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Stem Cells and Development

Yang Guo, Zhenzhen Zhang, Xiaogang Xu, Zhenyu Xu, Shibing Wang, Dongsheng Huang, Yifei Li, Xiaozhou Mou, Fanlong Liu, Charlie Xiang
Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) have potential applications in cancer therapy due to their ability to replicate and induce tumor cell death. However, their clinical application has been limited by the lack of efficient cell based delivery systems that can provide protection from immune attack and prevent virus clearance by neutralizing antibodies. We previously demonstrated that menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MenSCs) can specifically target tumor cells and serve as a novel drug delivery platform...
April 16, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Shengxian Liang, Nuoya Yin, Francesco Faiola
The human central nervous system (CNS) is very sensitive to perturbations, since it performs sophisticated biological processes and requires cooperation from multiple neural cell types. Subtle interference from exogenous chemicals, such as environmental pollutants, industrial chemicals, drug components, food additives and cosmetics' constituents, may initiate severe developmental neural toxicity (DNT). Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based neural differentiation assays provide effective and promising tools to help evaluate potential DNT caused by those toxicants...
April 16, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Tao Tao, Zheng Li, Xiao-Ling Chu, Wen-Juan Zhu, Yang Xu, De-Pei Wu, Xiao Ma, Sheng-Li Xue
Our previous studies demonstrated promising outcomes after haploidentical donor transplant combined with unrelated umbilical cord blood (haplo-cord-HSCT) for hematological disorders. However, clinical profiling regarding chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) has not yet been fully described under this protocol. This study analyzed the clinical characteristics of cGVHD among 300 patients with hematological malignancies who received haplo-cord-HSCT between January 2012 and July 2016 at our center. During the follow-up, the 5-year cumulative incidence of cGVHD based on the National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria was 32...
April 12, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Jie Zhang, Hong Ding, Xinfeng Liu, Yunfei Sheng, Xinqiang Liu, Chunmiao Jiang
Dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), which are the stem cells present in the dental follicle tissue of the tooth germ and are derived from the neural crest, are the direct precursor cells of periodontal tissues and can form the periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone proper in the late stage of tooth development. DFSCs have the ability to achevie osteogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, neural, and cardiomyocytic differentiation in a specific induced environment. Recently, isolated dental follicle epithelial stem cells from DFSCs were also found to have the ability to form salivary gland cells and ductal cells...
April 10, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Xiaoming Li, Jinhui Wu, Shu Liu, Ke Zhang, Xiong Miao, Jingfeng Li, Zhicai Shi, Yang Gao
Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression correlates with age-related osteoporosis, which impairs bone formation by regulating osteoblastic activity, thus leading to age-related bone loss. In this study, we observed that miR-384-5p was significantly upregulated in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from aged rats as compared with BMSCs from young rats. In vitro functional assays revealed that overexpression of miR-384-5p in young BMSCs inhibited osteogenic differentiation and accelerated senescence, whereas a knockdown of miR-384-5p in aged BMSCs had the opposite effects...
April 5, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Zhiyao Yuan, Yifeng Bian, Xiaojie Ma, Zichun Tang, Ning Chen, Ming Shen
Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) are promising seed cells with great advantages in promoting angiogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying angiogenesis facilitated by HAMSCs are still unclear. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 is involved in many biological processes, such as enhancing angiogenesis and proliferation, invasion, and migration of cancer cells. In this study, we constructed HAMSCs of stable low-expression H19 (HAMSC-shH19) and the scramble control (HAMSC-shNC) using lentiviral vectors and in a 3D co-culture with HUVECs to investigate the effect of H19 knockdown in HAMSCs on angiogenesis...
April 2, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Salvatore Desantis, Gianluca Accogli, Maria Albrizio, Roberta Rossi, Fausto Cremonesi, Anna Lange Consiglio
Equine amniotic mesenchymal cells (eAMCs) are involved in many mechanisms in tissue regenerative processes. Their secreted vesicles are important effectors in a wide array of biological processes and contribute to in vivo healing of equine tendon lesions and endometrial inflammation. Glycoconjugates are involved in cellular recognition and in the efficient uptake of extracellular vesicles (EVs) by recipient cells. In this study, we evaluated the surface glycosylation pattern of eAMCs and their extracellular vesicles (eAMC-EVs) released in conditioned medium (CM)...
March 22, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Hojin Choi, Na-Young Choi, Hyun-Hee Park, Kyu-Yong Lee, Young Joo Lee, Seong-Ho Koh
Cerebral infarction is one of the major causes of severe morbidity and mortality, and thus, research has focused on developing treatment options for this condition. Zinc (Zn) is an essential element in the central nervous system and has several neuroprotective effects in the brain. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective effects of Zn on neural stem cells (NSCs) exposed to hypoxia. After treatment with several concentrations of Zn, the viability of NSCs under hypoxic conditions was measured by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, trypan blue staining, and a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay...
March 21, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Yu Shi, Yuqi Yang, Qinyu Guo, Qiuzhi Gao, Ying Ding, Hua Wang, Wenrong Xu, Bin Yu, Mei Wang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Wei Zhu
Cardioprotective effects of exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSC-exosomes) post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) have been reported in our previous study. It is known that fibroblasts are pro-inflammatory phenotypes while myofibroblasts are anti-inflammatory phenotypes. This study aimed to investigate whether hucMSC-exosomes promoted cardiac fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation in inflammatory environments and protected cardiomyocytes. Rats were performed by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and underwent intramyocardial injection of hucMSC-exosomes or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in surgery...
March 21, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Sherri M Biendarra-Tiegs, Xing Li, Dan Ye, Emma B Brandt, Michael J Ackerman, Timothy J Nelson
The ability to accurately phenotype cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is essential for their application in modeling developmental and disease processes, yet also poses a particular challenge without the context of anatomical location. Our specific objective was to determine if single cell gene expression was sufficient to predict electrophysiology of iPSC-derived cardiac lineages, in order to evaluate the concordance between molecular and functional surrogate markers. To this end, we used the genetically encoded voltage indicator ArcLight to profile hundreds of hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), thus identifying patterns of electrophysiological maturation and increased prevalence of cells with atrial-like action potentials between Days 11 and 42 of differentiation...
March 20, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Feng Hong, Mengxue Zhao, Lei Zhang, Linyin Feng
Epigenetic modifications play an important role in neural development. Trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) is a repressive epigenetic mark that mediates tissue development. Here, we demonstrated that H3K27me3 and histone methyl-transferase Ezh2 regulated the development of dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. We found that H3K27me3 increased during ventral midbrain derived neural stem cells (VM-NSCs) differentiation. However, histone demethylase selective inhibitor GSK-J1 increased H3K27me3 level and decreased the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)...
March 19, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Simona Delle Monache, Stefano Martellucci, Letizia Clementi, Fanny Pulcini, Francesca Santilli, Cecilia Mei, Luca Piccoli, Adriano Angelucci, Vincenzo Mattei
Dental pulp has revealed as an accessible and rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and its biological potential is currently under intense investigation. MSCs from dental pulp (DPSCs) have been indicated as a heterogeneous population oriented not only in repairing dentine but also in maintaining vascular and nervous homeostasis of the teeth. We sought to verify the phenotype of cells isolated from dental pulp of young donors and to investigate in vitro their role as pericyte-like cells. Specifically, we evaluated how culture conditions can modulate expression of pericyte markers in DPSCs and their capacity to stabilize endothelial tubes in vitro...
March 19, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Wonjin Yun, Wonjun Hong, Daryeon Son, Hui-Wen Liu, Seung-Soo Kim, Minji Park, In Yong Kim, Dae-Sung Kim, Gwonhwa Song, Seungkwon You
Engraftment of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), which form myelinating oligodendrocytes, has the potential to treat demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. However, conventional strategies for generating oligodendrocytes have mainly focused on direct differentiation into forebrain- or spinal cord-restricted oligodendrocytes without establishing or amplifying stem/progenitor cells. Taking advantage of a recently established culture system, we generated expandable EN1- and GBX2-positive glial-restricted progenitor-like cells (GPLCs) near the anterior hindbrain...
March 18, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Jasin Taelman, Mina Popovic, Monika Bialecka, Laurentijn Tilleman, Sharat Warrier, Margot Van der Jeught, Björn Menten, Dieter Deforce, Petra De Sutter, Kuniya Abe, Bjorn Heindryckx, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold great value for future clinical applications. However, standard culture conditions maintain hESCs in a primed state, which bears heterogeneity in pluripotency and a tendency for spontaneous differentiation. To counter these drawbacks, primed hESCs have been converted to a naive state, but this has restricted the efficiency of existing directed differentiation protocols. In mouse, WNT inhibition by IWP2 together with a higher dose of FGF2 (12 ng/ml) in DMEM/F12 basal medium (DhiFI) markedly improved derivation and maintenance of primed mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs)...
March 2, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Xia Huang, Feilong Wang, Chen Zhao, Sheng Yang, Qianyu Cheng, Yingying Tang, Fugui Zhang, Yan Zhang, Wenping Luo, Chao Wang, Pengfei Zhou, Stephanie Kim, Guowei Zuo, Ning Hu, Ruidong Li, T-C He, Hongmei Zhang
Tooth development is regulated by sequential and reciprocal epithelium-mesenchymal interactions and their related molecular signaling pathways, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Among the 14 types of BMPs, BMP9 (as known as, GDF2) is one of the most potent BMPs to induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The purpose of this study was to examine potential roles of BMP9 signaling in tooth development. Firstly, we detected the expression pattern of BMP9 in tooth germ during postnatal tooth development, and found that BMP9 was widely expressed in odontoblasts, ameloblasts, dental pulp cells and osteoblasts in alveolar bones...
February 28, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Xiaona Chu, Bing Xu, Hongyu Gao, Bai-Yan Li, Yunlong Liu, Jill L Reiter, Yue Wang
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improve cardiac function after ischemia/reperfusion injury, in part due to the release of cytoprotective paracrine factors. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed in MSCs and regulates the expression of cytoprotective factors, cytokines, and chemokines. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation of TLR4 activates two distinct signaling pathways that are either MyD88-dependent or MyD88-independent/TRIF-dependent. While it was reported previously that LPS treatment improved MSC-mediated cardioprotection, the mechanism underlying such improved effect remains unknown...
February 27, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Yonghuai Feng, Rongjia Zhu, Jing Shen, JImin Wu, Wenyi Lu, Jiamin Zhang, Jing Zhang, Kai-Yan Liu
Tunnelling nanotubes (TNTs) are newly discovered tubular structures between two distant cells that facilitate the intercellular exchange of signals and components. Recent reports show that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can rescue injured target cells and promote recovery from a variety of stresses via TNT-mediated mitochondrial transfer. In this study, we explored how TNTs form between bone marrow MSCs and endothelial cells by using a human umbilical cord vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cell model. TNT formation between MSCs and HUVECs could be induced by treating HUVECs with Cytarabine (Ara-C), and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) could transfer mitochondria to injured HUVECs through TNTs...
February 27, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Rachel Oldershaw, William Andrew Owens, Rachel Sutherland, Martin Linney, Rachel Liddle, Lissette Magana, Gendie Elizabeth Lash, Jason Gill, Gavin Richardson, Annette Meeson
Cardiac stem/progenitors are being used in the clinic to treat patients with a range of cardiac pathologies. However, improvements in heart function following treatment have been reported to be variable, with some showing no response. This discrepancy in response remains unresolved. MSCs have been highlighted as a regenerative tool as these cells display both immunomodulatory and pro-regenerative activity. The purpose of this study was to derive a cardiac MSC population to provide an alternative/support to current therapies...
February 26, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Leila Mirzaeian, Poopak Eftekhari-Yazdi, Fereshteh Esfandiari, Farideh Eivazkhani, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Ashraf Moini, Rouhollah Fathi
The peritoneum mesothelium lines body cavities and has the same origin as ovarian surface epithelium with probable existence of peritoneum mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs). In the present research, PMSCs were isolated from peritoneum and differentiated into ovarian cell like cells using human follicular fluid (HFF) and human cumulus conditioned medium (HCCM). Anterior abdominal wall and intestinal peritoneum explants were used for cells isolation and cultured in DMEM. After passage 3, purified PMSCs were assessed for morphology, proliferation rate and cell viability...
February 15, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Mikiya Beppu, Takayuki Nakagomi, Toshinori Takagi, Akiko Nakano-Doi, Rika Sakuma, Yoji Kuramoto, Kotaro Tatebayashi, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Shinichi Yoshimura
There is compelling evidence that the mature central nervous system (CNS) harbors stem cell populations outside conventional neurogenic regions. We previously demonstrated that brain pericytes (PCs) in both mouse and human exhibit multipotency to differentiate into various neural lineages following cerebral ischemia. Pericytes are found throughout the CNS, including cerebellum, but it remains unclear whether cerebellar PCs also form ischemia-induced multipotent stem cells (iSCs). Here we demonstrate that putative iSCs can be isolated from post-stroke human cerebellum (cerebellar iSCs: cl-iSCs)...
February 15, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
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