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Psychological Medicine

Baptiste Pignon, Pierre A Geoffroy, Pierre Thomas, Jean-Luc Roelandt, Ali Amad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Leah Emily James, Courtney Welton-Mitchell, John Roger Noel, Alexander Scott James
BACKGROUND: Given the frequency of natural hazards in Haiti, disaster risk reduction is crucial. However, evidence suggests that many people exposed to prior disasters do not engage in disaster preparedness, even when they receive training and have adequate resources. This may be partially explained by a link between mental health symptoms and preparedness; however, these components are typically not integrated in intervention. METHODS: The current study assesses effectiveness of an integrated mental health and disaster preparedness intervention...
February 20, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Maria Angelique Di Biase, Fan Zhang, Amanda Lyall, Marek Kubicki, René C W Mandl, Iris E Sommer, Ofer Pasternak
BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a cardinal feature of schizophrenia, but they can also appear in otherwise healthy individuals. Imaging studies implicate language networks in the generation of AVH; however, it remains unclear if alterations reflect biologic substrates of AVH, irrespective of diagnostic status, age, or illness-related factors. We applied multimodal imaging to identify AVH-specific pathology, evidenced by overlapping gray or white matter deficits between schizophrenia patients and healthy voice-hearers...
February 20, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Nathaniel E Anderson, J Michael Maurer, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Keith A Harenski, Carla L Harenski, Michael R Koenigs, Jean Decety, Kent A Kiehl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Thomas Wolfers, Christian F Beckmann, Martine Hoogman, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Andre F Marquand
BACKGROUND: The present paper presents a fundamentally novel approach to model individual differences of persons with the same biologically heterogeneous mental disorder. Unlike prevalent case-control analyses, that assume a clear distinction between patient and control groups and thereby introducing the concept of an 'average patient', we describe each patient's biology individually, gaining insights into the different facets that characterize persistent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 20, 2019: Psychological Medicine
N O'Connell, T R Nicholson, S Wessely, A S David
BACKGROUND: Functional neurological disorder (FND), previously known as conversion disorder, is common and often results in substantial distress and disability. Previous research lacks large sample sizes and clinical surveys are most commonly derived from neurological settings, limiting our understanding of the disorder and its associations in other contexts. We sought to address this by analysing a large anonymised electronic psychiatric health record dataset. METHODS: Data were obtained from 322 patients in the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) who had an ICD-10 diagnosis of motor FND (mFND) (limb weakness or disorders of movement or gait) between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2016...
February 18, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Benjamin Suarez-Jimenez, Xi Zhu, Amit Lazarov, J John Mann, Franklin Schneier, Andrew Gerber, Jacques P Barber, Dianne L Chambless, Yuval Neria, Barbara Milrod, John C Markowitz
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus plays an important role in psychopathology and treatment outcome. While posterior hippocampus (PH) may be crucial for the learning process that exposure-based treatments require, affect-focused treatments might preferentially engage anterior hippocampus (AH). Previous studies have distinguished the different functions of these hippocampal sub-regions in memory, learning, and emotional processes, but not in treatment outcome. Examining two independent clinical trials, we hypothesized that anterior hippocampal volume would predict outcome of affect-focused treatment outcome [Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT); Panic-Focused Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (PFPP)], whereas posterior hippocampal volume would predict exposure-based treatment outcome [Prolonged Exposure (PE); Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT); Applied Relaxation Training (ART)]...
February 18, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Liwen Zhang, Hui Ai, Esther M Opmeer, Jan-Bernard C Marsman, Lisette van der Meer, Henricus G Ruhé, André Aleman, Marie-José van Tol
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in emotion regulation (ER) are characteristic of both patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ). We investigated the temporal dynamics of brain activation during cognitive ER in BD and SZ to understand the contribution of temporal characteristics of disturbed ER to their unique and shared symptomatology. METHOD: Forty-six participants performed an ER-task (BD, n = 15; SZ, n = 16; controls, n = 15) during functional magnetic resonance imaging, in which they were instructed to use cognitive reappraisal techniques to regulate their emotional responses...
February 18, 2019: Psychological Medicine
S Jauhar, K R Laws, P J McKenna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Nambeom Kim, Inkyung Park, Yu Jin Lee, Sehyun Jeon, Soohyun Kim, Kyung Hwa Lee, Juhyun Park, Hang-Keun Kim, Ah Reum Gwaq, Jin Yong Jun, So Young Yoo, So Hee Lee, Seog Ju Kim
BACKGROUND: Refugees commonly experience difficulties with emotional processing, such as alexithymia, due to stressful or traumatic experiences. However, the functional connectivity of the amygdala, which is central to emotional processing, has yet to be assessed in refugees. Thus, the present study investigated the resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala and its association with emotional processing in North Korean (NK) refugees. METHODS: This study included 45 NK refugees and 40 native South Koreans (SK)...
February 12, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Christos Grigoroglou, Luke Munford, Roger T Webb, Nav Kapur, Darren M Ashcroft, Evangelos Kontopantelis
BACKGROUND: We aimed to spatially describe mental illness prevalence in England at small-area geographical level, as measured by prevalence of depression, severe mental illness (SMI) and antidepressant prescription volume in primary care records, and how much of their variation was explained by deprivation, social fragmentation and sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: Information on prevalence of depression and SMI was obtained from the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) administrative dataset for 2015/16 and the national dispensing dataset for 2015/16...
February 12, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Adrian B R Shatte, Delyse M Hutchinson, Samantha J Teague
BACKGROUND: This paper aims to synthesise the literature on machine learning (ML) and big data applications for mental health, highlighting current research and applications in practice. METHODS: We employed a scoping review methodology to rapidly map the field of ML in mental health. Eight health and information technology research databases were searched for papers covering this domain. Articles were assessed by two reviewers, and data were extracted on the article's mental health application, ML technique, data type, and study results...
February 12, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Stephanie N DeCross, Amy H Farabaugh, Avram J Holmes, Maeve Ward, Emily A Boeke, Rick P F Wolthusen, Garth Coombs, Maren Nyer, Maurizio Fava, Randy L Buckner, Daphne J Holt
BACKGROUND: Subclinical delusional ideas, including persecutory beliefs, in otherwise healthy individuals are heritable symptoms associated with increased risk for psychotic illness, possibly representing an expression of one end of a continuum of psychosis severity. The identification of variation in brain function associated with these symptoms may provide insights about the neurobiology of delusions in clinical psychosis. METHODS: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was collected from 131 young adults with a wide range of severity of subclinical delusional beliefs, including persecutory ideas...
February 12, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Anja Riesel, Julia Klawohn, Rosa Grützmann, Christian Kaufmann, Stephan Heinzel, Katharina Bey, Leonhard Lennertz, Michael Wagner, Norbert Kathmann
BACKGROUND: Increased neural error-signals have been observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety disorders, and inconsistently in depression. Reduced neural error-signals have been observed in substance use disorders (SUD). Thus, alterations in error-monitoring are proposed as a transdiagnostic endophenotype. To strengthen this notion, data from unaffected individuals with a family history for the respective disorders are needed. METHODS: The error-related negativity (ERN) as a neural indicator of error-monitoring was measured during a flanker task from 117 OCD patients, 50 unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients, and 130 healthy comparison participants...
February 12, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Harry Rubin-Falcone, Jochen Weber, Ronit Kishon, Kevin Ochsner, Lauren Delaparte, Bruce Doré, Sudha Raman, Bryan T Denny, Maria A Oquendo, J John Mann, Jeffrey M Miller
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for many patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), but predictors of treatment outcome are lacking, and little is known about its neural mechanisms. We recently identified longitudinal changes in neural correlates of conscious emotion regulation that scaled with clinical responses to CBT for MDD, using a negative autobiographical memory-based task. METHODS: We now examine the neural correlates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during viewing of emotionally salient images as predictors of treatment outcome with CBT for MDD, and the relationship between longitudinal change in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses and clinical outcomes...
February 11, 2019: Psychological Medicine
P Plavén-Sigray, S Cervenka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Anne Toussaint, Paul Hüsing, Sebastian Kohlmann, Bernd Löwe
BACKGROUND: The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduced somatic symptom and related disorders (SSD) to improve the diagnosis of somatoform disorders. It is unclear whether existing questionnaires are useful to identify patients with SSD. Our study investigates the diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) and the Somatic Symptom Scale-8 (SSS-8) in combination with the Somatic Symptom Disorder - B Criteria Scale (SSD-12)...
February 7, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Yamin Zhang, Mingli Li, Qiang Wang, Jacob Shujui Hsu, Wei Deng, Xiaohong Ma, Peiyan Ni, Liansheng Zhao, Yang Tian, Pak Chung Sham, Tao Li
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide and influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Genetic studies of MDD have focused on common variants and have been constrained by the heterogeneity of clinical symptoms. METHODS: We sequenced the exome of 77 cases and 245 controls of Han Chinese ancestry and scanned their brain. Burden tests of rare variants were performed first to explore the association between genes/pathways and MDD...
February 6, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Kenneth S Kendler, Steven H Aggen, Nathan Gillespie, Robert F Krueger, Nikolai Czajkowski, Eivind Ystrom, T Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND: Can the structure of genetic and environmental influences on normative personality traits (NPTs), abnormal personality traits (APTs), and DSM-IV criteria for personality disorders (PD) fit a high or low congruence model positing, respectively, close or more limited etiologic continuity? METHOD: Exploratory factor analysis was applied to transformed correlation matrices from Cholesky twin decompositions obtained in OpenMx. In 2801 adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel, NPTs and APTs were assessed by self-report using the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and PID-5-Norwegian Brief Form (PID-5-NBF), respectively...
February 6, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Jean-Paul Selten, Els van der Ven, Fabian Termorshuizen
BACKGROUND: The aims of this meta-analysis are (i) to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) of developing non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) and affective psychotic disorder (APD) among migrants and their children; (ii) to adjust these results for socioeconomic status (SES); (iii) to examine the sources of heterogeneity that underlie the risk of NAPD. METHODS: We included population-based incidence studies that reported an age-adjusted RR with 95% confidence interval (CI) published 1 January 1977-12 October 2017 and used a random-effects model...
February 6, 2019: Psychological Medicine
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