Toni L Meister, Ronny Tao, Yannick Brüggemann, Daniel Todt, Joerg Steinmann, Joerg Timm, Ingo Drexler, Eike Steinmann
Increasing nonzoonotic human monkeypox virus (MPXV) infections urge reevaluation of inactivation strategies. We demonstrate efficient inactivation of MPXV by 2 World Health Organization‒recommended alcohol-based hand rub solutions. When compared with other (re)emerging enveloped viruses, MPXV displayed the greatest stability. Our results support rigorous adherence to use of alcohol-based disinfectants.
November 17, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Nawras Zayat, Shirley Huang, Jude Wafai, Melissa Philadelphia
We report a case of a 22-year-old woman in New York, USA, who had painful vulvar and intravaginal lesions after sexual intercourse and tested positive for monkeypox virus. Literature documenting the clinical manifestations of monkeypox in female genitalia remains insufficient.
November 10, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Alexandre Vallée, Audrey Chatelain, Marie Carbonnel, Catherine Racowsky, Erwan Fourn, David Zucman, Jean-Marc Ayoubi
A monkeypox virus outbreak has spread worldwide since April 2022. We report a young woman in France positive for monkeypox virus transmitted through oral and vaginal sex. Ulceronecrotic lesions developed intravaginally and around her vulva. Health professionals should become familiar with all aspects of infection from this virus, including possible vertical transmission.
November 10, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Rune M Pedersen, Line L Bang, Ditte S Tornby, Lone W Madsen, Dorte K Holm, Thomas V Sydenham, Isik S Johansen, Thøger G Jensen, Ulrik S Justesen, Thomas E Andersen
Worldwide, millions of persons have received multiple COVID-19 vaccinations and subsequently recovered from SARS-CoV-2 Omicron breakthrough infections. In 2 small, matched cohorts (n = 12, n = 24) in Denmark, we found Omicron BA.1/BA.2 breakthrough infection after 3-dose BNT162b2 vaccination provided improved Omicron BA.5 neutralization over 3-dose vaccination alone.
November 8, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Léa Luciani, Nathanaël Lapidus, Abdennour Amroun, Alessandra Falchi, Chanthala Souksakhone, Mayfong Mayxay, Audrey Dubot-Pérès, Paola Mariela Saba Villarroel, Issa Diarra, Ousmane Koita, Pierre Gallian, Xavier de Lamballerie
To determine a demographic overview of orthopoxvirus seroprevalence, we tested blood samples collected during 2003-2019 from France (n = 4,876), Bolivia (n = 601), Laos (n = 657), and Mali (n = 255) for neutralizing antibodies against vaccinia virus. In addition, we tested 4,448 of the 4,876 samples from France for neutralizing antibodies against cowpox virus. We confirmed extensive cross-immunity between the 2 viruses. Seroprevalence of antibodies was <1% in Bolivia, <5% in Laos, and 17.25% in Mali. In France, we found low prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in persons who were unvaccinated and vaccinated for smallpox, suggesting immunosenescence occurred in vaccinated persons, and smallpox vaccination compliance declined before the end of compulsory vaccination...
November 7, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Camille Besombes, Festus Mbrenga, Laura Schaeffer, Christian Malaka, Ella Gonofio, Jordi Landier, Ulrich Vickos, Xavier Konamna, Benjamin Selekon, Joella Namsenei Dankpea, Cassandre Von Platen, Franck Gislain Houndjahoue, Daniel Sylver Ouaïmon, Alexandre Hassanin, Nicolas Berthet, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Antoine Gessain, Arnaud Fontanet, Emmanuel Nakouné Yandoko
We analyzed monkeypox disease surveillance in Central African Republic (CAR) during 2001-2021. Surveillance data show 95 suspected outbreaks, 40 of which were confirmed as monkeypox, comprising 99 confirmed and 61 suspected monkeypox cases. After 2018, CAR's annual rate of confirmed outbreaks increased, and 65% of outbreaks occurred in 2 forested regions bordering the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The median patient age for confirmed cases was 15.5 years. The overall case-fatality ratio was 7.5% (12/160) for confirmed and suspected cases, 9...
November 3, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Hsin-Yi Wei, Cheng-Ping Chang, Ming-Tsan Liu, Jung-Jung Mu, Yu-Ju Lin, Yu-Tung Dai, Chia-Ping Su
We investigated a cluster of SARS-CoV-2 infections in a quarantine hotel in Taiwan in December 2021. The cluster involved 3 case patients who lived in nonadjacent rooms on different floors. They had no direct contact during their stay. By direct exploration of the space above the room ceilings, we found residual tunnels, wall defects, and truncated pipes between their rooms. We conducted a simplified tracer-gas experiment to assess the interconnection between rooms. Aerosol transmission through structural defects in floors and walls in this poorly ventilated hotel was the most likely route of virus transmission...
November 2, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Vincent Bourret, Lara Dutra, Hussein Alburkat, Sanna Mäki, Ella Lintunen, Marine Wasniewski, Ravi Kant, Maciej Grzybek, Vinaya Venkat, Hayder Asad, Julien Pradel, Marie Bouilloud, Herwig Leirs, Valeria Carolina Colombo, Vincent Sluydts, Peter Stuart, Andrew McManus, Jana A Eccard, Jasmin Firozpoor, Christian Imholt, Joanna Nowicka, Aleksander Goll, Nathan Ranc, Guillaume Castel, Nathalie Charbonnel, Tarja Sironen
We report results from serologic surveillance for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 among 1,237 wild rodents and small mammals across Europe. All samples were negative, with the possible exception of 1. Despite suspected potential for human-to-rodent spillover, no evidence of widespread SARS-CoV-2 circulation in rodent populations has been reported to date.Esitämme tulokset serologisesta tutkimuksesta, jossa seulottiin SARS-CoV-2 tartuntojen varalta 1,237 luonnonvaraista jyrsijää ja piennisäkästä eri puolilta Eurooppaa...
November 2, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Julianne Meisner, Timothy V Baszler, Kathryn E Kuehl, Vickie Ramirez, Anna Baines, Lauren A Frisbie, Eric T Lofgren, David M de Avila, Rebecca M Wolking, Dan S Bradway, Hannah R Wilson, Beth Lipton, Vance Kawakami, Peter M Rabinowitz
SARS-CoV-2 likely emerged from an animal reservoir. However, the frequency of and risk factors for interspecies transmission remain unclear. We conducted a community-based study in Idaho, USA, of pets in households that had >1 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans. Among 119 dogs and 57 cats, clinical signs consistent with SARS-CoV-2 were reported for 20 dogs (21%) and 19 cats (39%). Of 81 dogs and 32 cats sampled, 40% of dogs and 43% of cats were seropositive, and 5% of dogs and 8% of cats were PCR positive...
October 26, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Helen J Esser, Stephanie M Lim, Ankje de Vries, Hein Sprong, Dinant J Dekker, Emily L Pascoe, Julian W Bakker, Vanessa Suin, Eelco Franz, Byron E E Martina, Constantianus J M Koenraadt
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging pathogen that was first detected in ticks and humans in the Netherlands in 2015 (ticks) and 2016 (humans). To learn more about its distribution and prevalence in the Netherlands, we conducted large-scale surveillance in ticks and rodents during August 2018-September 2020. We tested 320 wild rodents and >46,000 ticks from 48 locations considered to be at high risk for TBEV circulation. We found TBEV RNA in 3 rodents (0.9%) and 7 tick pools (minimum infection rate 0...
October 26, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Anne Günther, Oliver Krone, Vilhjalmur Svansson, Anne Pohlmann, Jacqueline King, Gunnar Thor Hallgrimsson, Kristinn Haukur Skarphéðinsson, Heiða Sigurðardóttir, Stefán Ragnar Jónsson, Martin Beer, Brigitte Brugger, Timm Harder
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) of hemagglutinin type H5 and clade have widely spread within the northern hemisphere since 2020 and threaten wild bird populations, as well as poultry production. We present phylogeographic evidence that Iceland has been used as a stepping stone for HPAIV translocation from northern Europe to North America by infected but mobile wild birds. At least 2 independent incursions of HPAIV H5N1 clade assigned to 2 hemagglutinin clusters, B1 and B2, are documented for summer‒autumn 2021 and spring 2022...
October 19, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
João P Caldas, Sofia R Valdoleiros, Sandra Rebelo, Margarida Tavares
We report a case of monkeypox in a physician after an occupational needlestick injury from a pustule. This case highlights risk for occupational transmission and manifestations of the disease after percutaneous transmission: a short incubation period, followed by a solitary lesion at the injured site and later by systemic symptoms.
October 17, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Nadim Cassir, Florian Cardona, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Christiane Bruel, Barbara Doudier, Salima Lahouel, Karim Bendamardji, Céline Boschi, Sarah Aherfi, Sophie Edouard, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Philippe Colson, Philippe Gautret, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Philippe Parola, Philippe Brouqui, Bernard La-Scola, Matthieu Million
We enrolled 136 patients with laboratory-confirmed monkeypox during June 4-August 31, 2022, at the University Hospital Institute Méditerranée Infection in Marseille, France. The median patient age was 36 years (interquartile range 31-42 years). Of 136 patients, 125 (92%) were men who have sex with men, 15 (11%) reported previous smallpox vaccinations, and 21 (15.5%) were HIV-positive. The most frequent lesion locations were the genitals (68 patients, 53%), perianal region (65 patients, 49%), and oral/perioral area (22 patients, 17%)...
October 14, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Elena Roel, Berta Raventós, Edward Burn, Andrea Pistillo, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Talita Duarte-Salles
Evidence on the impact of the COVID-19 vaccine rollout on socioeconomic COVID-19-related inequalities is scarce. We analyzed associations between socioeconomic deprivation index (SDI) and COVID-19 vaccination, infection, and hospitalization before and after vaccine rollout in Catalonia, Spain. We conducted a population-based cohort study during September 2020-June 2021 that comprised 2,297,146 adults >40 years of age. We estimated odds ratio of nonvaccination and hazard ratios (HRs) of infection and hospitalization by SDI quintile relative to the least deprived quintile, Q1...
October 11, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Anahita Fathi, Stefan Schmiedel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Luke Nyakarahuka, Shannon Whitmer, Jackson Kyondo, Sophia Mulei, Caitlin M Cossaboom, Carson T Telford, Alex Tumusiime, Gloria Grace Akurut, Dianah Namanya, Kilama Kamugisha, Jimmy Baluku, Julius Lutwama, Stephen Balinandi, Trevor Shoemaker, John D Klena
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was detected in 2 refugees living in a refugee settlement in Kikuube district, Uganda. Investigations revealed a CCHF IgG seroprevalence of 71.3% (37/52) in goats within the refugee settlement. This finding highlights the need for a multisectoral approach to controlling CCHF in humans and animals in Uganda.
October 5, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Seiya Yamayoshi, Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Moe Okuda, Michiko Ujie, Atsuhiro Yasuhara, Jurika Murakami, Calvin Duong, Taiki Hamabata, Mutsumi Ito, Shiho Chiba, Ryo Kobayashi, Satoshi Takahashi, Keiko Mitamura, Masao Hagihara, Akimichi Shibata, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Naoki Hasegawa, Toshiaki Ebina, Akihiko Izumi, Hideaki Kato, Hideaki Nakajima, Norio Sugaya, Yuki Seki, Asef Iqbal, Isamu Kamimaki, Masahiko Yamazaki, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Yuki Furuse
Japan has reported a relatively small number of COVID-19 cases. Because not all infected persons receive diagnostic tests for COVID-19, the reported number must be lower than the actual number of infections. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence by analyzing >60,000 samples collected in Japan (Tokyo Metropolitan Area and Hokkaido Prefecture) during February 2020-March 2022. The results showed that ≈3.8% of the population had become seropositive by January 2021. The seroprevalence increased with the administration of vaccinations; however, among the elderly, seroprevalence was not as high as the vaccination rate...
October 5, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Pimpayao Sodsai, Chupong Ittiwut, Vichaya Ruenjaiman, Rungnapa Ittiwut, Watsamon Jantarabenjakul, Kanya Suphapeetiporn, Vorasuk Shotelersuk, Nattiya Hirankarn
A heterozygous nonsense variant in the TIGIT gene was identified in a patient in Thailand who had severe COVID-19, resulting in lower TIGIT expression in T cells. The patient's T cells produced higher levels of cytokines upon stimulation. This mutation causes less-controlled immune responses, which might contribute to COVID-19 severity.
October 3, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mariana Baz, Nikita Deshpande, Charlie Mackenzie-Kludas, Francesca Mordant, Danielle Anderson, Kanta Subbarao
We assessed cross-reactivity to BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 of neutralizing antibodies elicited by ancestral, Delta, and Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. Primary infection elicited homologous antibodies with poor cross-reactivity to Omicron strains. This pattern remained after BA.1 challenge, although ancestral- and Delta-infected mice were protected from BA.1 infection.
October 3, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
McKaylee M Robertson, Meghana G Shamsunder, Ellen Brazier, Mekhala Mantravadi, Rebecca Zimba, Madhura S Rane, Drew A Westmoreland, Angela M Parcesepe, Andrew R Maroko, Sarah G Kulkarni, Christian Grov, Denis Nash
We examined racial/ethnic disparities for COVID-19 seroconversion and hospitalization within a prospective cohort (n = 6,740) in the United States enrolled in March 2020 and followed-up through October 2021. Potential SARS-CoV-2 exposure, susceptibility to COVID-19 complications, and access to healthcare varied by race/ethnicity. Hispanic and Black non-Hispanic participants had more exposure risk and difficulty with healthcare access than white participants. Participants with more exposure had greater odds of seroconversion...
October 3, 2022: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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