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Sleep Medicine

Oliviero Bruni, Shannon Sullivan, Christian Guilleminault
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2019: Sleep Medicine
Joanna E MacLean
AIM: To highlight Canada's contributions to the assessment and treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea as well as outline the current state of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea in Canada. METHODS: A search was conducted in MEDLINE (Ovid) using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and free-text terms for 'child' and 'obstructive sleep apnea' with subsequent 'human' limit. The results were reviewed to identify publications where any author's listed a Canadian institution...
January 23, 2019: Sleep Medicine
Addo Boafo, Roseanne Armitage, Stephanie Greenham, Paniz Tavakoli, Alyson Dale, Ashley Nixon, Alexandre Lafrenière, Laura B Ray, Joseph De Koninck, Rébecca Robillard
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Rates of suicide attempts in Canadian youths are concerning. Adolescence is a sensitive period for the emergence of both sleep and mood problems, two major risk factors for suicidality. This naturalistic study aimed to define the sleep profile of adolescents under the combined influence of suicidality, depression and pharmacotherapy during hospitalization for a suicidal crisis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Seventeen suicidal adolescents (15.0 + 1.2years, 82% females) with major depression were recruited from a Canadian pedopsychiatric inpatient unit...
January 9, 2019: Sleep Medicine
Patricia Franco, Aurore Guyon, Camille Stagnara, Sophie Flori, Flora Bat-Pitault, Jian-Sheng Lin, Hugues Patural, Sabine Plancoulaine
BACKGROUND: Few studies on the relationship between sleep quantity and/or quality and cognition have been conducted among preschoolers from the healthy general population. We aimed to identify, among 3-year-old children, early polysomnography (PSG) sleep factors associated with estimated intelligence quotient (IQ) using the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale Intelligence-III test (WPPSI-III) and its indicators: full-scale (FISQ), verbal (VIQ), and performance (PIQ) intelligence quotients...
January 5, 2019: Sleep Medicine
Stacey Quo, Lauren F Lo, Christian Guilleminault
INTRODUCTION: Midface retrusion creates a size deficiency problem in the upper airway that has been improved in children using surgical midface advancement and orthopedic protraction of the maxilla. The results of these treatments have been mostly promising at enlarging the pharyngeal airway. Recently introduced bone anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) uses implant inserted devices in the jaws to pull the maxilla forward against a backward pressure to the lower jaw. This is a pilot study that examines the use of BAMP as a strategy to treat maxillary retrusion, malocclusion and children with obstructive sleep apnea...
December 26, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Rébecca Robillard, Teena Chase, Darren Courtney, Marcus Ward, Joseph De Koninck, Elliott K Lee
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: A considerable subgroup of adolescents does not respond to standard antidepressant treatments. There are some indications that sleep disordered breathing may contribute to refractory depression in adults, but little is known about how it may relate to the course of depressive disorders in adolescents. Focussing on a group of Canadian adolescents with treatment resistant depression (TRD), this study aimed to investigate how the severity of residual depressive symptoms following unsuccessful antidepressant trials relates to breathing disturbances during sleep...
December 25, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Sing Chen Yeo, Anna Mini Jos, Christina Erwin, Su Mei Lee, Xuan Kai Lee, June C Lo, Michael W L Chee, Joshua J Gooley
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between sleep duration and health-related measures, and factors associated with short sleep, in adolescents in an East Asian society with strong emphasis on academic achievement. METHODS: Adolescents aged 13-19 years (n = 2346) from eight schools in Singapore (five local, three international) took part in a cross-sectional survey of sleep habits, school life, and health. Self-rated health, overweight (International Obesity Task Force Criteria), and depression symptoms were compared in adolescents with short (<7 h), moderately short (7 to <8 h), or an appropriate amount of sleep (8-10 h) on school nights...
December 17, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Paola Pirelli, Ezio Fanucci, Aldo Giancotti, Michele Di Girolamo, Christian Guilleminault
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the skeletal effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy performed using teeth as anchors, in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) children, by low-dose computed tomography (CT) of the midpalatal suture opening, maxillary base width, nasal cavities width, first molar angulation and, unlike most studies in the literature, on the pterygoid processes distance. METHODS: Fourteen children (mean age 8.68 years) with OSA presenting a malocclusion characterized by upper-jaw contraction had 16-Multislice CT (MSCT) scans taken before (T0) and after (T1) RME...
December 16, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Mauricio Zambrano, Leslie V Simon, Gautam V Matcha, Pablo R Castillo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence of an association between sleep disorders and extracranial atherosclerosis is limited and has not been studied in remote rural settings, where living conditions and cardiovascular risk factors are different than in urban centers. We assessed the relationship between the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and sleep quality in stroke-free individuals aged ≥40 years living in rural Ecuador. METHODS: Applying a population-based study design, participants underwent face-to-face interviews using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to assess sleep quality, and sonographic examinations for measurement of the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)...
December 15, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Karen Spruyt
Sleep is a fairly diverse and complex construct to operationalize in a scientific and naturalistic context. We report a systematic review and meta-analysis of reviews published in the last 5 years on poor sleep and developmental outcomes. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, 42 articles (or 1117 studies) qualified. They reported outcomes related to poor sleep investigated as sleep disorders (38.1%), sleep 'in general' (26.2%), sleep duration (23...
December 15, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Mirja Quante, Neha Khandpur, Emily Z Kontos, Jessie P Bakker, Judith A Owens, Susan Redline
OBJECTIVE: Deficient sleep is highly prevalent in disadvantaged adolescents and contributes to a range of adverse health and behavioral outcomes. We examined mediating mechanisms and strategies that adolescents adopt to improve sleep, and possible levers for promoting sleep in this population. METHODS: We conducted three focus groups (N = 27 total, age 14-18 years) in adolescents living in low- and middle-income racially/ethnically diverse neighborhoods of Boston, Massachusetts...
December 15, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Stella Stabouli, Dimos Gidaris, Nikoleta Printza, John Dotis, Eleni Papadimitriou, Katerina Chrysaidou, Fotios Papachristou, Dimitrios Zafeiriou
OBJECTIVE: The impact of sleep-related disorders in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease on executive function performance has been scarcely studied. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of sleep-related disorders in chronic kidney disease pediatric patients, and to examine possible correlations with measures of executive function. METHODS: We performed a case-control study including 51 children with chronic kidney disease stages 2-5, aged 5-18 years, and 51 healthy controls...
December 14, 2018: Sleep Medicine
David Jacquier, Christopher John Newman
OBJECTIVE: Children with motor disabilities such as cerebral palsy or neuromuscular diseases present more sleep disorders than their typically developing (TD) peers. However, research on these populations has always been performed using historical normative datasets or controls such as siblings. Therefore, we assessed the sleep quality of children with motor disabilities in comparison with a large, contemporary, general population sample. METHODS: Demographic, medical, and the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) questionnaires were sent to parents of children aged 4-18 years and followed by our tertiary pediatric neurorehabilitation clinic, and to those of school-aged children in regional primary and secondary schools...
December 14, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Wentao Li, Carol Chi-Hei Kwok, Dominic Chun-Wan Chan, Amy Wing-Yin Ho, Chung-Shun Ho, Jihui Zhang, Yun Kwok Wing, Feng Wang, Lap Ah Tse
OBJECTIVE: This prospective cohort study captured the patterns of sleep, sleep-wake activity rhythm, and first-morning urinary melatonin in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy wore wrist actigraph for 168 h and collected first-morning void urine samples before treatment, during the first, and at the last cycle of chemotherapy. We converted actigraphy data into sleep duration, sleep efficiency, nighttime total wake time, percent rhythm, F-statistic, amplitude, mesor, and acrophase...
December 14, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Roberto Maestri, Elena Robbi, Marta Lovagnini, Claudio Bruschi, Maria Teresa La Rovere, Gian Domenico Pinna
OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that the ear is the site to monitor arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2) closest to carotid chemoreceptors, sleep studies almost invariably use finger probes. This study aimed to assess the timing and morphological differences between SpO2 signals at the ear and finger during Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) in heart failure (HF) patients. METHODS: We studied 21 HF patients with CSR during a 40-min in-laboratory resting recording...
December 14, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Jean M Twenge, Garrett C Hisler, Zlatan Krizan
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Excessive screen time in child and adolescent populations is associated with short sleep duration, but the unique effects of portable vs. non-portable electronic devices has received little attention. Moreover, it is unknown whether the effects of these devices change across childhood. To address these gaps, the current study compared the association of portable vs. non-portable electronic devices with sleep duration throughout childhood. METHODS: Data were from a 2016 national survey of the caregivers of 43,755 children and adolescents ages 0-17 administered by the U...
December 12, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Karin Gardner Johnson, Douglas Clark Johnson, Robert Joseph Thomas, Edward Feldmann, Peter K Lindenauer, Paul Visintainer, Meir H Kryger
OBJECTIVE: Apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), especially without arousal criteria, does not adequately risk stratify patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We describe and test scoring reliability of an event, Flow Limitation/Obstruction With recovery breath (FLOW), representing obstructive airflow disruptions using only pressure transducer and snore signals available without electroencephalography. METHODS: The following process was used (i) Development of FLOW event definition, (ii) Training period and definition refinement, and (iii) Reliability testing on 10 100-epoch polysomnography (PSG) samples and two 100-sample tests...
November 30, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Christian Guilleminault, Yu-Shu Huang, Wei-Chih Chin, Caroline Okorie
OBJECTIVE: To characterize sleep-disordered breathing patterns not related to hypoxia resulting in fragmented sleep in children. METHODS: We reviewed the polysomnogram (PSG) data of children with sleep complaints who were being evaluated for sleep-disordered breathing and had an apnea-hypopnea-index ≤ 3. These data were compared to the recordings of the same children with nasal CPAP administered for one night and to 60 control subjects (children without any sleep complaints)...
November 30, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Ahuti Das-Friebel, Nadine Perkinson-Gloor, Serge Brand, Julia F Dewald-Kaufmann, Alexander Grob, Dieter Wolke, Sakari Lemola
OBJECTIVE: Bedtime electronic media use and caffeine consumption are risk factors for insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality during adolescence, which are in turn risk factors for mental wellbeing. Our study tested the effectiveness of a brief school-based psychoeducative intervention to primarily increase sleep duration, by decreasing bedtime electronic media use and caffeine consumption. Secondary outcomes included improving sleep quality and difficulties, daytime tiredness, and mental wellbeing...
November 29, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Tommy K Begay, Michael A Grandner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Sleep Medicine
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