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Emerging Infectious Diseases

Celia Pedroso, Carlo Fischer, Marie Feldmann, Manoel Sarno, Estela Luz, Andrés Moreira-Soto, Renata Cabral, Eduardo Martins Netto, Carlos Brites, Beate M Kümmerer, Jan Felix Drexler
The Zika virus outbreak in Latin America resulted in congenital malformations, called congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). For unknown reasons, CZS incidence was highest in northeastern Brazil; one potential explanation is that dengue virus (DENV)-mediated immune enhancement may promote CZS development. In contrast, our analyses of historical DENV genomic data refuted the hypothesis that unique genome signatures for northeastern Brazil explain the uneven dispersion of CZS cases. To confirm our findings, we performed serotype-specific DENV neutralization tests in a case-control framework in northeastern Brazil among 29 Zika virus-seropositive mothers of neonates with CZS and 108 Zika virus-seropositive control mothers...
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Harpal Singh, Jacqueline Fournier-Caruana, John F Modlin, Jay Wenger, Jeffrey Partridge, Roland W Sutter, Michel J Zaffran
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative continues to make progress toward the eradication target. Indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) type 2 was last detected in 1999, WPV type 3 was last detected in 2012, and over the past 2 years WPV type 1 has been detected only in parts of 2 countries (Afghanistan and Pakistan). Once the eradication of poliomyelitis is achieved, infectious and potentially infectious poliovirus materials retained in laboratories, vaccine production sites, and other storage facilities will continue to pose a risk for poliovirus reintroduction into communities...
July 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Van Phan Le, Dae Gwin Jeong, Sun-Woo Yoon, Hye-Min Kwon, Thi Bich Ngoc Trinh, Thi Lan Nguyen, Thi To Nga Bui, Jinsik Oh, Joon Bae Kim, Kwang Myun Cheong, Nguyen Van Tuyen, Eunhye Bae, Thi Thu Hang Vu, Minjoo Yeom, Woonsung Na, Daesub Song
African swine fever is one of the most dangerous diseases of swine. We confirmed the 2019 outbreak in Vietnam by real-time reverse transcription PCR. The causative strain belonged to p72 genotype II and was 100% identical with viruses isolated in China (2018) and Georgia (2007). International prevention and control collaboration is needed.
July 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Willlem Takken, Steve Lindsay
Malaria continues to be a major health threat in Africa, mainly in rural areas. Recently, the urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi invaded Djibouti and Ethiopia, potentially spreading to other areas of Africa. Urgent action is needed to prevent urban malaria epidemics from emerging and causing a public health disaster.
July 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jolanda J C Voermans, Suzan D Pas, Anne van der Linden, Corine Geurts van Kessel, Marion Koopmans, Annemiek van der Eijk, Chantal B E M Reusken
We evaluated the benefit of whole blood versus plasma to detect acute Zika virus infections. Comparison of Zika virus quantitative reverse transcription PCR results in single timepoint whole blood-plasma pairs from 227 patients with suspected Zika virus infection resulted in confirmation of 8 additional patients with Zika virus infection.
July 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
KhairAlah A Alghazali, Boon-Teong Teoh, Shih-Keng Loong, Sing-Sin Sam, Nurul-Asma-Anati Che-Mat-Seri, Nur-Izyan Samsudin, Che-Norainon Yaacob, Noor-Syahida Azizan, Adrian Oo, Nur-Adilah Baharudin, Kim-Kee Tan, Juraina Abd-Jamil, Siti-Sarah Nor'e, Chee-Sieng Khor, Jefree Johari, Mohammed A K Mahdy, Sazaly AbuBakar
We identified dengue in ≈51% of patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue in Taiz, Yemen, during 2016. The cosmopolitan genotype of dengue virus type 2 was most common; viruses appeared to have originated in Saudi Arabia. Damage to public health infrastructure during ongoing civil war might enable dengue to become endemic to Yemen.
July 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shao-Chun Chen, Yan Han, Liu-Feng Yuan, Xiao-Yu Zhu, Yue-Ping Yin
In 2016, we identified a ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate in China. The strain genotype was identical to the resistant clone FC428 that originated in Japan. Enhanced international collaborative surveillance programs are crucial to track the transmission of the ceftriaxone-resistant clones.
July 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jan H Forth, Marylène Tignon, Ann Brigitte Cay, Leonie F Forth, Dirk Höper, Sandra Blome, Martin Beer
We analyzed the whole-genome sequence of African swine fever virus Belgium 2018/1. The strain fits into the European genotype II (>99.98% identity). The high-coverage sequence revealed 15 differences compared with an improved virus African swine fever virus Georgia 2007/1 sequence. However, in the absence of genetic markers, no spatial or temporal correlations could be defined.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jessica R Spengler, Stephen R Welch, Sarah C Genzer, JoAnn Coleman-McCray, Jessica R Harmon, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou
Operating clinical analyzers within recommended parameters can be challenging during outbreak response. Using the Piccolo Xpress point-of-care blood chemistry analyzer on guinea pig blood, we found that values of many analytes are still readily comparable when samples and reagent discs are handled at various conditions outside of manufacturer's recommendations.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yeon-Sook Kim, Abdimadiyeva Aigerim, Uni Park, Yuri Kim, Ji-Young Rhee, Jae-Phil Choi, Wan Beom Park, Sang Won Park, Yeonjae Kim, Dong-Gyun Lim, Kyung-Soo Inn, Eung-Soo Hwang, Myung-Sik Choi, Hyoung-Shik Shin, Nam-Hyuk Cho
The unexpectedly large outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome in South Korea in 2015 was initiated by an infected traveler and amplified by several "superspreading" events. Previously, we reported the emergence and spread of mutant Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus bearing spike mutations (I529T or D510G) with reduced affinity to human receptor CD26 during the outbreak. To assess the potential association of spike mutations with superspreading events, we collected virus genetic information reported during the outbreak and systemically analyzed the relationship of spike sequences and epidemiology...
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Fei Ye, Jingdong Song, Li Zhao, Yi Zhang, Lianxu Xia, Lingwei Zhu, Idrissa Laybohr Kamara, Jiao Ren, Wenling Wang, Houwen Tian, Guizhen Wu, Wenjie Tan
Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic disease endemic to Africa. In 2017, we confirmed a case of human monkeypox virus in Sierra Leone by molecular and serologic methods. Sequencing analysis indicated the virus belongs to the West African clade and data suggest it was likely transmitted by wild animals.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alexander Postel, Tatsuya Nishi, Ken-Ichiro Kameyama, Denise Meyer, Oliver Suckstorff, Katsuhiko Fukai, Paul Becher
In September 2018, classical swine fever reemerged in Japan after 26 years, affecting domestic pigs and wild boars. The causative virus belongs to an emerging clade within the 2.1 subgenotype, which caused repeated outbreaks in eastern and Southeast Asia. Intensive surveillance of swine will help control and eradicate this disease in Japan.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Blandine Denis, David Chirio, Diane Ponscarme, Ségolène Brichler, Nathalie Colin de Verdière, François Simon, Jean-Michel Molina
In 2018, yellow fever with hepatitis was diagnosed for 2 unvaccinated travelers returning to France from Brazil. Hepatitis persisted for >6 months; liver enzyme levels again increased 2 months after disease onset with no detection of yellow fever virus RNA or other pathogens. Persistent hepatitis with hepatic cytolysis rebound probably resulted from immune response.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Everlyn Kamau, Heli Harvala, Soile Blomqvist, Dung Nguyen, Peter Horby, Richard Pebody, Peter Simmonds
We determined the change in seroprevalence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) in the United Kingdom in age-stratified cohorts from 2006 to 2016, the period during which EV-D68 emerged as a cause of severe respiratory disease occasionally leading to paralysis. Infections were acquired primarily in infants and young children, and incidence was markedly higher in 2016.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Rajeev Fernando, David Capone, Susan Elrich, Raymond Mantovani, Luther Quarles, Alison D'Amato, Nathan Lowe, Ashwin Malhotra, Teresa Khoo, Sara Zufan, Maria Morales-Betoulle, Shelley M Brown, Deborah Cannon, James C Graziano, John D Klena, Shannon Whitmer, Stuart T Nichol, Paul Strachan, Bernard C Camins, Luis A Marcos
We report a case of infection with New York orthohantavirus in a woman who showed renal impairment and hemorrhage, complicated by hydrocephalus, in Long Island, New York, USA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this virus was genetically similar to a New York orthohantavirus isolated in the same region during 1993.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hyun-Joo Kim, Min-Jung Lee, Soo-Kyoung Lee, Da-Young Kim, Sang-Ji Seo, Hae-Eun Kang, Hyang-Mi Nam
We tested samples of pork products confiscated from travelers to South Korea for African swine fever virus (ASFV). We detected ASFV in 4 food items confiscated from travelers from Shenyang, China, in August 2018. Surveillance of pork products at country entry points is needed to mitigate the risk for ASFV introduction.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Thomas Weitzel, Constanza Martínez-Valdebenito, Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Ju Jiang, Allen L Richards, Katia Abarca
Endemic scrub typhus was recently detected on Chiloé Island in southern Chile. We report a series of cases, acquired over a wide geographical range in continental Chile during 2016-2018, demonstrating that this emerging rickettsial infection is also found on the mainland of South America.
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Noam Erez, Hagit Achdout, Elad Milrot, Yuval Schwartz, Yonit Wiener-Well, Nir Paran, Boaz Politi, Hadas Tamir, Tomer Israely, Shay Weiss, Adi Beth-Din, Ohad Shifman, Ofir Israeli, Shmuel Yitzhaki, Shmuel C Shapira, Sharon Melamed, Eli Schwartz
We report a case of monkeypox in a man who returned from Nigeria to Israel in 2018. Virus was detected in pustule swabs by transmission electron microscopy and PCR and confirmed by immunofluorescence assay, tissue culture, and ELISA. The West Africa monkeypox outbreak calls for increased awareness by public health authorities worldwide.
May 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Megan C Niederwerder, Ana M M Stoian, Raymond R R Rowland, Steve S Dritz, Vlad Petrovan, Laura A Constance, Jordan T Gebhardt, Matthew Olcha, Cassandra K Jones, Jason C Woodworth, Ying Fang, Jia Liang, Trevor J Hefley
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a contagious, rapidly spreading, transboundary animal disease and a major threat to pork production globally. Although plant-based feed has been identified as a potential route for virus introduction onto swine farms, little is known about the risks for ASFV transmission in feed. We aimed to determine the minimum and median infectious doses of the Georgia 2007 strain of ASFV through oral exposure during natural drinking and feeding behaviors. The minimum infectious dose of ASFV in liquid was 100 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ), compared with 104 TCID50 in feed...
May 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yoon-Seok Chung, Jeong Min Kim, Heui Man Kim, Kye Ryeong Park, Anna Lee, Nam-Joo Lee, Mi-Seon Kim, Jun Sub Kim, Chi-Kyeong Kim, Jae In Lee, Chun Kang
We evaluated genetic variation in Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) imported to South Korea in 2018 using specimens from a patient and isolates from infected Caco-2 cells. The MERS-CoV strain in this study was genetically similar to a strain isolated in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2017.
May 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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