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Karen A Matthews, Martica H Hall, Laisze Lee, Howard M Kravitz, Yuefang Chang, Bradley M Appelhans, Leslie M Swanson, Genevieve S Neal-Perry, Hadine Joffe
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To describe racial/ethnic differences in sleep duration, continuity, and perceived sleep quality in postmenopausal women and to identify statistical mediators of differences in sleep characteristics. METHODS: Recruited from the observational Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), 1203 (548 White, 303 Black, 147 Chinese, 132 Japanese, and 73 Hispanic; mean age 65 years, 97% postmenopausal) women participated in a week-long actigraphy and daily diary study in 2013-15...
February 18, 2019: Sleep
Sophie Desjadins, Sylvie Lapierre, Carol Hudon, Alain Desgagné
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Research indicates that sleep efficiency below 80% substantially increases mortality risk in elderly persons. The aim of this study was to identify factors that would best predict poor sleep efficiency in the elderly, and to determine whether associations between these factors and sleep efficiency were similar for men and women and for younger and older elderly persons. METHODS: A total of 2,468 individuals aged 65-96 years (40.7% men) participated...
February 15, 2019: Sleep
Elise R Facer-Childs, Brunno M Campos, Benita Middleton, Debra J Skene, Andrew P Bagshaw
INTRODUCTION: Functional connectivity (FC) of the human brain's intrinsically connected networks underpins cognitive functioning and disruptions of FC are associated with sleep and neurological disorders. However, there is limited research on the impact of circadian phenotype and time of day on FC. STUDY OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate resting state FC of the default mode network (DMN) in Early and Late circadian phenotypes over a socially constrained day...
February 15, 2019: Sleep
June C Lo, Derek C K Twan, Swathy Karamchedu, Xuan Kai Lee, Ju Lynn Ong, Elaine van Rijn, Joshua J Gooley, Michael W L Chee
Study Objectives: Many adolescents are exposed to sleep restriction on school nights. We assessed how different apportionment of restricted sleep (continuous versus split sleep) influences neurobehavioral function and glucose levels. Methods: Adolescents, aged 15-19 years, were evaluated in a dormitory setting using a parallel-group design. Following 2 baseline nights of 9-h time-in-bed (TIB), participants underwent either 5 nights of continuous 6.5-h TIB (n=29) or 5-h nocturnal TIB with a 1...
February 12, 2019: Sleep
Brittany N Link, Celine Eid, Maggie H Bublitz, Martino F Pengo, Myriam Salameh, Karin S Ludwig, Richard P Millman, Lance Dworkin, Ghada Bourjeily
Study Objectives: There are significant discrepancies between the prevalence of snoring and that of objectively defined sleep disordered breathing (SDB) among pregnant women, suggesting subtle airflow limitations that may not be captured by conventional scoring. This study examined the performance of pulse transit time (PTT), an indirect measure of arterial stiffness and sympathetic activation, in pregnancy. Methods: Pregnant women with obesity and snoring and a group of controls without symptoms of SDB were recruited in the first trimester...
February 8, 2019: Sleep
D Grimaldi, N A Papalambros, K J Reid, S M Abbott, R G Malkani, M Gendy, M Iwanaszko, R I Braun, D J Sanchez, K A Paller, P C Zee
Slow-wave sleep (SWS) is important for overall health since it affects many physiological processes including cardio-metabolic function. Sleep and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity are closely coupled at anatomical and physiological levels. Sleep-related changes in autonomic function are likely the main pathway through which SWS affects many systems within the body. There are characteristic changes in ANS activity across sleep stages. Notably, in Non-Rapid Eye-Movement sleep, the progression into SWS is characterized by increased parasympathetic activity, an important measure of cardiovascular health...
February 6, 2019: Sleep
Anne Venner, William D Todd, Jimmy Fraigne, Hannah Bowrey, Ada Eban-Rothschild, Satvinder Kaur, Christelle Anaclet
Optogenetics and chemogenetics are powerful tools, allowing the specific activation or inhibition of targeted neuronal sub-populations. Application of these techniques to sleep and circadian research has resulted in the unveiling of several neuronal populations that are involved in sleep-wake control, and allowed a comprehensive interrogation of the circuitry through which these nodes are coordinated to orchestrate the sleep-wake cycle. In this review, we discuss six recently described sleep-wake and circadian circuits that show promise as therapeutic targets for sleep medicine...
February 5, 2019: Sleep
Christopher Papandreou, Lucia Camacho-Barcia, Jesús García-Gavilán, Thea Toft Hansen, Mads F Hjorth, Jason C G Halford, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Anders Sjödin, Mónica Bulló
Objectives: To investigate the associations of circulating metabolites with sleep duration and sleep variability. We also assessed the ability of metabolites to discriminate between sleep duration and sleep variability categories. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 205 participants with overweight/obesity from the "Satiety Innovation" (SATIN) study. A targeted metabolite profiling (n = 159 metabolites) approach was applied using three different platforms (NMR, LC-MS, GC-MS)...
February 5, 2019: Sleep
Lei Gao, Peng Li, Chelsea Hu, Tommy To, Melissa Patxot, Brigid Falvey, Patricia M Wong, Frank A J L Scheer, Chen Lin, Men-Tzung Lo, Kun Hu
Study Objectives: Sleep-wake regularity (SWR) is often disrupted in college students and mood disorders are rife at this age. Disrupted SWR can cause repetitive and long-term misalignment between environmental and behavioral cycles and the circadian system which may then have psychological and physical health consequences. We tested whether SWR was independently associated with mood and autonomic function in a healthy adult cohort. Methods: We studied 42 college students over a 3-week period using daily sleep-wake diaries and continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings...
February 5, 2019: Sleep
Régis Lopez, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud Franchi, Sofiene Chenini, Marie Gachet, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers
Objective: The association between restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS) and iron deficiency has been reported in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however little is known in adults. The aim of this study was to assess frequencies of RLS, PLMS and other leg movements (LM) and iron deficiency and their relationships with ADHD phenotype in adults with ADHD. Methods: 200 adults with ADHD (112 males, median age 31 years) were evaluated on lifetime ADHD symptoms and sleep characteristics...
February 5, 2019: Sleep
C Carroll, H Hsiang, S Snyder, J Forsberg, M B Dash
Local sleep need within cortical circuits exhibits extensive interregional variability and appears to increase following learning during preceding waking. Although the biological mechanisms responsible for generating sleep need are unclear, this local variability could arise as a consequence of wake-dependent synaptic plasticity. To test whether cortical synaptic strength is a proximate driver of sleep homeostasis we developed a novel experimental approach to alter local sleep need. One hour prior to light onset, we injected zeta-inhibitory peptide (ZIP), a pharmacological antagonist of protein kinase Mζ, which can produce pronounced synaptic depotentiation, into the right motor cortex of freely-behaving rats...
February 5, 2019: Sleep
Xiao Yu, Ying Ma, Edward C Harding, Raquel Yustos, Alexei L Vyssotski, Nicholas P Franks, William Wisden
Acute chemogenetic inhibition of histamine (HA) neurons in adult mice induced NREM sleep with an increased delta power. By contrast, selective genetic lesioning of HA neurons with caspase in adult mice exhibited a normal sleep-wake cycle overall, except at the diurnal start of the lights-off period, when they remained sleepier. The amount of time spent in NREM sleep and in the wake state in mice with lesioned HA neurons was unchanged over 24 hours, but the sleep-wake cycle was more fragmented. Both the delayed increase in wakefulness at the start of the night, and the sleep-wake-fragmentation are similar phenotypes to histidine decarboxylase (HDC) knockout mice, which cannot synthesize HA...
February 5, 2019: Sleep
Andrew W McHill, Joseph T Hull, Daniel A Cohen, Wei Wang, Charles A Czeisler, Elizabeth B Klerman
Study Objectives: Sleep inertia, subjectively experienced as grogginess felt upon awakening, causes cognitive performance impairments that can require up to 1.5h to dissipate. It is unknown, however, how chronic sleep restriction (CSR) influences the magnitude and duration of sleep inertia-related performance deficits. Methods: Twenty-six healthy participants were enrolled in one of two in-laboratory sleep restriction protocols (one 32-day randomized-control and one 38-day protocol) that separated the influence of sleep and circadian effects on performance using different "day"-lengths (20-h and 42...
February 5, 2019: Sleep
Melanie N Schneider, Dan Denis, Daniel J Buysse, Yulia Kovas, Alice M Gregory
Study Objectives: This study examines the associations between overall pre-sleep arousal, its cognitive and somatic subscales and insomnia symptoms. Furthermore, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental influences on overall pre-sleep arousal, cognitive pre-sleep arousal, somatic pre-sleep arousal and insomnia symptoms and the association between these variables is estimated. Methods: The cross-sectional data came from G1219 (Wave 5), a twin/sibling study which comprised 862 individuals (aged 22-32 years, 34% males)...
February 5, 2019: Sleep
Chenzhao Ding, Jihui Zhang, Eric Siu Him Lau, Andrea On Yan Luk, Wing Yee So, Ronald Ching Wan Ma, Kai Chow Choi, Juliana Chung Ngor Chan, Yun Kwok Wing, Alice Pik Shan Kong
Objectives: Insomnia is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the general population. However, the associations between insomnia and glycemic control in T2D population are not consistently reported. In this study, we aimed to examine the associations between insomnia and glycemic control, and gender differences in these associations among Hong Kong Chinese patients with T2D. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving T2D patients recruited from the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry between July 2010 and June 2015...
February 4, 2019: Sleep
James N Cousins, Elaine van Rijn, Ju Lynn Ong, Michael W L Chee
Study Objectives: Chronic sleep restriction in adolescents is widespread, yet we know little about how to apportion the limited amount of sleep obtained to minimize cognitive impairment: should sleep occur only nocturnally, or be split across separate nocturnal and daytime nap periods? This is particularly relevant to hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions that underpin several aspects of learning. Method: We assessed hippocampal function in four groups by evaluating short-term topographical memory with the four mountains test (4MT)...
February 4, 2019: Sleep
Vitalie Chiosa, Dumitru Ciolac, Stanislav Groppa, Nabin Koirala, Bogdan Pintea, Anatolie Vataman, Yaroslav Winter, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa
Study Objectives: In this study, we aimed to estimate the alterations of brain networks and structural integrity linked to seizure occurrence during sleep and awake states. Methods: Using a graph theory approach to magnetic resonance imaging-derived volumes of cortical and subcortical regions, we investigated the topological organization of structural networks in patients with sleep seizures (n = 13), patients with awake seizures (n = 12), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 10)...
January 31, 2019: Sleep
Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, Jessica Benedict, Derek N Wills, Cindy L Ehlers
Study Objectives: Insomnia is a prominent complaint in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD). However, despite the importance of sleep in the maintenance of sobriety, treatment options for sleep disturbance associated with a history of AUD are currently limited. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that suvorexant, a dual Hct/OX receptor antagonist, normalizes sleep in patients with primary insomnia, yet its potential for the treatment of sleep pathology associated with AUD has not been investigated in either pre-clinical or clinical studies...
January 31, 2019: Sleep
Mink Sebastian Schinkelshoek, Gert Jan Lammers, Rolf Fronczek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2019: Sleep
Simon R Cox, Stuart J Ritchie, Mike Allerhand, Saskia P Hagenaars, Ratko Radakovic, David P Breen, Gail Davies, Renata L Riha, Sarah E Harris, John M Starr, Ian J Deary
We examined associations between self-reported sleep measures and cognitive level and change (age 70-76 years) in a longitudinal, same-year-of-birth cohort study (baseline N = 1,091; longitudinal N = 664). We also leveraged GWAS summary data to ascertain whether polygenic scores (PGS) of chronotype and sleep duration related to self-reported sleep, and to cognitive level and change. Shorter sleep latency was associated with significantly higher levels of visuospatial ability, processing speed, and verbal memory (β ≥ |0...
January 19, 2019: Sleep
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