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Emerging Infectious Diseases

Vasiliy P Mishin, Mira C Patel, Anton Chesnokov, Juan De La Cruz, Ha T Nguyen, Lori Lollis, Erin Hodges, Yunho Jang, John Barnes, Timothy Uyeki, Charles T Davis, David E Wentworth, Larisa V Gubareva
Baloxavir showed broad-spectrum in vitro replication inhibition of 4 types of influenza viruses (90% effective concentration range 1.2-98.3 nmol/L); susceptibility pattern was influenza A ˃ B ˃ C ˃ D. This drug also inhibited influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin, including viruses that have pandemic potential and those resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors.
October 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Lei Zhou, Qun Li, Timothy M Uyeki
We estimated the incubation period and serial interval for human-to-human-transmitted avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection using case-patient clusters from epidemics in China during 2013-2017. The median incubation period was 4 days and serial interval 9 days. China's 10-day monitoring period for close contacts of case-patients should detect most secondary infections.
October 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Christl A Donnelly, Mamun R Malik, Amgad Elkholy, Simon Cauchemez, Maria D Van Kerkhove
Since 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus has infected 2,442 persons worldwide. Case-based data analysis suggests that since 2016, as many as 1,465 cases and 293-520 deaths might have been averted. Efforts to reduce the global MERS threat are working, but countries must maintain vigilance to prevent further infections.
September 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Kazuma Okada, Ryo Morita, Kazutaka Egawa, Yuki Hirai, Atsushi Kaida, Michinori Shirano, Hideyuki Kubo, Tetsushi Goto, Seiji P Yamamoto
The largest outbreak of dengue fever in Tanzania is ongoing. Dengue virus type 1 was diagnosed in a traveler who returned from Tanzania to Japan. In phylogenetic analysis, the detected strain was close to the Singapore 2015 strain, providing a valuable clue for investigating the dengue outbreak in Tanzania.
September 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Vanessa J Oakes, Michael J Yabsley, Diana Schwartz, Tanya LeRoith, Carolynn Bissett, Charles Broaddus, Jack L Schlater, S Michelle Todd, Katie M Boes, Megan Brookhart, Kevin K Lahmers
Theileria orientalis Ikeda genotype is a parasite that causes a disease in cattle that results in major economic issues in Asia, New Zealand, and Australia. The parasite is transmitted by Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks, which have recently been reported in numerous states throughout the eastern United States. Concurrently, cattle in Virginia showed clinical signs consistent with a hemoprotozoan infection. We used amplicons specific for the major piroplasm surface protein and small subunit rDNA of piroplasms to test blood samples from the cattle by PCR...
September 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Julia C Howard, Kevin Chen, Anja Werno, Sarah Metcalf
Diaporthe phaseolorum is a fungal plant parasite that has rarely been described as causing invasive human disease. We report a case of human soft tissue infection with Diaporthe phaseolorum in a heart transplant patient with end-stage renal failure in New Zealand.
September 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Rachel Ginn, Ralph Mohty, KeriLyn Bollmann, Jessica Goodsell, Guillermo Mendez, Barrie Bradley, John N Galgiani
We developed an electronic records methodology to programmatically estimate the date of first appearance of coccidioidomycosis symptoms in patients. We compared the diagnostic delay with overall healthcare utilization charges. Many patients (46%) had delays in diagnosis of >1 month. Billed healthcare charges before diagnosis increased with length of delay.
September 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Axel Hamprecht, Amelia E Barber, Sibylle C Mellinghoff, Philipp Thelen, Grit Walther, Yanying Yu, Priya Neurgaonkar, Thomas Dandekar, Oliver A Cornely, Ronny Martin, Oliver Kurzai
The emerging yeast Candida auris has disseminated worldwide. We report on 7 cases identified in Germany during 2015-2017. In 6 of these cases, C. auris was isolated from patients previously hospitalized abroad. Whole-genome sequencing and epidemiologic analyses revealed that all patients in Germany were infected with different strains.
September 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ana Carolina Campi-Azevedo, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhāes, Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis, Lis Ribeiro Antonelli, Christiane Costa-Pereira, Elaine Speziali, Laise Rodrigues Reis, Jandira Aparecida Lemos, José Geraldo Leite Ribeiro, Luiz Antônio Bastos Camacho, Maria de Lourdes de Sousa Maia, Sheila Maria Barbosa de Lima, Marisol Simões, Reinaldo de Menezes Martins, Akira Homma, Luiz Cosme Cota Malaquias, Pedro Luiz Tauil, Pedro Fernando Costa Vasconcelos, Alessandro Pecego Martins Romano, Carla Magda Domingues, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho
We evaluated the duration of neutralizing antibodies and the status of 17DD vaccine-specific T- and B-cell memory following primary and revaccination regimens for yellow fever (YF) in Brazil. We observed progressive decline of plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) seropositivity and of the levels of effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as interferon-γ+CD8+ T cells, 10 years after primary vaccination. Revaccination restored PRNT seropositivity as well as the levels of effector memory CD4+, CD8+, and interferon-γ+CD8+ T cells...
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Camille Besombes, Ella Gonofio, Xavier Konamna, Benjamin Selekon, Rebecca Grant, Antoine Gessain, Nicolas Berthet, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Arnaud Fontanet, Emmanuel Nakouné
Monkeypox is a rare viral zoonotic disease; primary infections are reported from remote forest areas of Central and West Africa. We report an investigation of a monkeypox outbreak in Lobaye, in southwest region of Central African Republic, in October 2018.
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Aziz-Ur-Rahman Niazi, Mohammad Jawed Jawad, Ahmad Amirnajad, Peter A Durr, David T Williams
We studied the clinical and epidemiologic features of an outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Herat Province, Afghanistan. The study comprised 63 patients hospitalized in 2017. The overall case-fatality rate was 22.2%; fatal outcome was significantly associated with a negative IgM test result, longer prothrombin time, and nausea.
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Christopher Picheca, Vignan Yogendrakumar, James I Brooks, Carlos Torres, Elizabeth Pringle, Jocelyn Zwicker
Evidence of spinal cord involvement in Powassan virus infection is largely limited to mouse models. We report a case of a polio-like illness caused by Powassan virus infection in a 62-year-old man in Canada. Magnetic resonance imaging showed T2 hyperintensities in the anterior horns of the cervical spinal cord.
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sopio Chochua, Joy Rivers, Saundra Mathis, Zhongya Li, Srinivasan Velusamy, Lesley McGee, Chris Van Beneden, Yuan Li, Benjamin J Metcalf, Bernard Beall
The term group A Streptococcus is considered synonymous for the species Streptococcus pyogenes. We describe an emergent invasive S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis lineage that obtained the group A antigen through a single ancestral recombination event between a group C S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain and group A S. pyogenes strain.
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Masahiro Kajihara, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Katendi Changula, Hayato Harima, Mao Isono, Kosuke Okuya, Reiko Yoshida, Akina Mori-Kajihara, Yoshiki Eto, Yasuko Orba, Hirohito Ogawa, Yongjin Qiu, Hirofumi Sawa, Edgar Simulundu, Daniel Mwizabi, Musso Munyeme, David Squarre, Victor Mukonka, Aaron Mweene, Ayato Takada
We detected Marburg virus genome in Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) captured in Zambia in September 2018. The virus was closely related phylogenetically to the viruses that previously caused Marburg outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This finding demonstrates that Zambia is at risk for Marburg virus disease.
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sam R Telford, Joanna Buchthal, Paul Elias
Subtropical lone star tick larvae typically emerge in late summer. We found clusters of host-seeking lone star tick larvae during early June 2018 in New York and Massachusetts, USA. Invasion and persistence of this tick in more northern locations may have been promoted by adaptation to an accelerated life cycle.
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Derek R Stein, Patrycja Sroga, Bryce M Warner, Yvon Deschambault, Guillaume Poliquin, David Safronetz
Use of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based Ebola virus vaccine during outbreaks and the potential use of a similar VSV-based Lassa virus vaccine has raised questions about the vaccines' stability should the cold chain fail. We demonstrated that current cold chain condition might tolerate significant variances without affecting efficacy.
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Celia Pedroso, Carlo Fischer, Marie Feldmann, Manoel Sarno, Estela Luz, Andrés Moreira-Soto, Renata Cabral, Eduardo Martins Netto, Carlos Brites, Beate M Kümmerer, Jan Felix Drexler
The Zika virus outbreak in Latin America resulted in congenital malformations, called congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). For unknown reasons, CZS incidence was highest in northeastern Brazil; one potential explanation is that dengue virus (DENV)-mediated immune enhancement may promote CZS development. In contrast, our analyses of historical DENV genomic data refuted the hypothesis that unique genome signatures for northeastern Brazil explain the uneven dispersion of CZS cases. To confirm our findings, we performed serotype-specific DENV neutralization tests in a case-control framework in northeastern Brazil among 29 Zika virus-seropositive mothers of neonates with CZS and 108 Zika virus-seropositive control mothers...
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Van Phan Le, Dae Gwin Jeong, Sun-Woo Yoon, Hye-Min Kwon, Thi Bich Ngoc Trinh, Thi Lan Nguyen, Thi To Nga Bui, Jinsik Oh, Joon Bae Kim, Kwang Myun Cheong, Nguyen Van Tuyen, Eunhye Bae, Thi Thu Hang Vu, Minjoo Yeom, Woonsung Na, Daesub Song
African swine fever is one of the most dangerous diseases of swine. We confirmed the 2019 outbreak in Vietnam by real-time reverse transcription PCR. The causative strain belonged to p72 genotype II and was 100% identical with viruses isolated in China (2018) and Georgia (2007). International prevention and control collaboration is needed.
July 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Willlem Takken, Steve Lindsay
Malaria continues to be a major health threat in Africa, mainly in rural areas. Recently, the urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi invaded Djibouti and Ethiopia, potentially spreading to other areas of Africa. Urgent action is needed to prevent urban malaria epidemics from emerging and causing a public health disaster.
July 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
KhairAlah A Alghazali, Boon-Teong Teoh, Shih-Keng Loong, Sing-Sin Sam, Nurul-Asma-Anati Che-Mat-Seri, Nur-Izyan Samsudin, Che-Norainon Yaacob, Noor-Syahida Azizan, Adrian Oo, Nur-Adilah Baharudin, Kim-Kee Tan, Juraina Abd-Jamil, Siti-Sarah Nor'e, Chee-Sieng Khor, Jefree Johari, Mohammed A K Mahdy, Sazaly AbuBakar
We identified dengue in ≈51% of patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue in Taiz, Yemen, during 2016. The cosmopolitan genotype of dengue virus type 2 was most common; viruses appeared to have originated in Saudi Arabia. Damage to public health infrastructure during ongoing civil war might enable dengue to become endemic to Yemen.
July 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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