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American Journal of Public Health

Ashley Fox, Georgia Himmelstein, Hina Khalid, Elizabeth A Howell
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between adolescent pregnancy-prevention and sexuality and abstinence-only education funding and adolescent birthrates over time. Also, to determine whether state ideology plays a moderating role on adolescent reproductive health, that is, whether the funding has its intended effect at reducing the number of adolescent births in conservative but not in liberal states. METHODS: We modeled time-series data on federal abstinence-only and adolescent pregnancy-prevention and sexuality education block grants to US states and rates of adolescent births (1998-2016) and adjusted for state-level confounders using 2-way fixed-effects models...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Joanne Csete
Expanding access to treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) is central to addressing the US overdose mortality crisis. Numerous barriers to OUD treatment are encountered in criminal justice institutions and processes, with which people with OUD are disproportionately involved. OUD treatment access is severely limited in US corrections facilities, with few exceptions. Drug treatment courts, which in principle provide court-supervised treatment as an alternative to prison, have also unduly limited treatment options, particularly medication-assisted treatment...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Daniel Sledge, Herschel F Thomas
In this article, we examine the role of nongovernmental entities (NGEs; nonprofits, religious groups, and businesses) in disaster response and recovery. Although media reports and the existing scholarly literature focus heavily on the role of governments, NGEs provide critical services related to public safety and public health after disasters. NGEs are crucial because of their ability to quickly provide services, their flexibility, and their unique capacity to reach marginalized populations. To examine the role of NGEs, we surveyed 115 NGEs engaged in disaster response...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Sean T Allen, Allison O'Rourke, Rebecca Hamilton White, Kristin E Schneider, Michael Kilkenny, Susan G Sherman
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate how we applied the capture-recapture method for population estimation directly in a rural Appalachian county (Cabell County, WV) to estimate the number of people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: We conducted 2 separate 2-week periods of data collection in June ("capture") and July ("recapture") 2018. We recruited PWID from a syringe services program and in community locations where PWID were known to congregate. Participants completed a survey that included measures related to sociodemographics, substance use, and HIV and hepatitis C virus prevention...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Justin M Feldman, Sofia Gruskin, Brent A Coull, Nancy Krieger
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the association between rates of police-related deaths and neighborhood residential segregation (by income, race/ethnicity, or both combined) in the United States. METHODS: We identified police-related deaths that occurred in the United States (2015-2016) using a data set from the Guardian newspaper. We used census data to estimate expected police-related death counts for all US census tracts and to calculate the Index of Concentration at the Extremes as a segregation measure...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Candice M Bowling, Stanton A Glantz
Although the acceleration of cannabis legalization in the United States has spurred innovations in public administration and policymaking, there have been news accounts of public employees engaged in cannabis licensure or enforcement that constitute conflicts of interest (COIs). After conducting 3 surveys in 50 states (including Washington, DC as a state), we found that COI provisions pertaining to cannabis-related public employment fell into 2 categories: subject matter general and cannabis specific. Only 20% (6/30) of the states that legalized medical cannabis had COI provisions in their medical cannabis codes, whereas the remaining 80% rely on subject matter general provisions relating to all areas of regulated subject matter, highlighting the need for thoughtful creation of COI rules in future policymaking...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Alexandra Loukas, C Nathan Marti, Cheryl L Perry
OBJECTIVES: To examine intraindividual change in polytobacco and individual tobacco and nicotine product use across young adulthood. METHOD: Participants were 2711 students from 24 Texas colleges participating in a 6-wave online study, with 6 months between each wave. Participants were aged 18 to 25 years at baseline in fall 2014 or spring 2015 and aged 20 to 28 years at wave 6. We used growth curve modeling for an accelerated longitudinal design to examine change from ages 18 to 28 years in polytobacco use (use of 2 or more products) and in use of 5 individual products (cigarettes, smokeless tobacco or snus, large cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars, hookah, and electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS])...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Jacqueline E Rudolph, Stephen R Cole, Jessie K Edwards, Eric A Whitsel, Marc L Serre, David B Richardson
OBJECTIVES: To use dynamic visualizations of mortality risk functions over both calendar year and age as a way to estimate and visualize patterns in US life spans. METHODS: We built 49 synthetic cohorts, 1 per year 1968 to 2016, using National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) mortality and population data. Within each cohort, we estimated age-specific probabilities of dying from any cause (all-cause analysis) or from a particular cause (cause-specific analysis)...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Jennifer L Pomeranz
In 2018, the US Supreme Court analyzed a California state requirement that clinics serving pregnant women must provide government notices-1 for licensed clinics about the availability of state health services including abortion and 1 for unlicensed clinics, notifying potential clients that the clinics are not licensed medical facilities and have no licensed medical professionals on-site. The Supreme Court found that both notices violated the First Amendment rights of the clinics. The Supreme Court's opinion elicits new uncertainties about the government's ability to require the disclosure of factual information in the context of reproductive health services and more broadly in the commercial context...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
John B Blevins, Mohamed F Jalloh, David A Robinson
We examined the relationship between religion and health by highlighting the influences of religion on the response to the 2014 to 2016 Ebola outbreak and the global HIV epidemic. We recounted the influences of religion on burial practices developed as an infection control measure during the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. We also explored the influence of religion on community outreach and health education. We examined faith-based responses to the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, noting that religion conflicted with public health responses to HIV (e...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Marcos A Espinal, Jon K Andrus, Barbara Jauregui, Stephen Hull Waterman, David Michael Morens, Jose Ignacio Santos, Olaf Horstick, Lorraine Ayana Francis, Daniel Olson
The increasing geographical spread and disease incidence of arboviral infections are among the greatest public health concerns in the Americas. The region has observed an increasing trend in dengue incidence in the last decades, evolving from low to hyperendemicity. Yellow fever incidence has also intensified in this period, expanding from sylvatic-restricted activity to urban outbreaks. Chikungunya started spreading pandemically in 2005 at an unprecedented pace, reaching the Americas in 2013. The following year, Zika also emerged in the region with an explosive outbreak, carrying devastating congenital abnormalities and neurologic disorders and becoming one of the greatest global health crises in years...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Mimi Kiser, Kay Lovelace
We studied a national collaboration to prevent the spread of 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza, and highlighted how a partnership among the Interfaith Health Program (IHP) at Emory University, the Department of Health and Human Services Partnership Center, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) leveraged the distinctive capabilities of local public health, health care, and faith-based organizations in 10 communities around the country...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Jeremy Milloy
This article analyzes archival records to revisit Curb Heroin In Plants (C.H.I.P.), a public health intervention focusing on drug dependence that was created and led by Detroit, Michigan, autoworkers during the mid-1970s. Responding to widespread heroin use in Detroit auto plants, C.H.I.P. combined methadone maintenance with counseling on and off the job to treat heroin dependence while supporting autoworkers in continuing in employment and family life. Although C.H.I.P. ultimately failed, it was a promising attempt to transcend medical/punitive approaches and treat those with substance use disorder in a nonstigmatizing way, with attention to the workplace dimensions of their disorder and recovery...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Annie Hardison-Moody, Julia Yao
Faith communities are increasingly being recognized as important leaders in community health work, both in the United States and globally. However, faith communities are also often working at or beyond capacity in terms of meeting the social, emotional, and health needs of the communities they serve. To bridge these gaps and build on the significant assets that faith communities possess, the Faithful Families Thriving Communities program was created in 2007 as a partnership between the North Carolina Division of Public Health and North Carolina State University...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Will Nicholas, Irene Vidyanti, Emily Caesar, Neil Maizlish
OBJECTIVES: To determine the health impacts of three future scenarios of travel behavior by mode for the City of Los Angeles, California, and to provide specific recommendations for how to conduct health impact assessments of local transportation plans on a more routine basis. METHODS: We used the Integrated Transportation and Health Impact Model to assess the health impacts of the Los Angeles Mobility Plan 2035 by using environmental impact report data on miles traveled by mode under alternative implementation scenarios as inputs...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Danielle H Rochlin, Chuan-Mei Lee, Claudia Scheuter, Arnold Milstein, Robert M Kaplan
OBJECTIVES: To determine the economic benefit of "modern" nonemergency medical transportation (NEMT) that utilizes digital transportation networks compared with traditional NEMT in the United States. METHODS: We used the National Academies' NEMT cost-effectiveness model to perform a baseline cost savings analysis for provision of NEMT for transportation-disadvantaged Medicaid beneficiaries. On the basis of a review of the literature, commercial information, and structured expert interviews, we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the incremental economic benefit of using modern NEMT...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Zijun Liao, Yubo Zhou, Hongtian Li, Cheng Wang, Dunjin Chen, Jianmeng Liu
OBJECTIVES: To describe the cesarean rates in different child policy periods and assess the medical necessity of cesareans during the 2-child policy period. METHODS: We collected hospital-level aggregate data on 93 745 deliveries and individual-level data on 27 977 deliveries from 6 hospitals in the Hubei and Gansu provinces of China from 2013 to 2016. Experts in gynecology and obstetrics assessed the medical necessity of 1024 randomly selected cesareans in 2016...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Christina M Andrews, Amanda J Abraham, Colleen M Grogan, Melissa A Westlake, Harold A Pollack, Peter D Friedmann
OBJECTIVES: To examine how utilization restrictions on state Medicaid benefits for buprenorphine are related to addiction treatment programs' decision to offer the drug. METHODS: We used data from 2 waves of the National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey conducted in 2014 and 2017 in the United States to assess the relationship of utilization restrictions to buprenorphine availability. RESULTS: The proportion of programs offering buprenorphine was 43...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
José Manuel Aburto, Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effect of the upsurge of violence on life expectancy and life span inequality in Mexico after 2005. METHODS: We calculated age- and cause-specific contributions to changes in life expectancy and life span inequality conditional on surviving to age 15 years between 1995 and 2015. We analyzed homicides, medically amenable conditions, diabetes, ischemic heart diseases, and traffic accidents by state and sex. RESULTS: Male life expectancy at age 15 years increased by more than twice in 1995 to 2005 (1...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Claire Bodkin, Lucie Pivnick, Susan J Bondy, Carolyn Ziegler, Ruth Elwood Martin, Carey Jernigan, Fiona Kouyoumdjian
BACKGROUND: A history of childhood abuse may affect people's health and criminal justice system involvement. Understanding the prevalence of childhood abuse among individuals in prison is important to inform effective and appropriate correctional services. OBJECTIVES: To review and summarize data on the prevalence of childhood abuse among people experiencing imprisonment in Canada. SEARCH METHODS: We searched for studies in bibliographic indexes, reference lists, and gray literature, and we consulted experts...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
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