Journals Tropical Medicine & Internatio...

Tropical Medicine & International Health
Mariam Adam, Sami Nahzat, Qutbuddin Kakar, Methaq Assada, Benoit Witkowski, Azza Tag Eldin Elshafie, Duha Abuobaida, Naimullah Safi, Munir Ahmed Khan, Mustafa Nagi, Sayed Ali Mustafa, Khalilahmad Kohestani, Jamil Muhammad, Nimol Khim, Mohammed Al-Hadi, Tarig Mohamed Elfaki, Muhammad Naeem Habib, Amna Khairy Abulkareem Khairy, Hamida Hamid, Zain Uddin, Yahya Amer, Abdikarim Hussein Hassan, Mousab Siddig Elhag, Ahmad Walid Sediqi, Inamullah Kakar, Rashad Abdul-Ghani, Jamal Ghilan Hefzullah Amran, Tarig Abdalla Abdallrahim, Mohammad Shoaib Tamim, Adel Aljasari, Charlotte Rasmussen, Lina Azkoul, Marian Warsame
INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization recommends regular monitoring of the efficacy of nationally recommended antimalarial drugs. We present the results of studies on the efficacy of recommended antimalarials and molecular markers of artemisinin and partner resistance in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen. METHODS: Single-arm prospective studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (ASSP) in Afghanistan and Pakistan, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in all countries, or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in Sudan for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum...
September 13, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Fannie Lajeunesse-Trempe, Michael K Boit, Lydia U Kaduka, Emanuella De Lucia-Rolfe, Alexis Baass, Martine Paquette, Marie-Eve Piché, André Tchernof, Dirk L Christensen
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Fatty Liver Index (FLI) is a simple clinical scoring system estimating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is validated in European-descent and Asian populations, but not in sub-Saharan Africans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity of the FLI for predicting NAFLD in a population from Kenya. METHODS: Participants were recruited from a community-based study conducted in Kenya. NAFLD was diagnosed using hepatic ultrasonography...
August 31, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Hsiu-Ling Lin, Hui-Mei Chen, Chih-Yen Lin, Cheng-Chieh Chen
OBJECTIVES: Neisseria meningitidis is one of the major pathogens of meningitis in children worldwide and causes invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), which is a critical illness that mainly presents as meningitis and/or septicemia in children. Identification of N. meningitidis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis, but antigen tests have advantages such as timely results, relatively low cost, and convenience. Yet, the diagnostic accuracy of antigen tests remains uncertain...
August 28, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Hong H T C Le, Nguyen Truong Vien, Tran Ngoc Dang, Robert S Ware, Dung Phung, Phong K Thai, Sarath Ranganathan, Nguyen Nhu Vinh, Phan Hoang Thuy Dung, Huynh Ngoc Thanh, Truong Thi Thuy Dung, To Thi Hien, Peter D Sly, Pham Le An
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) problems are unlikely to be solved in the short term, making it imperative to educate children on protective measures to mitigate the negative impact on their health. Children and their caregivers may hold differing views on wearing a face mask as a safeguard against air pollution. While many studies have focused on predicting children's health-protective behaviours against air pollution, few have explored the differences in perceptions between children and their caregivers...
August 24, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Marco J Haenssgen, Nutcha Charoenboon, Annabelle Early, Thomas Althaus
OBJECTIVE: Critical gaps remain in understanding community perceptions and treatment-seeking behaviours in case of fever. This is especially relevant considering global antimicrobial resistance, where fever is assumed to provoke non-judicious antibiotic use. Our study objective was therefore to document the community-level incidence of fever, the resulting treatment-seeking processes, and their underlying behavioural drivers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional observational design, we used descriptive and inferential statistics and multivariable regression analysis to estimate the population-level incidence of fever and individual and socio-economic factors associated with treatment-seeking process characteristics...
August 21, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Shubhajit Pahari, Diplina Barman, Rounik Talukdar
OBJECTIVES: To generate a national and zonal pooled estimate of current tobacco usage (CTU) in any form, as well as stratified gender and tobacco type (smokeless and smoke) specific estimates among the Indian population, utilising evidence from 2010 to 2022. METHOD: PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, CINAHL and Google Scholar databases were searched for articles on tobacco use among Indian adults published between January 2010 and October 2022. The NIH Quality Assessment Tool was used to assess study quality, and a random-effects inverse-variance method was used to attain a pooled estimate of usage...
August 15, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Deisiany Gomes Ferreira, Marina Gadêlha, João Ricardo Vissoci, Melyssa Negri
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the records of male hospitalisation for fungal infections, including their spatial distribution and the main invasive epidemiological and sociodemographic characteristics in the State of Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: Spatial analysis based on data from male admission records for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in the State of Paraná, from 2015 to 2019. Data were taken from the hospital records obtained in the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System, being collected, georeferenced and analysed to infer the existence of autocorrelation with the hospitalisation rates in the state...
August 9, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Kellyn Kessiene de Sousa Cavalcante, Francisco Roger Aguiar Cavalcante, Reagan Nzundu Boigny, Kelvia Maria Oliveira Borges, Carlos Henrique Alencar
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the flow of cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Ceará, Brazil, between 2007 and 2021. METHODS: An ecological study was conducted using a spatial approach of newly confirmed cases of VL recorded in the Notifiable Diseases Information System. We identified individuals whose municipality of diagnosis differed from that of their residence. Flow maps, constructed using Tabwin 32 and ArcMap 9.2, allowed for the identification of the volume of traffic between the municipality of residence and that of initial care...
August 7, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Yacoba Atiase, Ernest Yorke, Josephine Akpalu, Margaret Reynolds, Ofoliquaye Allotey Annan, Robert Aryee, Charles Hayfron-Benjamin, Alfred Yawson
OBJECTIVES: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common, severe and often fatal complication of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and precipitants of DKA, as well as factors associated with DKA severity in Ghanaian patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of the medical records of all 70 adult patients >18 years managed for DKA in the adult emergency room of Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana from March 2019 to July 2019...
August 3, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Katelyn E Flaherty, Molly B Klarman, Ahmed N Zakariah, Mohammed-Najeeb Mahama, Maxwell Osei-Ampofo, Eric J Nelson, Torben K Becker
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the prerequisites (demand, interest, feasibility) for adapting a paediatric nighttime telemedicine and medication delivery service (TMDS) to Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of households and associated healthcare providers was conducted in urban and rural Ghana. Households were identified through randomised geospatial sampling; households with at least one child <10 years were enrolled. Household surveys collected information relating to demographics, household resources, standardised case scenarios, recent paediatric health events, satisfaction with healthcare access, and interest in TMDS intervention models...
August 3, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Silvia Baroncelli, Clementina Maria Galluzzo, Stefano Orlando, Richard Luhanga, Robert Mphwere, Thom Kavalo, Roberta Amici, Marco Floridia, Mauro Andreotti, Fausto Ciccacci, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Marina Giuliano
Measles vaccination is currently recommended at 9 months, since maternal antibodies are supposed to protect infants until that age. In this study of 6-month-old Malawian infants 98.3% (58/59) had non-protective IgG levels against measles, irrespective of HIV exposure. Anticipating the first dose at 6 months could be considered.
August 2, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Sheila Kansiime, Christian Holm Hansen, Richard Hayes, Eugene Ruzagira
OBJECTIVE: HIV risk prediction tools are a critical component of efforts to end the HIV pandemic. We aimed to create and validate tools for identifying individuals at highest risk of prevalent and incident HIV in an African setting. METHODS: We used Logistic regression and Poisson regression to determine risk factors for HIV prevalence and incidence in a multi-country HIV vaccine trial preparedness cohort study among individuals at high risk of HIV, and used the identified factors to create and validate tools that predict HIV risk...
July 27, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Alejandra López-García, Juan A Gilabert
OBJECTIVE: To analyse acute Chagas disease (CD) outbreaks through a qualitative systematic review and discuss the determinants for its prevention and control. METHODS: Review of studies in which clinical cases of oral transmission were confirmed by parasitological and/or serological tests that included an epidemiological investigation of sources of infection, vectors and reservoirs. RESULTS: Thirty-two outbreaks (1965-2022) were analysed. The main foods involved in oral transmission outbreaks are homemade fruit juices...
July 24, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Andrew Larkins, Mieghan Bruce, Rattanxay Phetsouvanh, Amanda Ash
OBJECTIVES: Taenia solium is ranked the most significant global foodborne parasite and the leading cause of epilepsy in low and middle-income countries. Diagnostic challenges have hampered disease control efforts to date and WHO has called for the development of risk mapping tools to assist endemic countries. This study describes the application of multicriteria decision analysis to map the risk of T. solium in Lao PDR and acts as a case study for other endemic countries. METHODS: Multicriteria decision analysis was completed using census data on relevant risk factors in Lao PDR...
July 20, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Adama I Ladu, Caroline Jeffery, Abubakar Farate, Abubakar G Farouk, Aisha M Abba, Adekunle Adekile, Imelda Bates
OBJECTIVE: In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), the spleen commonly enlarges during early childhood, but undergoes reduction in size and fibrosis from repeated episodes of vaso-occlusion and infarction. The rate of progression of this process varies markedly among these patients. The aim of current study was to explore clinical and laboratory factors associated with the preservation of the spleen among these patients. METHODS: Two hundred four patients with SCD (103 females; age 1-45 years) underwent abdominal ultrasonography at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria between October 2020 and November 2021 to assess for splenic visualisation and echotexture...
July 17, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Peter Löwenberg-Neto, Stephanie Winkelmann, Ágatha K Verzotto
OBJECTIVE: Biogeographic regionalization represents abstractions of the organisation of life on Earth, and can provide a large-scaled framework for health management and planning. We aimed at determining a biogeographic regionalization for human infectious diseases in Brazil, and at investigating non-mutually exclusive hypotheses predicting the observed regions. METHODS: Based on the spatial distributions of 12 infectious diseases with mandatory notification (SINAN database, 2007-2020, n = 15,839), we identified regions through a clustering procedure based on beta-diversity turnover...
July 11, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Kirbeliz Rebolledo-Ponietsky, Ali Al-Kassab-Córdova, Aldo Lucchetti-Rodríguez, Baltica Cabieses, Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Edward Mezones-Holguín
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) discontinuation time and therapeutic failure (TF) in Venezuelan immigrants with HIV that restart HAART. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective cohort study in a large hospital in Peru. We included Venezuelan immigrants who restarted HAART and were followed over at least 6 months. The primary outcome was TF. Secondary outcomes were immunologic (IF), virologic (VF) and clinical (CF) failures...
July 6, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Indu Ramachandra Rao, Ashika Bangera, Shankar Prasad Nagaraju, Srinivas Vinayak Shenoy, Ravindra Attur Prabhu, Dharshan Rangaswamy, Mohan Varadanayakanahalli Bhojaraja
The term chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) refers to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the absence of diabetes, long-standing hypertension, glomerulonephritis, obstructive uropathy or other apparent causes. An increasing number of CKDu cases have been reported from Latin America, Sri Lanka, India and others over the last two decades. These regional nephropathies share the following common attributes: (a) they affect low-to-middle income countries with tropical climates, (b) involve predominantly rural agricultural communities, (c) male predilection, (d) absence of significant proteinuria and hypertension, and (e) chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis on kidney biopsy...
July 4, 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Nosimilo Mlangeni, Olatunji Adetokunboh, Martina Lembani, Molebogeng Malotle, Vera Ngah, Peter S Nyasulu
OBJECTIVES: To summarise data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services available to farmworkers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to understand which HIV prevention and care services were accessed by farm workers in SSA. MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, CINAHL (EBSCO Host), Cochrane library, African Index Medicus, Scopus, Google Scholar, Open Grey, and Web of Science Proceedings Citation Index were searched. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they measured or reported on the presence of HIV workplace policy frameworks, guidelines, or programmes for HIV prevention, treatment and care services, and other treatment modalities specifically targeting farmworkers...
September 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
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August 2023: Tropical Medicine & International Health
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