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Thorax

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777899/targeting-il-17-attenuates-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-through-downregulation-of-%C3%AE-catenin
#1
Lei Wang, Jie Liu, Wang Wang, Xianmei Qi, Ying Wang, Bo Tian, Huaping Dai, Jing Wang, Wen Ning, Ting Yang, Chen Wang
BACKGROUND: The role of interleukin 17 (IL-17) in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) remains unclear. This study is designed to explore whether IL-17 is a potential target for HPH treatment. METHODS: Clinic samples from the lung tissue and serum were obtained from qualified patients. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and/or ELISA were used to measure the expression of relevant proteins. HPH models were established in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and IL-17 -/- mice and were treated with exogenous recombinant mouse IL-17 (rmIL-17) or an IL-17 neutralising antibody...
February 18, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777898/help-hinder-hide-and-harm-what-can-we-learn-from-the-interactions-between-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-aureus-during-respiratory-infections
#2
Dominique Hope Limoli, Lucas R Hoffman
Recent studies of human respiratory secretions using culture-independent techniques have found a surprisingly diverse array of microbes. Interactions among these community members can profoundly impact microbial survival, persistence and antibiotic susceptibility and, consequently, disease progression. Studies of polymicrobial interactions in the human microbiota have shown that the taxonomic and structural compositions, and resulting behaviours, of microbial communities differ substantially from those of the individual constituent species and in ways of clinical importance...
February 18, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777897/incidence-of-second-and-higher-order-smoking-related-primary-cancers-following-lung-cancer-a-population-based-cohort-study
#3
Matthew E Barclay, Georgios Lyratzopoulos, Fiona M Walter, Sarah Jefferies, Michael D Peake, Robert C Rintoul
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer 5-year survival has doubled over 15 years. Although the risk of second primary cancer is recognised, quantification over time is lacking. We describe the incidence of second and higher order smoking-related primary cancers in lung cancer survivors, identifying high-incidence groups and how incidence changes over time from first diagnosis. METHODS: Data on smoking-related primary cancers (lung, laryngeal, head and neck, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and bladder) diagnosed in England between 2000 and 2014 were obtained from Public Health England National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service...
February 18, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733329/can-t-see-the-wood-for-the-trees-confounders-colliders-and-causal-inference-a-clinician-s-approach
#4
EDITORIAL
Jennifer K Quint, Cosetta Minelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733328/can-t-see-the-wood-for-the-trees-confounders-colliders-and-causal-inference-a-statistician-s-approach
#5
EDITORIAL
Bin Huang, Rhonda Szczesniak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723184/-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-stimulates-nuclear-sphingosine-1-phosphate-generation-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-lung-inflammatory-injury
#6
David L Ebenezer, Evgeny V Berdyshev, Irina A Bronova, Yuru Liu, Chinnaswamy Tiruppathi, Yulia Komarova, Elizaveta V Benevolenskaya, Vidyani Suryadevara, Alison W Ha, Anantha Harijith, Rubin M Tuder, Viswanathan Natarajan, Panfeng Fu
INTRODUCTION: Dysregulated sphingolipid metabolism has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary disorders. Nuclear sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been shown to regulate histone acetylation, and therefore could mediate pro-inflammatory genes expression. METHODS: Profile of sphingolipid species in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and lung tissue of mice challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( PA ) was investigated. The role of nuclear sphingosine kinase (SPHK)2 and S1P in lung inflammatory injury by PA using genetically engineered mice was determined...
February 5, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723183/the-effect-of-radiographic-emphysema-in-assessing-lung-cancer-risk
#7
Patrick C Yong, Keith Sigel, Juan Pablo de-Torres, Grace Mhango, Minal Kale, Chung Yin Kong, Javier J Zulueta, David Wilson, Stacey-Ann Whittaker Brown, Christopher Slatore, Juan Wisnivesky
PURPOSE: Lung cancer risk models optimise screening by identifying subjects at highest risk, but none of them consider emphysema, a risk factor identifiable on baseline screen. Subjects with a negative baseline low-dose CT (LDCT) screen are at lower risk for subsequent diagnosis and may benefit from risk stratification prior to additional screening, thus we investigated the role of radiographic emphysema as an additional predictor of lung cancer diagnosis in participants with negative baseline LDCT screens of the National Lung Screening Trial...
February 5, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723182/interstitial-lung-abnormalities-erecting-fences-in-the-path-towards-advanced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#8
Gary M Hunninghake
Interstitial lung abnormalities, when present in members of undiagnosed family members recruited on the basis of familial interstitial pneumonia, or in undiagnosed research participants, have been associated with a syndrome that includes distinct sets of imaging abnormalities, restrictive physiological and exercise impairments, and an increased prevalence of histopathological findings, and genetic predictors, that have been noted in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Recent longitudinal studies have demonstrated that qualitative and quantitative assessments of interstitial abnormalities are associated with accelerated lung function decline, an increased rate of clinical diagnoses of interstitial lung disease and an increased rate of mortality...
February 5, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712022/a-lobulated-mass-in-the-left-lower-lobe-not-what-it-seems
#9
Naoki Kadota, Tsutomu Shinohara, Keishi Naruse, Hiroyuki Hino, Fumitaka Ogushi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30712021/micro-ct-of-tracheal-stenosis-in-trisomy-21
#10
Susan C Shelmerdine, Michael T Ashworth, Alistair D Calder, Nagarajan Muthialu, Owen J Arthurs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30696745/changing-causes-of-death-for-patients-with-chronic-respiratory-disease-in-england-2005-2015
#11
Alicia V Gayle, Eleanor L Axson, Chloe I Bloom, Vidya Navaratnam, Jennifer K Quint
BACKGROUND: Chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) are common, are increasing in prevalence, and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, we have limited knowledge on causes of death of patients with CRD in the general population. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated mortality rates and causes of death over time in patients with CRD. METHODS: We used linked primary care and mortality data to determine mortality rates and the most common causes of death in people with CRD (including asthma, bronchiectasis, COPD and interstitial lung diseases (ILD)) during 2005-2015 in England...
January 29, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686788/effectiveness-of-school-based-self-management-interventions-for-asthma-among-children-and-adolescents-findings-from-a-cochrane-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Dylan Kneale, Katherine Harris, Vanessa M McDonald, James Thomas, Jonathan Grigg
INTRODUCTION: The evidence that teaching self-management techniques to children and young people with asthma in schools is effective has not, to date, been the subject of systematic review. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of intervention studies. Studies were eligible if they employed a randomised parallel-group design and were published in English from 1995 onwards. Participants included children with asthma aged 5-18 years who participated within their own school environment...
January 27, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30679265/multilevel-omics-a-next-step-on-the-way-to-understanding-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#13
EDITORIAL
Jurjan Aman, G Kees Hovingh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30674586/use-of-autologous-99m-technetium-labelled-neutrophils-to-quantify-lung-neutrophil-clearance-in-copd
#14
Nicola Tregay, Malcolm Begg, Anthony Cahn, Neda Farahi, Kathryn Povey, Sujith Madhavan, Rosalind Simmonds, Daniel Gillett, Chandra Solanki, Anna Wong, Joanna Maison, Mark Lennon, Glyn Bradley, Emily Jarvis, Marius de Groot, Fred Wilson, Judith Babar, A Michael Peters, Edith M Hessel, Edwin R Chilvers
RATIONALE: There is a need to develop imaging protocols which assess neutrophilic inflammation in the lung. AIM: To quantify whole lung neutrophil accumulation in (1) healthy volunteers (HV) following inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline and (2) patients with COPD using radiolabelled autologous neutrophils and single-photon emission computed tomography/CT (SPECT/CT). METHODS: 20 patients with COPD (Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) stages 2-3) and 18 HVs were studied...
January 23, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661024/secondhand-smoke-alters-arachidonic-acid-metabolism-and-inflammation-in-infants-and-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#15
Benjamin T Kopp, Rohan Thompson, Jeeho Kim, Robert Konstan, Alejandro Diaz, Bennett Smith, Chandra Shrestha, Lynette K Rogers, Don Hayes, Dmitry Tumin, Frederick W Woodley, Octavio Ramilo, Don B Sanders, Judith A Groner, Asuncion Mejias
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms that facilitate early infection and inflammation in cystic fibrosis (CF) are unclear. We previously demonstrated that children with CF and parental-reported secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) have increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. SHSe hinders arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites that mediate immune function in patients without CF, and may influence CF immune dysfunction. We aimed to define SHSe's impact on inflammation mediators and infection in children with CF...
January 19, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661023/wandering-out-of-the-gwas-wilderness-a-new-pathway-paradigm-for-complex-disease-genetics
#16
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey Sturek, Imre Noth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661022/cluster-randomised-trial-of-a-nurse-led-advance-care-planning-session-in-patients-with-copd-and-their-loved-ones
#17
Carmen H M Houben, Martijn A Spruit, Hans Luyten, Herman-Jan Pennings, Vivian E M van den Boogaart, Jacques P H M Creemers, Geertjan Wesseling, Emiel F M Wouters, Daisy J A Janssen
RATIONALE: Advance care planning (ACP) is uncommon in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To assess whether a nurse-led ACP-intervention can improve quality of patient-physician end-of-life care communication in patients with COPD. Furthermore, the influence of an ACP-intervention on symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients and loved ones was studied. Finally, quality of death and dying was assessed in patients who died during 2-year follow-up...
January 19, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661021/impact-of-organisation-and-specialist-service-delivery-on-lung-cancer-outcomes
#18
Jana Bhavani Adizie, Aamir Khakwani, Paul Beckett, Richard Hubbard, Neal Navani, Susan V Harden, Ian Woolhouse
INTRODUCTION: Data from the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) often show variation in outcomes between lung cancer units which are not entirely explained by case mix. We explore the association between the organisation of services and patient outcome. METHODS: Details of service provision were collected via an electronic survey in June 2017. An overall organisational score derived from eleven key service factors from national lung cancer commissioning guidance was calculated for each organisation...
January 19, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661020/clinical-challenges-in-a-patient-with-two-braf-v600e-mutated-diseases
#19
Ella Willenbacher, Wolfgang Willenbacher, Judith Loeffler-Ragg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2019: Thorax
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661019/early-specialist-palliative-care-on-quality-of-life-for-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Fraser Brims, Samal Gunatilake, Iain Lawrie, Laura Marshall, Carole Fogg, Cathy Qi, Lorraine Creech, Nicola Holtom, Stephanie Killick, Bernard Yung, David Cooper, Louise Stadon, Peter Cook, Elizabeth Fuller, Julie Walther, Claire Plunkett, Andrew Bates, Carolyn Mackinlay, Anil Tandon, Nicholas A Maskell, Karen Forbes, Najib M Rahman, Stephen Gerry, Anoop J Chauhan
PURPOSE: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has a high symptom burden and poor survival. Evidence from other cancer types suggests some benefit in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with early specialist palliative care (SPC) integrated with oncological services, but the certainty of evidence is low. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, randomised, parallel group controlled trial comparing early referral to SPC versus standard care across 19 hospital sites in the UK and one large site in Western Australia...
January 19, 2019: Thorax
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