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Emerging Infectious Diseases

Alexander Postel, Tatsuya Nishi, Ken-Ichiro Kameyama, Denise Meyer, Oliver Suckstorff, Katsuhiko Fukai, Paul Becher
In September 2018, classical swine fever reemerged in Japan after 26 years, affecting domestic pigs and wild boars. The causative virus belongs to an emerging clade within the 2.1 subgenotype, which caused repeated outbreaks in eastern and Southeast Asia. Intensive surveillance of swine will help control and eradicate this disease in Japan.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Blandine Denis, David Chirio, Diane Ponscarme, Ségolène Brichler, Nathalie Colin de Verdière, François Simon, Jean-Michel Molina
In 2018, yellow fever with hepatitis was diagnosed for 2 unvaccinated travelers returning to France from Brazil. Hepatitis persisted for >6 months; liver enzyme levels again increased 2 months after disease onset with no detection of yellow fever virus RNA or other pathogens. Persistent hepatitis with hepatic cytolysis rebound probably resulted from immune response.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Everlyn Kamau, Heli Harvala, Soile Blomqvist, Dung Nguyen, Peter Horby, Richard Pebody, Peter Simmonds
We determined the change in seroprevalence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in the United Kingdom in age-stratified cohorts from 2006 to 2016, the period during which EV-D68 emerged as a cause of severe respiratory disease occasionally leading to paralysis. Infections were acquired primarily in infants and young children, and incidence was markedly higher in 2016.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Rajeev Fernando, David Capone, Susan Elrich, Raymond Mantovani, Luther Quarles, Alison D'Amato, Nathan Lowe, Ashwin Malhotra, Teresa Khoo, Sara Zufan, Maria Morales-Betoulle, Shelley M Brown, Deborah Cannon, James C Graziano, John D Klena, Shannon Whitmer, Stuart T Nichol, Paul Strachan, Bernard C Camins, Luis A Marcos
We report a case of infection with New York orthohantavirus in a woman who showed renal impairment and hemorrhage, complicated by hydrocephalus, in Long Island, New York, USA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this virus was genetically similar to a New York orthohantavirus isolated in the same region during 1993.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hyun-Joo Kim, Min-Jung Lee, Soo-Kyoung Lee, Da-Young Kim, Sang-Ji Seo, Hae-Eun Kang, Hyang-Mi Nam
We tested samples of pork products confiscated from travelers to South Korea for African swine fever virus (ASFV). We detected ASFV in 4 food items confiscated from travelers from Shenyang, China, in August 2018. Surveillance of pork products at country entry points is needed to mitigate the risk for ASFV introduction.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Thomas Weitzel, Constanza Martínez-Valdebenito, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Ju Jiang, Allen L Richards, Katia Abarca
Endemic scrub typhus was recently detected on Chiloé Island in southern Chile. We report a series of cases, acquired over a wide geographical range in continental Chile during 2016-2018, demonstrating that this emerging rickettsial infection is also found on the mainland of South America.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Noam Erez, Hagit Achdout, Elad Milrot, Yuval Schwartz, Yonit Wiener-Well, Nir Paran, Boaz Politi, Hadas Tamir, Tomer Israely, Shay Weiss, Adi Beth-Din, Ohad Shifman, Ofir Israeli, Shmuel Yitzhaki, Shmuel C Shapira, Sharon Melamed, Eli Schwartz
We report a case of monkeypox in a man who returned from Nigeria to Israel in 2018. Virus was detected in pustule swabs by transmission electron microscopy and PCR and confirmed by immunofluorescence assay, tissue culture, and ELISA. The West Africa monkeypox outbreak calls for increased awareness by public health authorities worldwide.
May 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Elsie A Ilori, Christina Frank, Chioma C Dan-Nwafor, Oladipupo Ipadeola, Amrei Krings, Winifred Ukponu, Oboma E Womi-Eteng, Ayodele Adeyemo, Samuel K Mutbam, Emmanuel O Musa, Clement L P Lasuba, Wondimagegnehu Alemu, Sylvanus Okogbenin, Ephraim Ogbaini, Uche Unigwe, Emeka Ogah, Robinson Onoh, Chukwuyem Abejegah, Olufemi Ayodeji, Chikwe Ihekweazu
We reviewed data pertaining to the massive wave of Lassa fever cases that occurred in Nigeria in 2018. No new virus strains were detected, but in 2018, the outbreak response was intensified, additional diagnostic support was available, and surveillance sensitivity increased. These factors probably contributed to the high case count.
May 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Megan C Niederwerder, Ana M M Stoian, Raymond R R Rowland, Steve S Dritz, Vlad Petrovan, Laura A Constance, Jordan T Gebhardt, Matthew Olcha, Cassandra K Jones, Jason C Woodworth, Ying Fang, Jia Liang, Trevor J Hefley
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a contagious, rapidly spreading, transboundary animal disease and a major threat to pork production globally. Although plant-based feed has been identified as a potential route for virus introduction onto swine farms, little is known about the risks for ASFV transmission in feed. We aimed to determine the minimum and median infectious doses of the Georgia 2007 strain of ASFV through oral exposure during natural drinking and feeding behaviors. The minimum infectious dose of ASFV in liquid was 100 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ), compared with 104 TCID50 in feed...
May 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yoon-Seok Chung, Jeong Min Kim, Heui Man Kim, Kye Ryeong Park, Anna Lee, Nam-Joo Lee, Mi-Seon Kim, Jun Sub Kim, Chi-Kyeong Kim, Jae In Lee, Chun Kang
We evaluated genetic variation in Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) imported to South Korea in 2018 using specimens from a patient and isolates from infected Caco-2 cells. The MERS-CoV strain in this study was genetically similar to a strain isolated in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2017.
May 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mary G Reynolds, Nadia Wauquier, Yu Li, Panayampalli Subbian Satheshkumar, Lansana D Kanneh, Benjamin Monroe, Jacob Maikere, Gbessay Saffa, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Joseph Fair, Darin S Carroll, Amara Jambai, Foday Dafae, Sheik Humarr Khan, Lina M Moses
We note the reemergence of human monkeypox in Sierra Leone following a 44-year absence of reported disease. The persons affected were an 11-month-old boy and, several years later, a 35-year-old man. The reappearance of monkeypox in this country suggests a need for renewed vigilance and awareness of the disease and its manifestations.
May 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sonja J Olsen, Jane A Rooney, Lenee Blanton, Melissa A Rolfes, Deborah I Nelson, Thomas M Gomez, Steven A Karli, Susan C Trock, Alicia M Fry
In the United States, outbreaks of avian influenza H5 and H7 virus infections in poultry have raised concern about the risk for infections in humans. We reviewed the data collected during 2014-2017 and found no human infections among 4,555 exposed responders who were wearing protection.
May 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shawn G Gibbs, Jocelyn J Herstein, Aurora B Le, Elizabeth L Beam, Theodore J Cieslak, James V Lawler, Joshua L Santarpia, Terry L Stentz, Kelli R Kopocis-Herstein, Chandran Achutan, Gary W Carter, John J Lowe
Circumstances exist that call for the aeromedical evacuation high-level containment transport (AE-HLCT) of patients with highly hazardous communicable diseases. A small number of organizations maintain AE-HLCT capabilities, and little is publicly available regarding the practices. The time is ripe for the development of standards and consensus guidelines involving AE-HLCT.
May 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jennifer Chua, Joel A Bozue, Christopher P Klimko, Jennifer L Shoe, Sara I Ruiz, Christopher L Jensen, Steven A Tobery, Jared M Crumpler, Donald J Chabot, Avery V Quirk, Melissa Hunter, David E Harbourt, Arthur M Friedlander, Christopher K Cote
For safety, Select Agents in tissues must be inactivated and viability tested before the tissue undergoes further processing and analysis. In response to the shipping of samples of "inactivated" Bacillus anthracis that inadvertently contained live spores to nonregulated entities and partners worldwide, the Federal Register now mandates in-house validation of inactivation procedures and standardization of viability testing to detect live organisms in samples containing Select Agents that have undergone an inactivation process...
May 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Martha I Nelson, Carine Souza, Nídia S Trovão, Andres Diaz, Ignacio Mena, Albert Rovira, Amy L Vincent, Montserrat Torremorell, Douglas Marthaler, Marie R Culhane
The genetic diversity of influenza A viruses circulating in swine in Mexico complicates control efforts in animals and presents a threat to humans, as shown by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. To describe evolution of swine influenza A viruses in Mexico and evaluate strains for vaccine development, we sequenced the genomes of 59 viruses and performed antigenic cartography on strains from 5 regions. We found that genetic and antigenic diversity were particularly high in southeast Mexico because of repeated introductions of viruses from humans and swine in other regions in Mexico...
April 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Christina A Nelson, Christian Murua, Jefferson M Jones, Kelli Mohler, Ying Zhang, Landon Wiggins, Natalie A Kwit, Laurel Respicio-Kingry, Luke C Kingry, Jeannine M Petersen, Jennifer Brown, Saima Aslam, Melissa Krafft, Shadaba Asad, Hikmat N Dagher, John Ham, Luis H Medina-Garcia, Kevin Burns, Walter E Kelley, Alison F Hinckley, Pallavi Annambhotla, Karen Carifo, Anthony Gonzalez, Elizabeth Helsel, Joseph Iser, Michael Johnson, Curtis L Fritz, Sridhar V Basavaraju
In July 2017, fever and sepsis developed in 3 recipients of solid organs (1 heart and 2 kidneys) from a common donor in the United States; 1 of the kidney recipients died. Tularemia was suspected only after blood cultures from the surviving kidney recipient grew Francisella species. The organ donor, a middle-aged man from the southwestern United States, had been hospitalized for acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome, pneumonia, and multiorgan failure. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (clade A2) was cultured from archived spleen tissue from the donor and blood from both kidney recipients...
April 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alberto E Paniz-Mondolfi, Adriana Tami, Maria E Grillet, Marilianna Márquez, Juan Hernández-Villena, María A Escalona-Rodríguez, Gabriela M Blohm, Isis Mejías, Huníades Urbina-Medina, Alejandro Rísquez, Julio Castro, Ana Carvajal, Carlos Walter, María G López, Philipp Schwabl, Luis Hernández-Castro, Michael A Miles, Peter J Hotez, John Lednicky, J Glenn Morris, James Crainey, Sergio Luz, Juan D Ramírez, Emilia Sordillo, Martin Llewellyn, Merari Canache, María Araque, José Oletta
Venezuela's tumbling economy and authoritarian rule have precipitated an unprecedented humanitarian crisis. Hyperinflation rates now exceed 45,000%, and Venezuela's health system is in free fall. The country is experiencing a massive exodus of biomedical scientists and qualified healthcare professionals. Reemergence of arthropod-borne and vaccine-preventable diseases has sparked serious epidemics that also affect neighboring countries. In this article, we discuss the ongoing epidemics of measles and diphtheria in Venezuela and their disproportionate impact on indigenous populations...
April 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Robinson Jaramillo-Ochoa, Rachel Sippy, Daniel F Farrell, Cinthya Cueva-Aponte, Efraín Beltrán-Ayala, Jose L Gonzaga, Tania Ordoñez-León, Fernando A Quintana, Sadie J Ryan, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra
Mass migration from Venezuela has increased malaria resurgence risk across South America. During 2018, migrants from Venezuela constituted 96% of imported malaria cases along the Ecuador-Peru border. Plasmodium vivax predominated (96%). Autochthonous malaria cases emerged in areas previously malaria-free. Heightened malaria control and a response to this humanitarian crisis are imperative.
April 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Danielle M Tufts, Meredith C VanAcker, Maria P Fernandez, Anthony DeNicola, Andrea Egizi, Maria A Diuk-Wasser
Haemaphysalis longicornis, an invasive Ixodid tick, was recently reported in the eastern United States. The emergence of these ticks represents a potential threat for livestock, wildlife, and human health. We describe the distribution, host-seeking phenology, and host and habitat associations of these ticks on Staten Island, New York, a borough of New York City.
April 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Marie Souvestre, Claire Guinat, Eric Niqueux, Luc Robertet, Guillaume Croville, Mathilde Paul, Audrey Schmitz, Anne Bronner, Nicolas Eterradossi, Jean-Luc Guérin
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) clade spread in France during 2016-2017. We assessed the biosecurity and avian influenza virus infection status of 70 backyard flocks near H5N8-infected commercial farms. One flock was seropositive for clade Backyard flocks linked to commercial farms had elevated risk for H5 infection.
March 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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