Sakiko Tabata Kuribayashi, Ayu Kasamatsu, Chiaki Ikenoue, Munehisa Fukusumi, Hajime Kamiya, Tomoe Shimada, Teppei Tanaka, Kuniko Murakami, Rieko Takahashi McLellan, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Makoto Kuroda, Tomimasa Sunagawa
Epidemiologic and genomic investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infections in members of Japan's national wrestling team after participation in international tournaments in 2021 revealed multiple lineages of SARS-CoV-2 not reported in Japan. The attack rate among wrestlers was high. Results suggest possible transmission during matches. We recommend early case detection and response practices.
October 3, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara, Linda Maraga, Hannah Meredith, Daniel Esimit, Gilchrist Lokoel, Tabitha Chepkwony, Joseph Kipkoech, George Ambani, Diana Menya, Elizabeth Freedman, Steve Taylor, Andrew Obala
In urban and rural areas of Turkana County, Kenya, we found that 2% of household members of patients with Plasmodium falciparum infections were also infected with P. vivax. Enhanced surveillance of P. vivax and increased clinical resources are needed to inform control measures and identify and manage P. vivax infections.
October 1, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mike J Mwanga, Arnold W Lambisia, John Mwita Morobe, Nickson Murunga, Edidah Moraa, Leonard Ndwiga, Robinson Cheruiyot, Jennifer Musyoki, Martin Mutunga, Laura M Guzman-Rincon, Charles Sande, Joseph Mwangangi, Philip Bejon, Lynette Isabella Ochola-Oyier, D James Nokes, Charles N Agoti, Joyce Nyiro, George Githinji
We report a newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariant FY.4 that has mutations Y451H in spike and P42L in open reading frame 3a proteins. FY.4 emergence coincided with increased SARS-CoV-2 cases in coastal Kenya during April-May 2023. Continued SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance is needed to identify new lineages to inform COVID-19 outbreak prevention.
September 14, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Eileen Y Koh, Adrian K S Tan, Darren Yeo, Clara Lau, Li Ying Tan, Oi Wing Ng, Jasmine Ong, Stacy Chong, Steffie Toh, Jing Chen, Wai Kwan Wong, Brian Z Y Tan, Christine He-Lee, Zhan Pei Heng, Ian Liang, Charlene Judith Fernandez, Siow Foong Chang, Kenneth B H Er
We detected African swine fever virus (ASFV) from a wild boar in Singapore. In <72 hours, we confirmed and reported ASFV p72 genotype II, CD2v serogroup 8, and IGR-II variant by using a combination of real-time PCR and whole-genome sequencing. Continued biosurveillance will be needed to monitor ASFV in Singapore.
September 14, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
David A Schwartz, Placide Mbala-Kingebeni, Kerry Patterson, John W Huggins, Phillip R Pittman
We report the autopsy pathology findings of a 21-week stillborn fetus with congenital mpox syndrome that occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2008. The fetus acquired mpox from the mother after intrauterine transplacental monkeypox virus transmission. We confirmed monkeypox virus infection in the mother, fetus, and placenta by using a monkeypox virus-specific quantitative PCR. Subtyping of the virus was not performed, but the mother and fetus were almost certainly infected with the clade I variant that was endemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo at the time...
September 13, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
LaRinda A Holland, Steven C Holland, Matthew F Smith, Victoria R Leonard, Vel Murugan, Lora Nordstrom, Mary Mulrow, Raquel Salgado, Michael White, Efrem S Lim
We conducted surveillance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) genomic sequences for 100 RSV-A and 27 RSV-B specimens collected during November 2022-April 2023 in Arizona, USA. We identified mutations within prefusion F-protein antigenic sites in both subtypes. Continued genomic surveillance will be critical to ensure RSV vaccine effectiveness.
September 13, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Benedikt Daniel Spielberger, Anna Hansel, Alea Nazary, Eva-Maria Kleißle, Claus-Georg Lehr, Marcel Utz, Juliana Hofer, Siegbert Rieg, Winfried V Kern
During August-December 2022, toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from 25 refugees with skin infections and 2 refugees with asymptomatic throat colonization at a refugee reception center in Germany. None had systemic toxin-mediated illness. Of erosive/ulcerative skin infections, 96% were polymicrobial. Erosive/ulcerative wounds in refugees should undergo testing to rule out cutaneous diphtheria.
September 10, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Rebecca E Harrison, Ahmed Hamada, Nujcharee Haswell, Aigul Groves, Karina-Doris Vihta, Kerry Cella, Sarah Garner, Ann Sarah Walker, Anna C Seale
Early detection of increased infections or new variants of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for public health response. To determine whether cycle threshold (Ct) data from PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 could serve as an early indicator of epidemic growth, we analyzed daily mean Ct values in England, UK, by gene target and used iterative sequential regression to detect break points in mean Ct values (and positive test counts). To monitor the epidemic in England, we continued those analyses in real time. During September 2020-January 2022, a total of 7,611,153 positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results with Ct data were reported...
September 7, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Scott A Nabity, Suzanne M Marks, Neela D Goswami, Shona R Smith, Evan Timme, Sandy F Price, Lon Gross, Julie L Self, Katelynne Gardner Toren, Masahiro Narita, Donna H Wegener, Shu-Hua Wang
Little is known about co-occurring tuberculosis (TB) and COVID-19 in low TB incidence settings. We obtained a cross-section of 333 persons in the United States co-diagnosed with TB and COVID-19 within 180 days and compared them to 4,433 persons with TB only in 2020 and 18,898 persons with TB during 2017‒2019. Across both comparison groups, a higher proportion of persons with TB-COVID-19 were Hispanic, were long-term care facility residents, and had diabetes. When adjusted for age, underlying conditions, and TB severity, COVID-19 co-infection was not statistically associated with death compared with TB infection only in 2020 (adjusted prevalence ratio 1...
August 30, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ana Hoxha, Steven M Kerr, Henry Laurenson-Schafer, Nikola Sklenovská, Bernadette Basuta Mirembe, Ingrid Hammermeister Nezu, Patricia Ndumbi, Julia Fitzner, Maria Almiron, Marcelo Vila, Richard Pebody, Aisling M Vaughan, Joana M Haussig, Luis Alves de Sousa, Okot Charles Lukoya, Olaniyi Felix Sanni, Pierre Nabeth, Jeremias Domingos Naiene, Masaya Kato, Tamano Matsui, Krutika Kuppalli, Peter Omondi Mala, Rosamund F Lewis, Olivier le Polain de Waroux, Boris I Pavlin
The 2022-2023 mpox outbreak predominantly affected adult men; 1.3% of reported cases were in children and adolescents <18 years of age. Analysis of global surveillance data showed 1 hospital intensive care unit admission and 0 deaths in that age group. Transmission routes and clinical manifestations varied across age subgroups.
August 30, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Benjamin T Trevitt, Anthea L Katelaris, Catherine Bateman-Steel, Sandra Chaverot, Sinead Flanigan, Toni Cains, Elena Martinez, Andrew Ginn, Vitali Sintchenko, Arthur Jones, Kishen Lachireddy, Mark J Ferson, Vicky Sheppeard
In April 2021, the South Eastern Sydney Local Health District Public Health Unit (Sydney, New South Wales, Australia) was notified of 3 patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections secondary to skin piercings performed at the same salon. Active case finding through laboratories, clinician alerts, and monitoring hospital visits for piercing-related infections identified additional cases across New South Wales, and consumers were alerted. We identified 13 confirmed and 40 probable case-patients and linked clinical isolates by genomic sequencing...
August 30, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Leonard Mndala, Chikondi Chapuma, Jennifer Riches, Luis Gadama, Fannie Kachale, Rosemary Bilesi, Malangizo Mbewe, Andrew Likaka, Moses Kumwenda, Regina Makuluni, Bertha Maseko, Chifundo Ndamala, Annie Kuyere, Laura Munthali, Deborah Phiri, Edward J M Monk, Marc Y R Henrion, Maria L Odland, David Lissauer
We used national facility-level data from all government hospitals in Malawi to examine the effects of the second and third COVID-19 waves on maternal and neonatal outcomes and access to care during September 6, 2020-October 31, 2021. The COVID-19 pandemic affected maternal and neonatal health not only through direct infections but also through disruption of the health system, which could have wider indirect effects on critical maternal and neonatal outcomes. In an interrupted time series analysis, we noted a cumulative 15...
August 28, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Y L Elaine Chan, Michael A Irvine, Natalie Prystajecky, Hind Sbihi, Marsha Taylor, Yayuk Joffres, Andrea Schertzer, Caren Rose, Louise Dyson, Edward M Hill, Michael Tildesley, John R Tyson, Linda M N Hoang, Eleni Galanis
In British Columbia, Canada, initial growth of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant was slower than that reported in other jurisdictions. Delta became the dominant variant (>50% prevalence) within ≈7-13 weeks of first detection in regions within the United Kingdom and United States. In British Columbia, it remained at <10% of weekly incident COVID-19 cases for 13 weeks after first detection on March 21, 2021, eventually reaching dominance after 17 weeks. We describe the growth of Delta variant cases in British Columbia during March 1-June 30, 2021, and apply retrospective counterfactual modeling to examine factors for the initially low COVID-19 case rate after Delta introduction, such as vaccination coverage and nonpharmaceutical interventions...
August 28, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Zhanwei Du, Yuchen Wang, Yuan Bai, Lin Wang, Benjamin John Cowling, Lauren Ancel Meyers
China announced a slight easing of its zero-COVID rules on November 11, 2022, and then a major relaxation on December 7, 2022. We estimate that the ensuing wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections caused 1.41 million deaths in China during December 2022-February 2023, substantially higher than that reported through official channels.
August 28, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yuan Li, Joy Rivers, Saundra Mathis, Zhongya Li, Sopio Chochua, Benjamin J Metcalf, Bernard Beall, Jennifer Onukwub, Christopher J Gregor, Lesley McGee
From 2015-2018 to 2019‒2021, hypertoxigenic M1UK lineage among invasive group A Streptococcus increased in the United States (1.7%, 21/1,230 to 11%, 65/603; p<0.001). M1UK was observed in 9 of 10 states, concentrated in Georgia (n = 41), Tennessee (n = 13), and New York (n = 13). Genomic cluster analysis indicated recent expansions.
August 28, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Liam U Taylor, Robert A Ronconi, Hayley A Spina, Megan E B Jones, C Brandon Ogbunugafor, Andrea J Ayala
In summer 2022, highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1) virus reached the herring gull (Larus argentatus subspecies smithsonianus) breeding colony on Kent Island, New Brunswick, Canada. Real-time monitoring revealed a self-limiting outbreak with low mortality. Proactive seabird surveillance is crucial for monitoring such limited outbreaks, protecting seabirds, and tracing zoonotic transmission routes.
August 24, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Liana R Andronescu, Stephanie A Richard, Eric D Laing, Nora Pisanic, Si'Ana A Coggins, Magdielis Gregory Rivera, Kate Kruczynski, Adam K Saperstein, Jitendrakumar Modi, Jamie A Fraser, Saira Shaikh, Christopher C Broder, Timothy H Burgess, Christopher D Heaney, Simon D Pollett, Eugene Millar, Christian L Coles, Mark P Simons
The optimal approach to COVID-19 surveillance in congregate populations remains unclear. Our study at the US Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, USA, assessed the concordance of antibody prevalence in longitudinally collected dried blood spots and saliva in a setting of frequent PCR-based testing. Our findings highlight the utility of salivary-based surveillance.
August 14, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Patrick K Moonan, Jonathan P Smith, Brian F Borah, Divya Vohra, Holly H Matulewicz, Nickolas DeLuca, Elise Caruso, Penny S Loosier, Phoebe Thorpe, Melanie M Taylor, John E Oeltmann
Using a nationally representative panel survey, we examined isolation behaviors among persons in the United States who had positive SARS-CoV-2 test results during January 2021-March 2022. Compared with persons who received provider-administered results, persons with home-based results had 29% (95% CI 5%-47%) lower odds of following isolation recommendations.
August 14, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ian Kracalik, Alyssa G Kent, Carlos H Villa, Paige Gable, Pallavi Annambhotla, Gillian McAllister, Deborah Yokoe, Charles R Langelier, Kelly Oakeson, Judith Noble-Wang, Orieji Illoh, Alison Laufer Halpin, Anne F Eder, Sridhar V Basavaraju
During May 2018‒December 2022, we reviewed transfusion-transmitted sepsis cases in the United States attributable to polymicrobial contaminated apheresis platelet components, including Acinetobacter calcoaceticus‒baumannii complex or Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from patients and components. Transfused platelet components underwent bacterial risk control strategies (primary culture, pathogen reduction or primary culture, and secondary rapid test) before transfusion. Environmental samples were collected from a platelet collection set manufacturing facility...
August 10, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ryo Kinoshita, Takeshi Arashiro, Noriko Kitamura, Satoru Arai, Koki Takahashi, Tadaki Suzuki, Motoi Suzuki, Daisuke Yoneoka
A nationwide survey of SARS-CoV-2 antinucleocapsid seroprevalence among blood donors in Japan revealed that, as of November 2022, infection-induced seroprevalence of the population was 28.6% (95% CI 27.6%-29.6%). Seroprevalence studies might complement routine surveillance and ongoing monitoring efforts to provide a more complete real-time picture of COVID-19 burden.
July 28, 2023: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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