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Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH

Christentze Schmiegelow, Omari Abdul Msemo, Sofie Lykke Møller, Birgitte Bruun Nielsen, Cecilie Bøge Paulsen, Lars Ødum, Thor Grundtvig Theanderi, Reginald Adolph Kavishe, John Peter Andrea Lusingu, Daniel Thomas Minja, Ib Christian Bygbjergi
OBJECTIVE: Maternal anemia in early pregnancy is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, preconceptional health can influence the health during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate which preconceptional factors were associated with Hb concentration in early pregnancy. METHODS: In Tanzania, 226 women were followed preconception and during early pregnancy. Red blood cell (RBC) morphology, serum micronutrient concentration, demographic characteristics, and health status were assessed preconception and in early pregnancy...
February 15, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Barbara S Mensch, Erica K Chuang, Andrea Melnikas, Stephanie R Psaki
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have documented an inverse association between years of schooling attained, particularly by women, and reduced maternal, infant and child mortality. However, if factors affecting educational attainment - many of which are unobservable, e.g. motivation and genetic endowment - also affect the likelihood of engaging in behaviors that enhance health, then assumed effects of schooling will be inflated in analyses that do not address this endogeneity. This systematic review assesses evidence for a causal link between education and maternal and child health in low and middle-income countries...
February 15, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Elysia Larson, Anna D Gage, Godfrey M Mbaruku, Redempta Mbatia, Sebastien Haneuse, Margaret E Kruk
OBJECTIVES: Reduction in maternal and newborn mortality requires that women deliver in high quality health facilities. However, many facilities provide sub-optimal quality of care, which may be a reason for less than universal facility utilization. We assessed the impact of a quality improvement project on facility utilization for childbirth. METHODS: In this cluster-randomized experiment in four rural districts in Tanzania, 12 primary care clinics and their catchment areas received a quality improvement intervention consisting of in-service training, mentoring and supportive supervision, infrastructure support, and peer outreach, while 12 facilities and their catchment areas functioned as controls...
February 14, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Marjan Molemans, Eva Vernooij, Njabuliso Dlamini, Fortunate S Shabalala, Shaukat Khan, Frank van Leth, Gabriela B Gomez, Ria Reis
INTRODUCTION: There are concerns that immediate ART initiation (regardless of CD4 count) negatively affects HIV status disclosure, ART adherence and healthcare interactions. We assessed changes in these factors after the 'Early access to ART for all' intervention, a universal test-and-treat study in Swaziland. METHODS: We recruited two samples of participants between 2014 and 2017. The first group was interviewed before the intervention (control); the second group at the implementation and six months thereafter (intervention)...
February 10, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Bianca Martins Santos, Felipe Augusto Soares, Stefany Laryssa Rosa, Denise da Conceição Ferreira Gomes, Bruno César Miranda Oliveira, Alan Zanoni Peixinho, Celso Tetsuo Nagase Suzuki, Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani, Alexandre Xavier Falcão, Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes
OBJECTIVES: Laboratory diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni eggs is routinely performed by conventional quantitative techniques through the parasitological examination of human feces. However, the diagnostic sensitivity of this type of exam varies from low to moderate. We aimed to develop a new parasitological technique called TF-Test Quantified (TFT-Quant), for the quantitative detection of S. mansoni eggs in human feces. METHODS: Four study stages were performed using 43 mice infected by S...
February 10, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Laura V Cooper, Anna Robson, Caroline L Trotter, Abraham Aseffa, Jean-Marc Collard, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, Aldiouma Diallo, Abraham Hodgson, Jean-François Jusot, Babatunji Omotara, Samba Sow, Musa Hassan-King, Olivier Manigart, Maria Nascimento, Arouna Woukeu, Daniel Chandramohan, Ray Borrow, Martin C J Maiden, Brian Greenwood, James M Stuart
OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential risk factors for acquisition in seven countries of the meningitis belt. METHODS: Households were followed up every 2 weeks for 2 months, then monthly for a further 4 months. Pharyngeal swabs were collected from all available household members at each visit and questionnaires completed. Risks of acquisition over the whole study period and for each visit were analysed by a series of logistic regressions. RESULTS: Over the course of the study, acquisition was higher in: (i) 5-to 14-year olds, as compared with those 30 years or older (OR 3...
February 6, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Sophia Lin, Vitor Morae Rocha, Richard Taylor
OBJECTIVES: In view of erroneous type 2 diabetes prevalence reported in 3 small Pacific Island countries, a study was conducted to investigate whether this error occurred in other countries which have conducted WHO STEPS surveys associated with glucose thresholds for point-of-care (POC) measuring devices calibrated to plasma. METHODS: Published STEPS surveys conducted over 2001-2017 were obtained. For each survey, information was obtained on diabetes prevalence, POC glucose measuring device, blood sample tested, and the fasting glucose threshold used for prevalence calculations...
February 1, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Janet Douglass, Lukah Dykes, Louise Kelly-Hope, Susan Gordon, Peter Leggat, Ni Ni Aye, San San Win, Tint Wai, Yi Yi Win, Thet Wai Nwe, Patricia Graves
OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal comparative study investigated the effect of preventive chemotherapy (PC) on covert tissue changes associated with lymphatic filariasis (LF) among young people living in an LF-endemic area in Myanmar. METHODS: Tissue compressibility and extracellular free fluid in the lower limbs of people aged 10 - 21 years were measured using Indurometry and bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS). Baseline measures were taken in October 2014, annual mass drug administration (MDA) of PC was delivered in December and in March 2015, and further PC was offered to LF-positive cases who had missed MDA...
January 31, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
James Samwel Ngocho, Marien Isaäk de Jonge, Linda Minja, Gaudencia Alois Olomi, Michael Johnson Mahande, Sia Emmanueli Msuya, Blandina Theophile Mmbaga
OBJECTIVE: Despite the availability of vaccines and antibiotics, pneumonia remains the leading cause of mortality among children under five years of age. The objective of this study was to identify modifiable risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children under five years of age in a vaccinated population. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted between January and December 2017. The cases included children aged 2 - 59 months with X-ray-confirmed pneumonia, whereas the controls were children from the community with no history of respiratory infection...
January 31, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Sabine Hermans, Morna Cornell, Keren Middelkoop, Robin Wood
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the HIV epidemic and the roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART, from 2004) on the gender-specific TB burden in Cape Town, we investigated temporal changes in TB notification rates, the HIV-associated relative risk of TB and the population attributable risk fraction (PAF) of HIV by gender. METHODS: Annual TB notifications, mid-year population and HIV prevalence estimates were used to calculate rates per 100,000 population stratified by gender and HIV...
January 25, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Sílvia H Carvalho, Frédéric Frézard, Neila P Pereira, Alexandre S Moura, Lucinéia M Q C Ramos, Gabriel B Carvalho, Manoel O C Rocha
OBJECTIVES: Meglumine antimoniate (MA; Glucantime® ), the 80-year old first-line systemic treatment for all forms of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis, is highly toxic, presents adverse side-effects and may not attain clinical and parasitological cure. This critical review examines the necessity for intramuscular/intravenous administration of MA, the alternatives to this approach, and the possibilities of developing affordable, accessible and nontoxic drugs or new delivery methods...
January 25, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Caleb D Ebert, Tigist Astale, Eshetu Sata, Mulat Zerihun, Andrew W Nute, Aisha E P Stewart, Demelash Gessese, Gedefaw Ayenew, Zebene Ayele, Berhanu Melak, Melsew Chanyalew, Bizuayehu Gashaw, Zerihun Tadesse, E Kelly Callahan, Samuel M Jenness, Scott D Nash
OBJECTIVES: Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin is a core component of the WHO-recommended strategy to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem, but low participation rates in MDA campaigns may undermine the effectiveness of this intervention. We explored factors associated with individual MDA participation at the individual, head of household, and household levels in Amhara, Ethiopia. METHODS: We conducted 4 district-level, multi-level cluster random coverage surveys to collect data on self-reported MDA participation and predictors...
January 23, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Vibol Iem, Anna Dean, Matteo Zignol, Phouvang Vongvichit, Donekham Inthavong, Souvimone Siphanthong, Theppouthone Sorsavanh, Sang Jae Kim, Soyoun Shin, Jacques Sebert, Phonenaly Chittamany
OBJECTIVE: To present results of the first national anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance survey conducted in Lao PDR between May 2016 and August 2017 to determine the prevalence of resistance to first-line anti-TB drugs among new and previously treated pulmonary TB cases in the country. METHODS: Patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB were enrolled from 42 TB laboratories distributed in 40 clusters throughout the country. Survey sites were selected using probability-proportional-to-size sampling among all diagnostic centers in the country...
January 21, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Mikaelle Kaline Bezerra da Costa, Camilla Siqueira da Fonseca, Julio Alejandro Navoni, Eliza Maria Xavier Freire
OBJECTIVES: Brazil is home to large veriety of snake species, of which about 17% are venomous. A large proportion of reported snakebite accidents in the country take place in northeast Brazil. We aimed to analyze the epidemiology of snakebites as a public health concern in Rio Grande do Norte state. METHODS: A retrospective epidemiologic analysis was performed using data from the Brazilian Case Registry Database pertaining to the period 2007 to 2016, and considering environmental climate characteristics as an influential factor...
January 19, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Dominik Geus, Kevin C Sifft, Felix Habarugira, Jean Claude Mugisha, Caritas Mukampunga, Jules Ndoli, Claude Bayingana, Augustin Sendegeya, Peter Martus, Kira Fraundorfer, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Christian Klotz, Anton Aebischer, Frank P Mockenhaupt
OBJECTIVES: Co-infections with Plasmodium, Ascaris, and Giardia are common in sub-Saharan Africa but epidemiological and clinical data are rare. We examined factors associated with co-infections and their clinical manifestation among Rwandan schoolchildren. METHODS: Schoolchildren aged 6-10 years attending 12 schools in Huye district, Rwanda, were recruited preceding routine deworming. Data on socio-economic status (SES) and children's histories were obtained, and children were clinically and anthropometrically examined...
January 19, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
N Naidoo, N Matlakala, J Railton, S Khosa, G Marincowitz, J O Igumbor, J A McIntyre, H E Struthers, R P H Peters
OBJECTIVE: South Africa's community health workers (CHWs) provide a bridge between the primary healthcare (PHC) facility and its community. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to determine the contribution of the community-based HIV programme (CBHP) to the overall HIV programme. METHODS: We collected service provision data from the daily activity register of CHWs attached to 12 PHC facilities in rural Mopani District, South Africa. Personal identifiers of individuals referred to the facility for HIV services were recorded and verified against facility routine patient registers to determine effectiveness of referral...
January 13, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Steven Ault, Haroldo Bezerra, Sulamita Brandão Barbiratto, Marcelo Carballo de Resende, Luis Gerardo Castellanos, Lizbeth Cerezo, Giovanini Coelho, Carlos Espinal, Gamaliel Gutiérrez, Eva Harris, Giovanni Luz Kleber, Anthony Llau, Oscar Pacheco, Octavio Lenin Pérez Delgadillo, Freddy Perez, Victor Picos, Diana P Rojas Alvarez, José Luis San Martin Martinez, João Bosco Siqueira, Marco Fidel Suarez
OBJECTIVE: Since the 1980s, dengue incidence has increased 30-fold. However, in 2017, there was a noticeable reduction in reported dengue incidence cases within the Americas, including severe and fatal cases. Understanding the mechanism underlying dengue's incidence and decline in the Americas is vital for public health planning. We aimed to provide plausible explanations for the decline in 2017. METHODS: An expert panel of representatives from scientific and academic institutions, Ministry of Health officials from Latin America and PAHO/WHO staff met in October 2017 to propose hypotheses...
January 9, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Fabienne Hejoaka, Marie Varloteaux, Caroline Desclaux-Sall, Sidy Mokhtar Ndiaye, Karim Diop, Aminata Diack, Fatou Niasse, Cécile Cames
OBJECTIVES: Providing research information in a manner accessible to minors participating in biomedical research is a major challenge. Guidance is dramatically lacking regarding best practices for seeking informed consent among undisclosed minors enrolled in HIV-related research. We implemented an improved informed consent process (IICP) and identified factors associated with understanding of the information presented to HIV-infected minors prior to their enrolment in a study. METHODS: We enrolled study participants attending 12 paediatric HIV clinics in Senegal...
January 9, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Johannes Thorman, Per Björkman, Fregenet Tesfaye, Asiya Jeylan, Taye Tolera Balcha, Anton Reepalu
OBJECTIVES: Restricted capacity for viral load (VL) testing is a major obstacle for antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in high-burden regions. Algorithms for targeted VL testing could help allocate laboratory resources rationally. We validated the performance of the Viral Load Testing Criteria (VLTC), an algorithm with satisfactory performance in derivation (sensitivity 91%, specificity 43%). METHODS: HIV-positive adults who had been receiving first-line ART for ≥12 months at three Ethiopian public ART clinics were included...
January 9, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Ana L Salazar-De La Cuba, Diana F Ardiles-Paredes, Roger V Araujo-Castillo, Jorge L Maguiña
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of self-reported TB diagnosed at Peruvian correctional facilities (CF), and their associated factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on secondary analysis of the National Census held in all Peruvian CFs in 2016. Outcome was defined as self-reported TB diagnosed by a healthcare professional intra-penitentiary. A descriptive bivariate analysis was carried out, followed by multivariate analysis using Poisson regression in order to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (PRa)...
December 27, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
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