Emerging Infectious Diseases

An Tang, Zhen-Dong Tong, Hong-Ling Wang, Ya-Xin Dai, Ke-Feng Li, Jie-Nan Liu, Wen-Jie Wu, Chen Yuan, Meng-Lu Yu, Peng Li, Jian-Bo Yan
We report an asymptomatic child who was positive for a 2019 novel coronavirus by reverse transcription PCR in a stool specimen 17 days after the last virus exposure. The child was virus positive in stool specimens for at least an additional 9 days. Respiratory tract specimens were negative by reverse transcription PCR.
June 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yang Li, Ruihong Zhao, Shufa Zheng, Xu Chen, Jinxi Wang, Xiaoli Sheng, Jianying Zhou, Hongliu Cai, Qiang Fang, Fei Yu, Jian Fan, Kaijin Xu, Yu Chen, Jifang Sheng
A woman with 2019 novel coronavirus disease in her 35th week of pregnancy delivered an infant by cesarean section in a negative-pressure operating room. The infant was negative for severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2. This case suggests that mother-to-child transmission is unlikely for this virus.
June 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jiaye Liu, Xuejiao Liao, Shen Qian, Jing Yuan, Fuxiang Wang, Yingxia Liu, Zhaoqin Wang, Fu-Sheng Wang, Lei Liu, Zheng Zhang
Since early January 2020, after the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in Wuhan, China, ≈365 confirmed cases have been reported in Shenzhen, China. The mode of community and intrafamily transmission is threatening residents in Shenzhen. Strategies to strengthen prevention and interruption of these transmissions should be urgently addressed.
June 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Takeshi Arashiro, Keiichi Furukawa, Akira Nakamura
We describe 2 cases of COVID-19 in patients with mild upper respiratory symptoms. Both patients worked on a cruise ship quarantined off the coast of Japan. One patient had persistent, low-grade upper respiratory tract symptoms without fever. The other patient had rapid symptom cessation but persistent viral RNA detection.
June 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Nisreen M A Okba, Ivy Widjaja, Wentao Li, Corine H GeurtsvanKessel, Elmoubasher A B A Farag, Mohammed Al-Hajri, Wan Beom Park, Myoung-Don Oh, Chantal B M E Reusken, Marion P G Koopmans, Berend-Jan Bosch, Bart L Haagmans
We developed and validated 2 species-independent protein-based assays to detect Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus functional antibodies that can block virus receptor-binding or sialic acid-attachment. Antibody levels measured in both assays correlated strongly with virus-neutralizing antibody titers, proving their use for serologic confirmatory diagnosis of Middle East respiratory syndrome.
May 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Wei Wang, Jean Artois, Xiling Wang, Adam J Kucharski, Yao Pei, Xin Tong, Victor Virlogeux, Peng Wu, Benjamin J Cowling, Marius Gilbert, Hongjie Yu
Various interventions for live poultry markets (LPMs) have emerged to control outbreaks of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in mainland China since March 2013. We assessed the effectiveness of various LPM interventions in reducing transmission of H7N9 virus across 5 annual waves during 2013-2018, especially in the final wave. With the exception of waves 1 and 4, various LPM interventions reduced daily incidence rates significantly across waves. Four LPM interventions led to a mean reduction of 34%-98% in the daily number of infections in wave 5...
May 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jeremy V Camp, Dafalla Ahmed, Babiker Mohammed Osman, Moayyed Sher Shah, Brigitte Howarth, Tamer Khafaga, Pia Weidinger, Noushad Karuvantevida, Jolanta Kolodziejek, Hessa Mazrooei, Nadine Wolf, Tom Loney, Norbert Nowotny
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in dromedary camels and attached ticks at 3 locations in the United Arab Emirates. Results revealed a high prevalence of CCHFV-reactive antibodies in camels and viral RNA in ticks and camel serum, suggesting the virus is endemic in this country.
May 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jocelyn J Herstein, Aurora B Le, Lily A McNulty, Sean A Buehler, Paul D Biddinger, Angela L Hewlett, John J Lowe, Shawn G Gibbs
We surveyed 56 Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) in the United States and identified costs incurred since 2014 ($1.76 million/ETC) and sustainability strategies. ETCs reported heavy reliance on federal funding. It is uncertain if, or for how long, ETCs can maintain capabilities should federal funding expire in 2020.
May 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Zhen-Dong Tong, An Tang, Ke-Feng Li, Peng Li, Hong-Ling Wang, Jing-Ping Yi, Yong-Li Zhang, Jian-Bo Yan
We report a 2-family cluster of persons infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the city of Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province, China, during January 2020. The infections resulted from contact with an infected but potentially presymptomatic traveler from the city of Wuhan in Hubei Province.
May 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Zhanwei Du, Lin Wang, Simon Cauchemez, Xiaoke Xu, Xianwen Wang, Benjamin J Cowling, Lauren Ancel Meyers
On January 23, 2020, China quarantined Wuhan to contain 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We estimated the probability of transportation of COVID-19 from Wuhan to 369 other cities in China before the quarantine. Expected COVID-19 risk is >50% in 130 (95% CI 89-190) cities and >99% in the 4 largest metropolitan areas.
May 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sukhyun Ryu, Huizhi Gao, Jessica Y Wong, Eunice Y C Shiu, Jingyi Xiao, Min Whui Fong, Benjamin J Cowling
International travel-related nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), which can include traveler screening, travel restrictions, and border closures, often are included in national influenza pandemic preparedness plans. We performed systematic reviews to identify evidence for their effectiveness. We found 15 studies in total. Some studies reported that NPIs could delay the introduction of influenza virus. However, no available evidence indicated that screening of inbound travelers would have a substantial effect on preventing spread of pandemic influenza, and no studies examining exit screening were found...
May 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jingyi Xiao, Eunice Y C Shiu, Huizhi Gao, Jessica Y Wong, Min W Fong, Sukhyun Ryu, Benjamin J Cowling
There were 3 influenza pandemics in the 20th century, and there has been 1 so far in the 21st century. Local, national, and international health authorities regularly update their plans for mitigating the next influenza pandemic in light of the latest available evidence on the effectiveness of various control measures in reducing transmission. Here, we review the evidence base on the effectiveness of nonpharmaceutical personal protective measures and environmental hygiene measures in nonhealthcare settings and discuss their potential inclusion in pandemic plans...
May 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Min W Fong, Huizhi Gao, Jessica Y Wong, Jingyi Xiao, Eunice Y C Shiu, Sukhyun Ryu, Benjamin J Cowling
Influenza virus infections are believed to spread mostly by close contact in the community. Social distancing measures are essential components of the public health response to influenza pandemics. The objective of these mitigation measures is to reduce transmission, thereby delaying the epidemic peak, reducing the size of the epidemic peak, and spreading cases over a longer time to relieve pressure on the healthcare system. We conducted systematic reviews of the evidence base for effectiveness of multiple mitigation measures: isolating ill persons, contact tracing, quarantining exposed persons, school closures, workplace measures/closures, and avoiding crowding...
May 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Michael J Mina, L Beryl Guterman, Kristen E Allen, Saad B Omer
Zika virus is transitioning to become a long-term public health challenge, and countries should remain informed of the risk for emergence. We developed a stochastic epidemiologic model to profile risk for Zika virus emergence, including trimester-specific fetal risk across time, in all 3,208 counties in the United States, including Puerto Rico. Validation against known transmission in North America demonstrated accuracy to predict epidemic dynamics and absolute case counts across scales (R2  = 0.98). We found that, although sporadic single transmission events could occur in most US counties, outbreaks will likely be restricted to the Gulf Coast region and to late spring through autumn...
April 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Aisling Vaughan, Emma Aarons, John Astbury, Tim Brooks, Meera Chand, Peter Flegg, Angela Hardman, Nick Harper, Richard Jarvis, Sharon Mawdsley, Mark McGivern, Dilys Morgan, Gwyn Morris, Grainne Nixon, Catherine O'Connor, Ruth Palmer, Nick Phin, D Ashley Price, Katherine Russell, Bengu Said, Matthias L Schmid, Roberto Vivancos, Amanda Walsh, William Welfare, Jennifer Wilburn, Jake Dunning
In September 2018, monkeypox virus was transmitted from a patient to a healthcare worker in the United Kingdom. Transmission was probably through contact with contaminated bedding. Infection control precautions for contacts (vaccination, daily monitoring, staying home from work) were implemented. Of 134 potential contacts, 4 became ill; all patients survived.
April 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Poh-Lian Lim, Jean-Marc Chavatte, Shawn Vasoo, Jonathan Yang
In 2018, Babesia microti infection was diagnosed for a 37-year-old man in Singapore who acquired the infection in the United States. This case highlights the recent rise of tickborne infections in the United States and the risk for their spread, because of increasing global interconnectivity, to regions where they are not endemic.
April 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Talisin T Hammond, Kelly A Liebman, Robert Payne, Helen K Pigage, Kerry A Padgett
We describe Yersina pestis minimum infection prevalence in fleas collected from Tamias spp. chipmunks in the Sierra Nevadas (California, USA) during 2013-2015. Y. pestis-positive fleas were detected only in 2015 (year of plague epizootic), mostly in T. speciosus chipmunks at high-elevation sites. Plague surveillance should include testing vectors for Y. pestis.
April 17, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Chunyang Li, Fang Ji, Liang Wang, Liping Wang, Jungui Hao, Mingjia Dai, Yan Liu, Xiucheng Pan, Juanjuan Fu, Li Li, Guangde Yang, Jianye Yang, Xuebing Yan, Bing Gu
We report epidemiologic, laboratory, and clinical findings for 7 patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease in a 2-family cluster. Our study confirms asymptomatic and human-to-human transmission through close contacts in familial and hospital settings. These findings might also serve as a practical reference for clinical diagnosis and medical treatment.
March 31, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Cheryl Lin, Wendy E Braund, John Auerbach, Jih-Haw Chou, Ju-Hsiu Teng, Pikuei Tu, Jewel Mullen
Because of its proximity to and frequent travelers to and from China, Taiwan faces complex challenges in preventing 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). As soon as China reported the unidentified outbreak to the World Health Organization on December 31, 2019, Taiwan assembled a taskforce and began health checks onboard flights from Wuhan. Taiwan's rapid implementation of disease prevention measures helped detect and isolate the country's first COVID-19 case on January 20, 2020. Laboratories in Taiwan developed 4-hour test kits and isolated 2 strains of the coronavirus before February...
March 31, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Courtney R Lane, Torsten Seemann, Leon J Worth, Marion Easton, William Pitchers, Jenny Wong, Donna Cameron, Francesca Azzato, Richard Bartolo, Cristina Mateevici, Caroline Marshall, Monica A Slavin, Benjamin P Howden, Deborah A Williamson
Candida auris is an emerging global healthcare-associated pathogen. During July-December 2018, four patients with C. auris were identified in Victoria, Australia, all with previous overseas hospitalization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed putative transmission between 2 patients and suspected overseas acquisition in the others. Vigilant screening of at-risk patients is required.
March 26, 2020: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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