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Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715525/chronic-aspects-of-leprosy-neglected-but-important
#1
Diana N J Lockwood
The chronic aspects of leprosy are discussed here. They are a consequence of the peripheral nerve damage that affects many patients during their lifetime with leprosy. The peripheral nerve damage leaves people unable to feel and with weakness in their hands and feet. They are at risk of damaging their hands and feet, causing the disabilities and deformities that characterise late leprosy.More than 200 000 new leprosy patients are diagnosed globally each year. Better data are needed from cohort studies to estimate the number of patients developing nerve damage and modelling studies are needed to estimate the number of patients who develop disabilities...
January 31, 2019: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715523/the-global-burden-of-cholera-outbreaks-in-niger-an-analysis-of-the-national-surveillance-data-2003-2015
#2
S I Alkassoum, I Djibo, H Amadou, A Bohari, H Issoufou, J Aka, S Mamadou
Background: Niger has experienced multiple cholera outbreaks since the occurrence of cholera in West Africa in 1970-1971. Understanding the origins of these geographic variations at different scales in the region and in health districts is an essential step in the rational and operational fight against this disease. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all suspected cholera cases in Niger from 2003 to 2015. Data from 2010 to 2015 were reviewed to determine the number and percentage of stool specimens tested, with distribution by serotype...
January 31, 2019: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715511/epidemiology-of-chikungunya-based-on-laboratory-surveillance-data-india-2016-2018
#3
Manoj Murhekar, K Kanagasabai, Vishal Shete, Vasna Joshua, M Ravi, B K Kirubakaran, R Ramachandran, R Sabarinathan, Nivedita Gupta
Background: We analysed the laboratory surveillance data generated by the network of virology laboratories from January 2016 to July 2018 to describe the epidemiology of chikungunya in India. Methods: Suspected patients reporting to virology laboratories are investigated for the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) as evidence of recent infection. We analysed the data to describe the distribution of seropositive individuals by time, place and demographic characteristics...
January 31, 2019: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715509/antimicrobial-resistance-learning-lessons-from-antiparasitic-antibacterial-and-antimycobacterial-drug-resistance-in-low-income-settings
#4
Christopher J M Whitty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2019: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668857/genetic-diversity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-central-asian-strain-isolates-from-nepal-and-comparison-with-neighboring-countries
#5
Yogendra Shah, Ajay Poudel, Bhagwan Maharjan, Jeewan Thapa, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Hassan Mahmoud Diab, Basu Dev Pandey, Eddie Solo, Norikazu Isoda, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Chie Nakajima
Background: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an emerging threat for successful tuberculosis control worldwide. Central Asian Strain (CAS) has been reported as one of the dominant families contributing to MDR-TB in South Asia including Nepal, India and Pakistan. The aim of this study was to better understand the genetic characteristics of MDR-TB CAS family isolates circulating in Nepal and compare the results with neighboring countries. Methods: A total of 145 MDR-TB CAS family isolates collected in Nepal from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed by spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) analysis...
January 21, 2019: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668852/determinants-of-disposal-of-child-faeces-in-latrines-in-urban-slums-of-odisha-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Fiona Majorin, Corey L Nagel, Belen Torondel, Parimita Routray, Manaswini Rout, Thomas F Clasen
Background: Even among households that have access to improved sanitation, children's faeces often do not end up in a latrine, the international criterion for safe disposal of child faeces. Methods: We collected data on possible determinants of safe child faeces disposal in a cross-sectional study of 851 children <5 y of age from 694 households in 42 slums in two cities in Odisha, India. Caregivers were asked about defecation and faeces disposal practices for all the children <5 y of age in the household...
January 21, 2019: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668842/the-time-is-now-a-call-for-action-to-translate-recent-momentum-on-tackling-tropical-snakebite-into-sustained-benefit-for-victims
#7
Robert A Harrison, Nicholas R Casewell, Stuart A Ainsworth, David G Lalloo
Like the other WHO-listed Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), snakebite primarily affects rural, impoverished tropical communities that lack adequate health resources. The annual 138 000 deaths and 400 000 disabilities suffered by these subsistence farming communities means that snakebite is an additional cause and consequence of tropical poverty. Unlike most of the NTDs, however, snakebite is a medical emergency, and requires rapid treatment in a hospital equipped with effective antivenom, beds and appropriately trained staff...
January 21, 2019: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668820/biological-activity-of-artemisinin-naphthoquine-phosphate-on-schistosoma-haematobium-stages-and-the-vector-bulinus-truncatus
#8
Samar N El-Beshbishi, Samia El Bardicy, Menerva Tadros, Magda Ayoub, Amira Taman
Background: Schistosoma haematobium infection is a major public health problem in most of Africa and the Middle East and praziquantel remains the only drug used for schistosomiasis control, therefore emergence of drug resistance is unavoidable. The antimalarial artemisinin-naphthoquine phosphate combination (co-ArNp) was recently documented to have promising effects on Schistosoma mansoni and its snail host. Methods: We conducted this in vitro study to assess the bioactivity of co-ArNp on S...
January 21, 2019: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624761/nasopharyngeal-colonisation-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-malnourished-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prevalence
#9
Holly C Smith, Esther German, Daniela M Ferreira, Jamie Rylance
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an intermittent commensal organism in the nasopharynx. Colonisation is a prerequisite for disease and malnourished children are especially susceptible to severe infection. This systematic review examines published prevalence rates of pneumococcal colonisation in the upper respiratory tract of chronically malnourished children <5 y of age. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus...
January 9, 2019: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624729/frequency-associated-factors-and-clinical-symptoms-of-intestinal-parasites-among-tuberculosis-and-non-tuberculosis-groups-in-iran-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#10
Ali Taghipour, Payam Tabarsi, Mohammad Reza Sohrabi, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Ali Rostami, Hamed Mirjalali, Narges Malih, Ali Haghighi
Background: Co-infection of human tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites infections (IPIs) is a public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. There is no data on this issue in Iran. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of IPIs among patients with TB in Iran. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 161 patients with TB and 181 healthy people (non-TB group). Standard parasitological methods including direct slide smear, formalin-ether concentration, trichrome, modified Ziehl-Neelsen and chromotrope 2R staining techniques were used for detection of intestinal protozoa and helminths...
January 9, 2019: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30624725/sero-molecular-detection-multi-locus-genotyping-and-clinical-manifestations-of-ocular-toxoplasmosis-in-patients-in-northwest-iran
#11
Mehdi Arshadi, Lame Akhlaghi, Ahmad Reza Meamar, Leila Alizadeh Ghavidel, Kamal Nasiri, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Farideh Mousavi, Zahra Rampisheh, Majid Khanmohammadi, Elham Razmjou
Background: Our goal was to use molecular techniques to verify and characterise clinical diagnoses of ocular toxoplasmosis. Clinical cases were evaluated against IgM and IgG Toxoplasma antibodies, and IgG avidity was tested. B1 gene was assessed for molecular detection, and multi-locus genotyping were conducted to type Toxoplasma infections. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 patients with suspected active ocular toxoplasmosis. Patients were examined by an ophthalmologist and clinical manifestations were recorded...
January 9, 2019: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30597114/self-medication-with-non-prescribed-pharmaceutical-agents-in-an-area-of-low-malaria-transmission-in-northern-tanzania-a-community-based-survey
#12
Julian T Hertz, Deng B Madut, Revogatus A Tesha, Gwamaka William, Ryan A Simmons, Sophie W Galson, Venance P Maro, John A Crump, Matthew P Rubach
Background: Self-treatment with antimicrobials is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Little is known about the prevalence of this practice where malaria transmission intensity is low, and little is known about the prevalence of self-treatment with other medications such as antihypertensives and antihyperglycemics. Methods: A two-stage randomized population-based cluster survey with selection proportional to population size was performed in northern Tanzania. Self-identified healthcare decision-makers from randomly selected households were asked to report instances of self-medication without a prescription in the preceding year...
December 31, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30597090/comparison-of-clinical-tools-for-dengue-diagnosis-in-a-pediatric-population-based-cohort
#13
Fredi A Diaz-Quijano, Gerusa M Figueiredo, Eliseu A Waldman, Walter M Figueiredo, Maria R A Cardoso, Sergio R C Campos, Angela A Costa, Claudio S Pannuti, Expedito J A Luna
Background: We aimed to estimate and compare the ability of clinical tools for dengue diagnosis in a pediatric population. Methods: We prospectively evaluated episodes of acute febrile syndrome identified during the follow-up of a population-based cohort of children and adolescents residing in a dengue endemic city. We estimated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC) for dengue diagnosis of three clinical tools: the summation of manifestations of the WHO case definition, a predefined clinical scale and a logistic regression model obtained in this study...
December 31, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30597107/is-strongyloides-seropositivity-associated-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-retrospective-case-control-study-in-an-east-london-nhs-trust
#14
Emma McGuire, Catherine Welch, Mark Melzer
Background: The association between diabetes and Strongyloides stercoralis remains controversial. We conducted a case-control study examining the association between diabetes and Strongyloides seropositivity in a large UK centre. Methods: Between January 2013 and October 2016, cases and controls were identified by positive and negative Strongyloides serology, respectively. Demographic, clinical and microbiological data were retrospectively collected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed...
December 28, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30576507/neonatal-vitamin-a-supplementation-and-immune-responses-to-oral-polio-vaccine-in-zimbabwean-infants
#15
James A Church, Sandra Rukobo, Margaret Govha, Marya P Carmolli, Sean A Diehl, Bernard Chasekwa, Robert Ntozini, Kuda Mutasa, Jean H Humphrey, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Andrew J Prendergast
Background: Micronutrient deficiencies may contribute to reduced oral vaccine immunogenicity in developing countries. We hypothesised that neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) would improve oral vaccine responses. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of infants recruited at birth to the Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies (ZVITAMBO) trial, a randomised controlled trial of single, high-dose NVAS vs placebo conducted in Zimbabwe between 1997-2001...
December 20, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30576480/assessors-assemble-the-need-for-harmonised-external-quality-assessment-schemes-for-emerging-diagnostic-methodologies-in-the-field-of-parasitology
#16
Jaya Shrivastava
Global travel and migration trends have meant a huge increase in the numbers of people exposed to tropical parasitic diseases. Thus, there is an increasing need for robust, reproducible and reliable diagnostic techniques in the field.Advanced molecular and lateral flow techniques have pushed the boundaries of clinical parasite diagnostics with their enhanced sensitivities and specificities. These emerging technologies are, however, not without their challenges, and recently there has been multiple evidence of a lack of consensus among protocols and results obtained by quality assessment of these novel technologies...
December 20, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30551211/the-burden-and-epidemiology-of-polyparasitism-among-rural-communities-in-kano-state-nigeria
#17
Salwa Dawaki, Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi, Init Ithoi
Background: Parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem worldwide, particularly among underprivileged communities in developing countries including Nigeria. The present study aimed to determine the epidemiology of polyparasitism (multiple parasitic infections) among rural communities in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Methods: A total of 551 individuals were screened for the presence of intestinal, urogenital and blood parasites by using different diagnostic techniques...
December 14, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30551206/risk-factors-for-death-among-patients-with-chikungunya-virus-infection-during-the-outbreak-in-northeast-brazil-2016-2017
#18
Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, José Reginaldo Pinto, Rosa Maria Salani Mota, Roberto da Justa Pires Neto, Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a current public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for death among patients with CHIKV infection during a large epidemic in northeast Brazil. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with all registered cases of CHIKV in Ceara, Brazil, during 2016-2017. Data from notification reports were collected, and we have compared non-survivors and survivors. Results: A total of 182 731 cases were reported, with a mean age of 38±19 years, and the majority was female (62%)...
December 14, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30551174/let-s-cut-to-the-chase-on-malaria-elimination-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion
#19
Sean E Hewitt
The Greater Mekong Subregion has made remarkable progress towards eliminating malaria in recent years, but efforts are now faltering in some areas. The development of tools to control forest-based transmission is taking too long and efforts to control malaria among high-risk mobile people are failing. If countries are to meet their elimination targets and prevent the spread of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria, urgent and radical changes will be required. This commentary proposes changes in the approach to the development and roll-out of new tools as well as changes to the management of elimination efforts targeting transmission in forests and forest-farms...
December 14, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30551144/snakebite-mitigation-project-of-the-madras-crocodile-bank-centre-for-herpetology-india-background-and-a-brief-summary-of-activities
#20
Romulus Whitaker
Snakebite is a serious problem in rural India where several highly venomous species are commonly found in and around agricultural areas where prey such as rodents and amphibians are abundant. Four snake species, referred to as the Big Four, are responsible for the most serious and fatal bites: spectacled cobra (Naja naja), Russell's viper (Daboia russelii), common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) and saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus). A polyvalent antivenom is made to treat these bites but public awareness and distribution of this life-saving drug is inadequate...
December 14, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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