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Emerging Infectious Diseases

Huanyu Wang, Alejandro Diaz, Katherine Moyer, Maria Mele-Casas, Maria Fatima Ara-Montojo, Isabel Torrus, Karen McCoy, Asuncion Mejias, Amy L Leber
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) causes respiratory tract infections and neurologic manifestations. We compared the clinical manifestations from 2 EV-D68 outbreaks in 2014 and 2018 and a low-activity period in 2016 among hospitalized children in central Ohio, USA, and used PCR and sequencing to enable phylogenetic comparisons. During both outbreak periods, infected children had respiratory manifestations that led to an increase in hospital admissions for asthma. The 2018 EV-D68 outbreak appeared to be milder in terms of respiratory illness, as shown by lower rates of pediatric intensive care unit admission...
November 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Anthony Baffoe-Bonnie, Eric R Houpt, Lauren Turner, Denise Dodge, Scott K Heysell
A patient who had initial infection with mixed strains of drug-susceptible and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was presumed to have acquired drug resistance before confirmation that sequential strains were genotypically distinct. Transmitted infection with mixed strains is likely underappreciated; identifying these infections requires spoligotyping and whole-genome sequencing.
November 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Marta Adelantado, Ana Navascués, Xabier Beristain, Alberto Gil-Setas, Maria E Portillo, Aitziber Aguinaga, Carmen Ezpeleta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emi Takashita, Masataka Ichikawa, Hiroko Morita, Rie Ogawa, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Masayuki Shirakura, Hideka Miura, Kazuya Nakamura, Noriko Kishida, Tomoko Kuwahara, Hiromi Sugawara, Aya Sato, Miki Akimoto, Keiko Mitamura, Takashi Abe, Masahiko Yamazaki, Shinji Watanabe, Hideki Hasegawa, Takato Odagiri
In 2019, influenza A(H3N2) viruses carrying an I38T substitution in the polymerase acidic gene, which confers reduced susceptibility to baloxavir, were detected in Japan in an infant without baloxavir exposure and a baloxavir-treated sibling. These viruses' whole-genome sequences were identical, indicating human-to-human transmission. Influenza virus isolates should be monitored for baloxavir susceptibility.
November 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ahmed Hakawi, Erica Billig Rose, Holly M Biggs, Xiaoyan Lu, Mutaz Mohammed, Osman Abdalla, Glen R Abedi, Ali A Alsharef, Aref Ali Alamri, Samar Ahmad Bereagesh, Kamel M Al Dosari, Saad Abdullah Ashehri, Waad Ghassan Fakhouri, Saleh Zaid Alzaid, Stephen Lindstrom, Susan I Gerber, Abdullah Asiri, Hani Jokhdar, John T Watson
We characterized exposures and demographics of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus cases reported to the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health during July 1-October 31, 2017, and June 1-September 16, 2018. Molecular characterization of available specimens showed that lineage 5 predominated among circulating viruses during these periods.
November 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Maria D Van Kerkhove, Sadoof Aswad, Abdullah Assiri, Ranawaka A P M Perera, Malik Peiris, Hassan E El Bushra
To investigate a cluster of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases in a women-only dormitory in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in October 2015, we collected epidemiologic information, nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab samples, and blood samples from 828 residents during November 2015 and December 2015-January 2016. We found confirmed infection for 19 (8 by reverse transcription PCR and 11 by serologic testing). Infection attack rates varied (2.7%-32.3%) by dormitory building. No deaths occurred. Independent risk factors for infection were direct contact with a confirmed case-patient and sharing a room with a confirmed case-patient; a protective factor was having an air conditioner in the bedroom...
October 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Nisreen M A Okba, V Stalin Raj, Ivy Widjaja, Corine H Geurts van Kessel, Erwin de Bruin, Felicity D Chandler, Wan Beom Park, Nam-Joong Kim, Elmoubasher A B A Farag, Mohammed Al-Hajri, Berend-Jan Bosch, Myoung-Don Oh, Marion P G Koopmans, Chantal B E M Reusken, Bart L Haagmans
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections in humans can cause asymptomatic to fatal lower respiratory lung disease. Despite posing a probable risk for virus transmission, asymptomatic to mild infections can go unnoticed; a lack of seroconversion among some PCR-confirmed cases has been reported. We found that a MERS-CoV spike S1 protein-based ELISA, routinely used in surveillance studies, showed low sensitivity in detecting infections among PCR-confirmed patients with mild clinical symptoms and cross-reactivity of human coronavirus OC43-positive serum samples...
October 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ruth Harvey, Giada Mattiuzzo, Mark Hassall, Andrea Sieberg, Marcel A Müller, Christian Drosten, Peter Rigsby, Christopher J Oxenford
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was detected in humans in 2012. Since then, sporadic outbreaks with primary transmission through dromedary camels to humans and outbreaks in healthcare settings have shown that MERS-CoV continues to pose a threat to human health. Several serologic assays for MERS-CoV have been developed globally. We describe a collaborative study to investigate the comparability of serologic assays for MERS-CoV and assess any benefit associated with the introduction of a standard reference reagent for MERS-CoV serology...
October 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Anges Yadouleton, Achaz Agolinou, Fodé Kourouma, Raoul Saizonou, Meike Pahlmann, Sonia Kossou Bedié, Honoré Bankolé, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Fernand Gbaguidi, Anke Thielebein, N'Faly Magassouba, Sophie Duraffour, Jean-Pierre Baptiste, Stephan Günther, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet
Lassa virus has been identified in 3 pygmy mice, Mus baoulei, in central Benin. The glycoprotein and nucleoprotein sequences cluster with the Togo strain. These mice may be a new reservoir for Lassa virus in Ghana, Togo, and Benin.
October 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Yi-Mo Deng, Miguel L Grau, Matthew Kay, Annika Suttie, Paul F Horwood, Wantanee Kalpravidh, Filip Claes, Kristina Osbjer, Phillipe Dussart, Ian G Barr, Erik A Karlsson
Active surveillance in high-risk sites in Cambodia has identified multiple low-pathogenicity influenza A(H7) viruses, mainly in ducks. None fall within the A/Anhui/1/2013(H7N9) lineage; however, some A(H7) viruses from 2018 show temporal and phylogenetic similarity to the H7N4 virus that caused a nonfatal infection in Jiangsu Province, China, in December 2017.
October 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Vasiliy P Mishin, Mira C Patel, Anton Chesnokov, Juan De La Cruz, Ha T Nguyen, Lori Lollis, Erin Hodges, Yunho Jang, John Barnes, Timothy Uyeki, Charles T Davis, David E Wentworth, Larisa V Gubareva
Baloxavir showed broad-spectrum in vitro replication inhibition of 4 types of influenza viruses (90% effective concentration range 1.2-98.3 nmol/L); susceptibility pattern was influenza A ˃ B ˃ C ˃ D. This drug also inhibited influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin, including viruses that have pandemic potential and those resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors.
October 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Lei Zhou, Qun Li, Timothy M Uyeki
We estimated the incubation period and serial interval for human-to-human-transmitted avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection using case-patient clusters from epidemics in China during 2013-2017. The median incubation period was 4 days and serial interval 9 days. China's 10-day monitoring period for close contacts of case-patients should detect most secondary infections.
October 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Lyudmila S Karan, Marat T Makenov, Mikhail G Korneev, Noumany Sacko, Sanaba Boumbaly, Sergey A Yakovlev, Kerfalla Kourouma, Roman B Bayandin, Anastasiya V Gladysheva, Andrey V Shipovalov, Irina A Yurganova, Yana E Grigorieva, Marina V Fedorova, Svetlana A Scherbakova, Vladimir V Kutyrev, Alexander P Agafonov, Renat A Maksyutov, German A Shipulin, Viktor V Maleev, Mamadou Boiro, Vasiliy G Akimkin, Anna Y Popova
In 2018, a previously unknown Ebola virus, Bombali virus, was discovered in Sierra Leone. We describe detection of Bombali virus in Guinea. We found viral RNA in internal organs of 3 Angolan free-tailed bats (Mops condylurus) trapped in the city of N'Zerekore and in a nearby village.
September 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Christl A Donnelly, Mamun R Malik, Amgad Elkholy, Simon Cauchemez, Maria D Van Kerkhove
Since 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus has infected 2,442 persons worldwide. Case-based data analysis suggests that since 2016, as many as 1,465 cases and 293-520 deaths might have been averted. Efforts to reduce the global MERS threat are working, but countries must maintain vigilance to prevent further infections.
September 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Kazuma Okada, Ryo Morita, Kazutaka Egawa, Yuki Hirai, Atsushi Kaida, Michinori Shirano, Hideyuki Kubo, Tetsushi Goto, Seiji P Yamamoto
The largest outbreak of dengue fever in Tanzania is ongoing. Dengue virus type 1 was diagnosed in a traveler who returned from Tanzania to Japan. In phylogenetic analysis, the detected strain was close to the Singapore 2015 strain, providing a valuable clue for investigating the dengue outbreak in Tanzania.
September 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Vanessa J Oakes, Michael J Yabsley, Diana Schwartz, Tanya LeRoith, Carolynn Bissett, Charles Broaddus, Jack L Schlater, S Michelle Todd, Katie M Boes, Megan Brookhart, Kevin K Lahmers
Theileria orientalis Ikeda genotype is a parasite that causes a disease in cattle that results in major economic issues in Asia, New Zealand, and Australia. The parasite is transmitted by Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks, which have recently been reported in numerous states throughout the eastern United States. Concurrently, cattle in Virginia showed clinical signs consistent with a hemoprotozoan infection. We used amplicons specific for the major piroplasm surface protein and small subunit rDNA of piroplasms to test blood samples from the cattle by PCR...
September 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Julia C Howard, Kevin Chen, Anja Werno, Sarah Metcalf
Diaporthe phaseolorum is a fungal plant parasite that has rarely been described as causing invasive human disease. We report a case of human soft tissue infection with Diaporthe phaseolorum in a heart transplant patient with end-stage renal failure in New Zealand.
September 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Camille Besombes, Ella Gonofio, Xavier Konamna, Benjamin Selekon, Rebecca Grant, Antoine Gessain, Nicolas Berthet, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Arnaud Fontanet, Emmanuel Nakouné
Monkeypox is a rare viral zoonotic disease; primary infections are reported from remote forest areas of Central and West Africa. We report an investigation of a monkeypox outbreak in Lobaye, in southwest region of Central African Republic, in October 2018.
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Aziz-Ur-Rahman Niazi, Mohammad Jawed Jawad, Ahmad Amirnajad, Peter A Durr, David T Williams
We studied the clinical and epidemiologic features of an outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Herat Province, Afghanistan. The study comprised 63 patients hospitalized in 2017. The overall case-fatality rate was 22.2%; fatal outcome was significantly associated with a negative IgM test result, longer prothrombin time, and nausea.
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sopio Chochua, Joy Rivers, Saundra Mathis, Zhongya Li, Srinivasan Velusamy, Lesley McGee, Chris Van Beneden, Yuan Li, Benjamin J Metcalf, Bernard Beall
The term group A Streptococcus is considered synonymous for the species Streptococcus pyogenes. We describe an emergent invasive S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis lineage that obtained the group A antigen through a single ancestral recombination event between a group C S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain and group A S. pyogenes strain.
August 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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