Journals Tropical Medicine & Internatio...

Tropical Medicine & International Health
Jian M Tehrani, Ingmar A Vos, Robin Kisabacak, Marten K Topper, Jonathan Steinhorst, Richard Odame Phillips, Kabiru Mohammed Abass, Samuel Osei-Mireku, Charles Owusu Anokye, Joseph K Adu Poku, Ymkje Stienstra, Yaw Ampem Amoako
INTRODUCTION: Scabies is an underdiagnosed skin infestation caused by the Sarcoptes scabiei mite. The infection causes severe itching and a skin rash but can be effectively treated using topical or systemic drugs. Scabies outbreaks are commonly reported in resource-poor countries, including Ghana. Traditional healers play an important role in primary care in rural areas. The role of these traditional healers in the management of scabies has so far not been explored. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the perceptions of traditional healers regarding the causation and management of scabies...
April 10, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Madalitso D Zulu, Harrison Msuku, Christopher C Stanley, Vincent S Phiri, Hillary M Topazian, Jobiba Chinkhumba, Irving F Hoffman, Jonathan J Juliano, Don P Mathanga, Tisungane Mvalo
OBJECTIVES: A lumbar puncture (LP) procedure plays a key role in meningitis diagnosis. In Malawi and other sub-Saharan African countries, LP completion rates are sometimes poor, making meningitis surveillance challenging. Our objective was to measure LP rates following an intervention to improve these during a sentinel hospital meningitis surveillance exercise in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a before/after intervention analysis among under-five children admitted to paediatric wards at four secondary health facilities in Malawi...
April 7, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Rodney Itaki, Shalon Taufa
INTRODUCTION: Habitual betel quid chewing, a tobacco product, is a leading cause of oral cancer in Asia-Pacific countries where this practice is most prevalent. However, it is not well understood whether betel quid chewing is also a cause of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic literature review of peer-reviewed published studies evaluating the association between habitual betel quid use on the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: We searched PubMed for studies assessing the correlation between betel quid chewing and cardiovascular health...
March 31, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Milena Dropa, Jéssica Santiago Bispo da Silva, André Furugen César Andrade, Denis Hideki Nakasone, Marcos Paulo Vieira Cunha, Gesiane Ribeiro, Ronalda Silva de Araújo, Carlos Jesus Brandão, Barbara Ghiglione, Nilton Lincopan, Maria Inês Zanoli Sato, Terezinha Knöbl
The spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through multiple reservoirs is a global concern. Wastewater is a critical AMR dissemination source, so this study aimed to assess the persistence of resistance genetic markers in wastewater using a culture-independent approach. Raw and treated wastewater samples (n = 121) from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), a human hospital, a veterinary hospital, and a pig farm were monthly collected and concentrated by filtration. DNA was extracted directly from filter membranes, and PCR was used in the qualitative search of 32 antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs)...
March 28, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Jasantha Odayar, Jody Rusch, Joel A Dave, Diederick J Van Der Westhuizen, Elton Mukonda, Maia Lesosky, Landon Myer
OBJECTIVES: Transfers between health facilities of people living with HIV attending primary health care (PHC) including hospital to PHC facility, PHC facility to hospital and PHC facility to PHC facility transfers occur frequently, affect health service planning, and are associated with disengagement from care and viraemia. Data on transfers among people living with diabetes attending PHC, particularly transfers between PHC facilities, are few. We assessed the transfer incidence rate of people living with diabetes attending PHC, and the association between transfers between PHC facilities and subsequent HbA1c values...
March 21, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Clara Pinto Diniz, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Junior, Fernanda de Souza Nogueira Sardinha Mendes, Roberto Magalhães Saraiva, Henrique Horta Veloso, Andréa Rodrigues da Costa, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Andréa Silvestre de Sousa, Flavia Mazzoli-Rocha
OBJECTIVE: Inspiratory muscle strength (IMS) appears to be reduced in subjects with chronic Chagas heart disease (CHD), especially in the presence of heart failure (HF). However, only one study about IMS and inspiratory muscle endurance (IME) in those with CHD without heart failure is available. This study aimed to compare IMS and IME in subjects with CHD in the presence and absence of HF. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in which 30 CHD adult patients were divided into CHD-CC group (initial phase of CHD, without HF; n = 15) and CHD-HF group (advanced phase of CHD, with HF; n = 15)...
March 19, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Ake Pugkhem, Supot Kamsa-Ard, Siriporn Kamsa-Ard, Vor Luvira, Varisara Luvira, Vajarabhongsa Bhudhisawasdi
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a well-known and significant public health issue in northeastern Thailand; however, a link between pesticide exposure (PE) and CCA risk has not yet been established. Therefore, our research objective was to investigate the relationship between PE and CCA risk. METHODS: A hospital-based matched case-control study was carried out. All cases (in-patients) and controls (out-patients) were volunteers at a tertiary hospital in northeast Thailand...
March 14, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Pedro Arcos González, Julián Cabria Fernández, Rick Kye Gan, Ángel Fernández Camporro, José Antonio Cernuda Martínez
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the impact of communicable diseases with epidemic potential in complex emergency (CE) situations, focusing on the epidemiological profile of incidence and mortality and exploring underlying factors contributing to increased epidemic risks. METHODS: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Review (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines, we conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1990 and 2022...
March 13, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Ganga S Moorthy, Matthew P Rubach, Michael J Maze, Regina P Refuerzo, Gabriel M Shirima, AbdulHamid S Lukambagire, Rebecca F Bodenham, Shama Cash-Goldwasser, Kate M Thomas, Philoteus Sakasaka, Nestory Mkenda, Thomas R Bowhay, Jamie L Perniciaro, William L Nicholson, Gilbert J Kersh, Rudovick R Kazwala, Blandina T Mmbaga, Joram J Buza, Venance P Maro, Daniel T Haydon, John A Crump, Jo E B Halliday
BACKGROUND: In northern Tanzania, Q fever, spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses, and typhus group (TG) rickettsioses are common causes of febrile illness. We sought to describe the prevalence and risk factors for these zoonoses in a pastoralist community. METHODS: Febrile patients ≥2 years old presenting to Endulen Hospital in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area were enrolled from August 2016 through October 2017. Acute and convalescent blood samples were collected, and a questionnaire was administered...
March 13, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Ai Ling Oh, Mohd Makmor-Bakry, Farida Islahudin, Chuo Yew Ting, Swee Kim Chan, Siew Teck Tie
OBJECTIVES: Treatment interruption is associated with poor tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes and increased drug resistance. To address the issue, we aimed to investigate the characteristics, predictors and consequences of treatment interruption. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study by retrieving 4 years (2018-2021) of TB patients' records at 10 public health clinics in Sarawak, Malaysia. Adult patients (≥18 years) with drug-susceptible TB were selected...
March 12, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
André de Souza Leandro, Lara Helena Pires-Vieira, Renata Defante Lopes, Açucena Veleh Rivas, Caroline Amaral, Isaac Silva, Rafael Maciel-de-Freitas, Wagner A Chiba de Castro
OBJECTIVES: Arboviruses, such as dengue (DENV), zika (ZIKV), and chikungunya (CHIKV), constitute a growing urban public health threat. Focusing on Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, their primary vectors, is crucial for mitigation. While traditional immature-stage mosquito surveillance has limitations, capturing adult mosquitoes through traps yields more accurate data on disease transmission. However, deploying traps presents logistical and financial challenges, demonstrating effective temporal predictions but lacking spatial accuracy...
March 12, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Valerie Rodrigue, Katie Gravagna, Jacqueline Yao, Vaidehi Nafade, Nicole E Basta
OBJECTIVES: Nipah and Hendra are deadly zoonotic diseases with pandemic potential. To date, no human vaccine or monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been licensed to prevent disease caused by these pathogens. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and describe all Phase I, II, and III clinical trials of vaccine candidates or mAbs candidates designed to prevent Nipah and Hendra in humans and to compare the characteristics of the vaccine candidates to characteristics outlined in the Target Product Profile drafted by the World Health Organisation as part of the WHO Research & Development Blueprint for Action to Prevent Epidemics...
February 28, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Mulugeta Molla Birhanu, Ayse Zengin, Rohina Joshi, Roger G Evans, Kartik Kalyanram, Kamakshi Kartik, Michaela A Riddell, Oduru Suresh, Velandai K Srikanth, Simin Arabshahi, Nihal Thomas, Amanda G Thrift
OBJECTIVE: We prospectively determined incident cardiovascular events and their association with risk factors in rural India. METHODS: We followed up with 7935 adults from the Rishi Valley Prospective Cohort Study to identify incident cardiovascular events. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for associations between potential risk factors and cardiovascular events. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) for risk factors were estimated using R ('averisk' package)...
February 25, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Dominic P Dee, Germain Lam, Andrew Edielu, Victor Anguajibi, Emily L Webb, Aidah Wamboko, Patrice A Mawa, Jennifer F Friedman, Hope Simpson, Amaya L Bustinduy
OBJECTIVES: Schistosomiasis is persistent in Lake Albert, Uganda, but local data are limited. This study aims to describe the local burden of moderate-to-heavy infection and associated morbidity in all ages and identify factors associated with these outcomes to guide further research. METHODS: This cross-sectional pilot study was conducted in July-August, 2022 in four village sites (Walukuba, Rwentale, Kyabarangwa and Runga) of the Praziquantel in Preschoolers (PIP) trial...
February 15, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Nienke N Hagedoorn, Michael J Maze, Manuela Carugati, Shama Cash-Goldwasser, Kathryn J Allan, Kevin Chen, Brieuc Cossic, Elena Demeter, Sarah Gallagher, Richard German, Renee L Galloway, Josipa Habuš, Matthew P Rubach, Kanae Shiokawa, Nadezhda Sulikhan, John A Crump
OBJECTIVES: Leptospira, the spirochaete causing leptospirosis, can be classified into >250 antigenically distinct serovars. Although knowledge of the animal host species and geographic distribution of Leptospira serovars is critical to understand the human and animal epidemiology of leptospirosis, current data are fragmented. We aimed to systematically review, the literature on animal host species and geographic distribution of Leptospira serovars to examine associations between serovars with animal host species and regions and to identify geographic regions in need of study...
February 13, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Thao Thi Bich Nguyen, Dung Thi Bui, Bertrand Losson, Hafid Dahma, Anh Thi Tuyet Nguyen, Hung Van Nhu, Dung Trung Do, Pierre Dorny, Olivier Vandenberg, Veronique Dermauw
OBJECTIVE: Foodborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT), which infect the liver, lungs and intestines of humans, are an emerging public health concern in tropical countries including Vietnam. In northern Vietnam, Clonorchis sinensis is recognised as the most important species of the FZT. Up to now, small-scale studies conducted in the country have indicated that health education could improve participants' knowledge and practices related to clonorchiasis, however strong evidence is still lacking...
February 13, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Andreza Soares Nogueira, Monique Allana Chagas Garcia, Moises Batista da Silva, Patricia Fagundes da Costa, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade, Claudio Guedes Salgado, Josafá Gonçalves Barreto
OBJECTIVES: Cutaneous hyperpigmentation is one of the main adverse effects encountered in patients undergoing leprosy treatment with multidrug therapy (WHO-MDT). This adverse effect has been described as intolerable and capable of contributing to social stigma. The objectives of this study were to quantify the variation in skin colour induced by clofazimine during and after treatment and to assess the related stigma. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study objectively measured skin colour in 51 patients by reading the individual typology angle (ITA°) with a spectrophotometer, followed by the application of the Stigma Scale of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC)...
February 13, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Tuula Pelkonen, Irmeli Roine, Manuel Leite Cruzeiro, Markku Kallio, Heikki Peltola
INTRODUCTION: Although concomitant pneumonia is sometimes diagnosed in childhood bacterial meningitis, its role in the illness course and prognosis is not known. We examined these associations using prospectively collected data from Finland, Latin America and Angola. METHODS: This was a secondary descriptive analysis of prospectively collected data (clinical and laboratory findings at admission, during hospitalisation and outcome) from five clinical bacterial meningitis trials...
February 11, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Sanja Nel, Friede Wenhold, Tanita Botha, Ute Feucht
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants often have poor short- and long-term growth. Kangaroo mother care supports short-term growth, but longer-term outcomes are unclear. METHODS: This study analysed longitudinally collected routine clinical data from a South African cohort of preterm infants (born <37 weeks gestation) attending the outpatient follow-up clinic of a tertiary-level hospital (Tshwane District, South Africa) for 1 year between 2012 and 2019. At 1 year, small-for-gestational age (SGA) and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) infants were compared with regard to age-corrected anthropometric z-scores (weight-for-age [WAZ], length-for-age [LAZ], weight-for-length [WLZ] and BMI-for-age [BMIZ]) and rates of underweight (WAZ < -2), stunting (LAZ < -2), wasting (WLZ < -2) and overweight (BMIZ> + 2)...
February 8, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
Ramadhani Abdul, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Giulia Martelli, Kathleen Costigan, Patrobas Katambi, Anton Pozniak, Werner Maokola, Sayoki Mfinanga, Sabine Hermans
BACKGROUND: HIV services in Tanzania are facility-based but facilities are often overcrowded. Differentiated care models (DCM) have been introduced into the National Guidelines. We piloted a Community Health Worker (CHW)-led HIV treatment club model (CHW-DCM) in an urban region, and assessed its effectiveness in comparison to the standard of care (SoC, facility-based model), in terms of stability in care, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and treatment adherence. METHODS: In two clinics in the Shinyanga region, clients established on ART (defined as stable clients by national guidelines as on first-line ART >6 months, undetectable viral load, no opportunistic infections or pregnancy, and good adherence) were offered CHW-DCM...
January 27, 2024: Tropical Medicine & International Health
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