Emerging Infectious Diseases

Talisin T Hammond, Kelly A Liebman, Robert Payne, Helen K Pigage, Kerry A Padgett
We describe Yersina pestis minimum infection prevalence in fleas collected from Tamias spp. chipmunks in the Sierra Nevadas (California, USA) during 2013-2015. Y. pestis-positive fleas were detected only in 2015 (year of plague epizootic), mostly in T. speciosus chipmunks at high-elevation sites. Plague surveillance should include testing vectors for Y. pestis.
April 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Kit Ling Cheng, Jie Wu, Wei Ling Shen, Alvina Y L Wong, Qianfang Guo, Jianxiang Yu, Xue Zhuang, Wen Su, Tie Song, Malik Peiris, Hui-Ling Yen, Eric H Y Lau
We report the use of environmental samples to assess avian influenza virus activity in chickens at live poultry markets in China. Results of environmental and chicken samples correlate moderately well. However, collection of multiple environmental samples from holding, processing, and selling areas is recommended to detect viruses expected to have low prevalence.
March 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jonathon R Campbell, Dennis Falzon, Fuad Mirzayev, Ernesto Jaramillo, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Carole D Mitnick, Norbert Ndjeka, Dick Menzies
International policy for treatment of multidrug- and rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR TB) relies largely on individual patient data (IPD) from observational studies of patients treated under routine conditions. We prepared guidance on which data to collect and what measures could improve consistency and utility for future evidence-based recommendations. We highlight critical stages in data collection at which improvements to uniformity, accuracy, and completeness could add value to IPD quality. Through a repetitive development process, we suggest essential patient- and treatment-related characteristics that should be collected by prospective contributors of observational IPD in MDR/RR TB...
March 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hanna N Oltean, Mark Springer, Jolene R Bowers, Riley Barnes, George Reid, Michael Valentine, David M Engelthaler, Mitsuru Toda, Orion Z McCotter
The full geographic range of coccidioidomycosis is unknown, although it is most likely expanding with environmental change. We report an apparently autochthonous coccidioidomycosis patient from Spokane, Washington, USA, a location to which Coccidioides spp. are not known to be endemic.
March 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shalini Pooransingh, Sateesh Sakhamuri
An estimated one quarter of persons worldwide are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2018, the World Health Organization issued revised guidance on BCG vaccine for high-risk groups. The World Health Organization should consider guiding countries on a case-by-case basis in developing appropriate BCG policies to deliver equitable healthcare and protect public health.
March 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Malgorzata Anna Domagalska, Jean-Claude Dujardin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Wenming Jiang, Guangyu Hou, Jinping Li, Cheng Peng, Suchun Wang, Shuo Liu, Qingye Zhuang, Liping Yuan, Xiaohui Yu, Yang Li, Jingjing Wang, Hualei Liu
In China, influenza A(H7N9) virus appeared in 2013, then mutated into a highly pathogenic virus, causing outbreaks among poultry and cases in humans. Since September 2017, extensive use of the corresponding vaccine, H7-Re1, successfully reduced virus prevalence. However, in 2019, a novel antigenic variant emerged, posing considerable economic and public health threats.A.
February 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jessica L Abbate, Pierre Becquart, Eric Leroy, Vanessa O Ezenwa, Benjamin Roche
An association between malaria and risk for death among patients with Ebola virus disease has suggested within-host interactions between Plasmodium falciparum parasites and Ebola virus. To determine whether such an interaction might also influence the probability of acquiring either infection, we used a large snapshot surveillance study from rural Gabon to test if past exposure to Ebola virus is associated with current infection with Plasmodium spp. during nonepidemic conditions. We found a strong positive association, on population and individual levels, between seropositivity for antibodies against Ebola virus and the presence of Plasmodium parasites in the blood...
February 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Malak Kaddoura, Rasmieh Allaham, Abdinasir Abubakar, Amani Ezzeddine, Amal Barakat, Peter Mala, Hassan Zaraket
In 2018, a hepatitis A virus outbreak was identified among internally displaced persons in Syria. Sequence analysis based on the viral protein 1/2 junction revealed that the causative virus belonged to genotype IB. A high displacement rate, deteriorated sanitary and health conditions, and poor water quality likely contributed to this outbreak.
February 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alexandre Matet, Anne Le Flèche-Matéos, François Doz, Pascal Dureau, Nathalie Cassoux
Cataract and uveitis are rare in newborns but potentially blinding. Three newborns with cataract and severe anterior uveitis underwent cataract surgery. Spiroplasma ixodetis was detected in lens aspirates using bacterial 16S-rRNA PCR and transmission electron microscopy. These findings, which suggest maternal-fetal infection, are consistent with previous experimental Spiroplasma-induced cataract and uveitis.
February 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Elena Sulleiro, Maria Luisa Aznar, Núria Serre-Delcor, Fernando Salvador, Adrian Sanchez-Montalvá, Mateu Espasa, Daniel Molina, Fernando de Ory, M Paz Sanchez-Seco, Israel Molina, Candido Diaz-Lagares, Miguel J Martinez, Tomàs Pumarola, Inés Oliveira
Most human hantavirus infections occur in Asia, but some cases have been described in Europe in travelers returning from Asia. We describe a case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a previously healthy traveler occurring shortly after he returned to Spain from Nepal. Serologic tests suggested a Puumala virus-like infection.
January 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yi-Mo Deng, Frank Y K Wong, Natalie Spirason, Matthew Kaye, Rebecca Beazley, Miguel Grau, Songhua Shan, Vittoria Stevens, Kanta Subbarao, Sheena Sullivan, Ian G Barr, Vijaykrishna Dhanasekaran
In 2018, a 15-year-old female adolescent in Australia was infected with swine influenza A(H3N2) variant virus. The virus contained hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes derived from 1990s-like human seasonal viruses and internal protein genes from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, highlighting the potential risk that swine influenza A virus poses to human health in Australia.
January 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Maya Holding, Stuart D Dowall, Jolyon M Medlock, Daniel P Carter, Steven T Pullan, James Lewis, Richard Vipond, Mara S Rocchi, Matthew Baylis, Roger Hewson
During February 2018-January 2019, we conducted large-scale surveillance for the presence and prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and louping ill virus (LIV) in sentinel animals and ticks in the United Kingdom. Serum was collected from 1,309 deer culled across England and Scotland. Overall, 4% of samples were ELISA-positive for the TBEV serocomplex. A focus in the Thetford Forest area had the highest proportion (47.7%) of seropositive samples. Engorged ticks collected from culled deer within seropositive regions were tested for viral RNA; 5 of 2,041 ticks tested positive by LIV/TBEV real-time reverse transcription PCR, all from within the Thetford Forest area...
January 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ana M M Stoian, Jeff Zimmerman, Ju Ji, Trevor J Hefley, Scott Dee, Diego G Diel, Raymond R R Rowland, Megan C Niederwerder
African swine fever virus is transmissible through animal consumption of contaminated feed. To determine virus survival during transoceanic shipping, we calculated the half-life of the virus in 9 feed ingredients exposed to 30-day shipment conditions. Half-lives ranged from 9.6 to 14.2 days, indicating that the feed matrix environment promotes virus stability.
December 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Anthony Baffoe-Bonnie, Eric R Houpt, Lauren Turner, Denise Dodge, Scott K Heysell
A patient who had initial infection with mixed strains of drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was presumed to have acquired drug resistance before confirmation that sequential strains were genotypically distinct. Transmitted infection with mixed strains is likely underappreciated; identifying these infections requires spoligotyping and whole-genome sequencing.
November 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Marta Adelantado, Ana Navascués, Xabier Beristain, Alberto Gil-Setas, Maria E Portillo, Aitziber Aguinaga, Carmen Ezpeleta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emi Takashita, Masataka Ichikawa, Hiroko Morita, Rie Ogawa, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Masayuki Shirakura, Hideka Miura, Kazuya Nakamura, Noriko Kishida, Tomoko Kuwahara, Hiromi Sugawara, Aya Sato, Miki Akimoto, Keiko Mitamura, Takashi Abe, Masahiko Yamazaki, Shinji Watanabe, Hideki Hasegawa, Takato Odagiri
In 2019, influenza A(H3N2) viruses carrying an I38T substitution in the polymerase acidic gene, which confers reduced susceptibility to baloxavir, were detected in Japan in an infant without baloxavir exposure and a baloxavir-treated sibling. These viruses' whole-genome sequences were identical, indicating human-to-human transmission. Influenza virus isolates should be monitored for baloxavir susceptibility.
November 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ahmed Hakawi, Erica Billig Rose, Holly M Biggs, Xiaoyan Lu, Mutaz Mohammed, Osman Abdalla, Glen R Abedi, Ali A Alsharef, Aref Ali Alamri, Samar Ahmad Bereagesh, Kamel M Al Dosari, Saad Abdullah Ashehri, Waad Ghassan Fakhouri, Saleh Zaid Alzaid, Stephen Lindstrom, Susan I Gerber, Abdullah Asiri, Hani Jokhdar, John T Watson
We characterized exposures and demographics of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus cases reported to the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health during July 1-October 31, 2017, and June 1-September 16, 2018. Molecular characterization of available specimens showed that lineage 5 predominated among circulating viruses during these periods.
November 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mikko K Aalto, Temmy Sunyoto, Mohamed Ahmed Ali Yusuf, Abdiaziz Ahmed Mohamed, Gert Van der Auwera, Jean-Claude Dujardin
We identified visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in a previously unknown focus in northern Somalia. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 118 cases during 2013-2019 in Bosaso, the region's commercial capital, have raised suspicion of visceral leishmaniasis endemicity status there.
January 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Florian Burckhardt, Esther Kissling
We created a free and interactive training activity based on playing cards (disease detective cards) that introduces foodborne outbreak investigations to public health professionals and students. Competencies taught cover selected descriptive and analytic epidemiologic topics, such as case definition, epidemic curve, 2-by-2 tables, relative risks, attack rates, stratification, and confounding.
January 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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