Niebauer, Jürgen Steinacker, Gunnar Treff
The purpose of this study was to investigate echocardiographic changes in left ventricular (LV) diastolic filling and left atrial (LA) strain mechanics following prolonged exercise. Ten male triathletes completed a 60-min swim, 180-min bike exercise, and a 60-min all-out run in a laboratory environment. Special attention was paid to prevent dehydration and energy deficit during the exercise protocol. All participants underwent comprehensive echocardiographic analyses of Doppler- and volumetric-derived LV diastolic filling indices and novel speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE)-derived LA strain indices...
January 3, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Arkadiusz Michalak, Andrzej Gawrecki, Szymon Gałczyński, Jędrzej Nowaczyk, Beata Mianowska, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Agnieszka Szadkowska
Regular physical activity increases lifespan for those with type 1 diabetes. However, disease-related barriers may deter children from exercise and affect their fitness. This study examined the safety of the Cooper test concerning diabetes-related acute complications in children with type 1 diabetes and their fitness. Blood glucose was recorded before and 0, 30, 60 min after the test. The covered distances were transformed to z-scores based on the national charts. Body mass index, body fat percentage and glycated hemoglobin were measured...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Francesco Campa, Gabriele Semprini, Pedro B Júdice, Gianluca Messina, Stefania Toselli
This study aimed to evaluate the associations of anthropometry, functional movement patterns (FMP) and physical performance characteristics with repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in male youth soccer players. Thirty six athletes (ages 16.6±0.5 years, BMI 22.0±1.3 kg/m2 ) completed the RSA test and other physical tests including countermovement jump with (CMJA) and without the help of arms (CMJ), 10-m and 20-m straight-line sprints, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo), and functional movement screen (FMS)...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
John Derek Franklin, Greg Atkinson, Janet M Atkinson, Alan M Batterham
To evaluate the magnitude of the difference in VO2peak between patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and apparently healthy controls, 7 databases (Cochrane, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, Embase, Scopus, Medline) were searched for articles published up to March 2018. Search terms included "chronic fatigue syndrom*"AND ("peak" OR "maxim*" OR "max") AND ("oxygen uptake" OR "oxygen consumption" OR "VO2peak" or "VO2max"...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Igor Nasser, Jeffrey Willardson, Renata de Mello Perez, Michel Silva Reis, Anderson de Azevedo Brito, Ingrid Ferreira Dias, Humberto Lameira Miranda
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) responses during and after circuit resistance training with 1 min. (CIR1) vs. 2 min. (CIR2) rest intervals between exercises in liver cirrhosis patients. 10 patients (7 women, 3 men) participated in 2 experimental sessions (CIR1 and CIR2) in random order. Each experimental session consisted of 6 exercises performed for 3 sets of 10 repetitions with 70% of the 10-RM load. The only difference between experimental sessions was taking either 1 min...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Fabiula Isoton Novelli, Jaqueline Alves de Araújo, Geovane José Tolazzi, Gabriel Kolesny Tricot, Gisela Arsa, Lucieli Teresa Cambri
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the heart rate variability threshold (HRVT) by different HRV indexes and determination criteria. 68 untrained participants, 17 women (24.09±4.91 years old; 21.54±1.97 kg∙m-2 ) and 51 men (24.52±3.52 years old; 26.51±6.31 kg∙m-2 ), were evaluated on 2 different days (test and retest). The HRVT was determined during an incremental exercise test using 2 indexes (SD1 and RMSSD) and criteria (HRTV1, first intensity of physical effort with index<3 ms, and HRVT2, first intensity of physical effort, in which the index presents a difference<1 ms between 2 consecutive intensities)...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Bryce Nicholas Balmain, Neil Tuttle, Joseph Bailey, Katie Cheng, Mitchell Duryea, Josephine Houlihan, James Wotherspoon, Norman Morris
We examined the accuracy of Smart Socks - a device that measures foot pressure during gait for detecting step-count across various walking speeds. Thirty-six participants (17 men; 19 women) wore Smart Socks (Sock), a pedometer (Pedometer), and a smartphone with a commercially available Phone Application (Phone) pedometer to measure step-count during 3-min of treadmill or over-ground walking at 1.3, 2.2, 3.0, 3.8, and 4.7 km/h. Steps were compared to a gold-standard tally-counter (Count), collected by independent assessors...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Alexander Schenk, Walter Pulverer, Christine Koliamitra, Claus Juergen Bauer, Suzana Ilic, Rudolf Heer, Robert Schier, Volker Schick, Bernd W Böttiger, Clarissa Gerhäuser, Wilhelm Bloch, Philipp Zimmer
Positive effects of exercise on cancer prevention and progression have been proposed to be mediated by stimulating natural killer (NK) cells. Because NK cell receptors are regulated by epigenetic modifications, we investigated whether acute aerobic exercise and training change promoter DNA methylation and gene expression of the activating KIR2DS4 and the inhibiting KIR3DL1 gene. Sixteen healthy women (50-60 years) performed a graded exercise test (GXT) and were randomized into either a passive control group or an intervention group performing a four-week endurance exercise intervention...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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