Jason B Brill, Bryan A Cotton, Megan Brenner, Juan Duchesne, Paula Ferrada, Tal Horer, David Kauvar, Mansoor Khan, Derek Roberts, Carlos Ordonez, Bruno Perreira, Artai Priouzram, Andrew Kirkpatrick
Trauma induced coagulopathy is associated with very high mortality, and hemorrhage remains the leading preventable cause of death after injury. Directed methods to combat coagulopathy and attain hemostasis are needed. The available literature regarding viscoelastic testing, including thrombelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), was reviewed to provide clinically relevant guidance for emergency resuscitation. These tests predict massive transfusion and developing coagulopathy earlier than conventional coagulation testing, within 15 minutes using rapid testing...
March 25, 2021: Shock
Maximilian Leiblein, Ramona Sturm, Niklas Franz, Nils Mühlenfeld, Borna Relja, Rolf Lefering, Ingo Marzi, Nils Wagner
BACKGROUND: The base excess (BE) parameter can be used as an indicator of mortality. However, study results on the influence of alcohol on the validity of BE as a prognostic parameter in alcohol-intoxicated patients are controversial. Thus, this study examined the hypothesis: An increasing blood alcohol level reduces the prognostic value of the Base Excess parameter on mortality. MATERIAL METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of the multi-centre database of the TraumaRegister DGU®, patients from 2015 to 2017 were grouped depending on their blood alcohol level (BAL) into a BAL+ and BAL- group...
March 23, 2021: Shock
Thorben Pape, Temitayo Opemipo Idowu, Valerie Maritta Etzrodt, Klaus Stahl, Benjamin Seeliger, Hermann Haller, Sascha David
BACKGROUND: Vascular barrier breakdown in sepsis represents a key component of the maladaptive host response to infection and the release of endothelial Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt-2) is a mechanistic driver of endothelial hyperpermeability. Angpt-2 is associated with morbidity and mortality but a targeted therapeutic approach is not available. We screened for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs that might have off-target effects decreasing Angpt-2 and therefore, ameliorating capillary leakage...
March 23, 2021: Shock
Alice G Vassiliou, Chrysi Keskinidou, Edison Jahaj, Parisis Gallos, Alexandros Zacharis, Nikolaos Athanasiou, Stamatios Tsipilis, Zafeiria Mastora, Ioanna Dimopoulou, Anastasia Kotanidou, Stylianos E Orfanos
INTRODUCTION: The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is a protein that regulates the protein C anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory pathways. A soluble form of EPCR (sEPCR) circulates in plasma and inhibits activated protein C (APC) activities. The clinical impact of sEPCR and its involvement in COVID-19 has not been explored. In this study, we investigated whether sEPCR levels were related to COVID-19 patients' requirement for hospitalization. METHODS: Plasma sEPCR levels were measured on hospital admission in 84 COVID-19 patients, and in eleven (11) non-hospitalized SARS-CoV2-positive patients approximately 6 days after reported manifestation of their symptoms...
March 23, 2021: Shock
An-Min Hu, Chao Hai, Hai-Bo Wang, Zhong-Heng Zhang, Ling-Bin Sun, Zhong-Jun Zhang, Hui-Ping Li
INTRODUCTION: Studies have shown nonlinear relationships between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and outcomes, with increased risk observed at both low and high blood pressure levels. However, the relationships between cumulative times at different SBP levels and outcomes in critically ill patients remain unclear. We hypothesized that an appropriate SBP level is associated with a decrease in adverse outcomes after intensive care unit (ICU) admission. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of data from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) III database, which includes more than 1,000,000 SBP records from 12,820 patients...
March 23, 2021: Shock
Brooke Barlow, Brittany D Bissell
We sought to review the pharmacology of vasoactive therapy and fluid administration in sepsis and septic shock, with specific insight into the physiologic interplay of these agents. A PubMed/MEDLINE search was conducted using the following terms (vasopressor OR vasoactive OR inotrope) AND (crystalloid OR colloid OR fluid) AND (sepsis) AND (shock OR septic shock) from 1965 to October 2020. A total of 1,022 citations were reviewed with only relevant clinical data extracted. While physiologic rationale provides a hypothetical foundation for interaction between fluid and vasopressor administration, few studies have sought to evaluate the clinical impact of this synergy...
March 23, 2021: Shock
Yun-Xue Yue, Jia-Yi Zhai, Hui-Bo Du, Li-Na Jiang, Li-Min Zhang, Chen Wang, Zhen-Ao Zhao, Chun-Hui Zhang, Zi-Gang Zhao
Vascular hypo-reactivity plays a critical role inducing organ injury during hemorrhagic shock. 17β-estradiol (E2) can induce vasodilation to increase blood flow in various vascular beds. This study observed whether E2 can restore vascular hypo-reactivity induced by hemorrhagic shock, and whether E2 effects are associated with RhoA - Rho kinase (ROCK)- myosin light chain kinase phosphatase (MLCP) pathway. The hemorrhagic shock model (40 ± 2 mmHg for 1 h, resuscitation for 4 h) was established in ovary intact sham operation (OVI), ovariectomized (OVX) and OVX plus E2 supplement female mice...
March 23, 2021: Shock
Anders Aneman, Petter Wilander, Frank Zoerner, Miklos Lipcsey, Michelle S Chew
We performed a systematic review to investigate the effects of vasopressor-induced hemodynamic changes in adults with shock. We applied a physiological approach using the interacting domains of intravascular volume, heart pump performance and vascular resistance to structure the interpretation of responses to vasopressors. We hypothesized that incorporating changes in determinants of cardiac output and vascular resistance better reflect the vasopressor responsiveness beyond mean arterial pressure alone.We identified 28 studies including 678 subjects in Pubmed, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases...
March 23, 2021: Shock
Tianyuan Jia, Shiwei Wang, Chengzhun Luo, Zida Wang, Guoxiang Liu, Zhaoming Shang, Xiaoye Lu, Qian Yang, Changqing Zhu
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest (CA) is recognized as a life-threatening disease; however, the initial resuscitation success rate has increased due to advances in clinical treatment. Levosimendan has shown potential benefits in CA patients. However, its exact function on intestinal and systemic circulation in CA or post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) remained unclear. This study preliminarily investigated the link between dynamic changes in intestine and systemic hemodynamics post-resuscitation after levosimendan administration...
March 10, 2021: Shock
Guang Fu, Tianmeng Chen, Junru Wu, Ting Jiang, Da Tang, Jillian Bonaroti, Julia Conroy, Melanie J Scott, Meihong Deng, Timothy R Billiar
Hemorrhagic shock with tissue trauma (HS/T) leads to the activation of a system-wide immune-inflammatory response that involves all organs and body compartments. Recent advances in single-cell analysis permit the simultaneous assessment of transcriptomic patterns in a large number of cells making it feasible to survey the landscape of immune cell responses across numerous anatomic sites. Here, we used single-cell RNA sequencing of leukocytes from the blood, liver, and spleen to identify the major shifts in gene expression by cell type and compartment in a mouse HS/T model...
March 10, 2021: Shock
Jessica C Cardenas
Thrombin is the central coagulation enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen to form insoluble fibrin blood clots. In vivo, thrombin production results from the concerted effort of plasma enzymatic reactions with essential contributions from circulating and vessel wall cells. The relative amount of thrombin produced directly dictates the structure and stability of fibrin clots, therefore sufficient thrombin generation is essential for normal hemostasis to occur. Examination of thrombin generation phenotypes among severely injury trauma patients reveals important relationships between the potential for generating thrombin and risks of bleeding and thrombotic complications...
March 4, 2021: Shock
Ralphe Bou Chebl, Nadim Kattouf, Mohamad Assaf, Gilbert Abou Dagher, Alaa Kassir, Dina Mahmassani, Rana Bachir, Mazen El Sayed
BACKGROUND: The weekend effect is the increased mortality in hospitalized patients admitted on the weekend. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of weekend admissions on septic shock patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of the 2014 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample Database (NEDS). Septic shock patients were included in this study using ICD-9-CM codes. Descriptive analysis was done, in addition to bivariate analysis to compare variables based on admission day...
February 25, 2021: Shock
Julie L Proctor, Juliana Medina, Parisa Rangghran, Pratistha Tamrakar, Catriona Miller, Adam Puche, Wei Quan, Turhan Coksaygun, Cinthia B Drachenberg, Robert E Rosenthal, Deborah M Stein, Rosemary Kozar, Feng Wu, Gary Fiskum
Rats exposed to hypobaria equivalent to what occurs during aeromedical evacuation within a few days after isolated traumatic brain injury exhibit greater neurologic injury than those remaining at sea level. Moreover, administration of excessive supplemental O2 during hypobaria further exacerbates brain injury. This study tested the hypothesis that exposure of rats to hypobaria following controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced brain injury plus mild hemorrhagic shock worsens multiple organ inflammation and associated mortality...
February 22, 2021: Shock
Mariane C G Leite-Avalca, Aleksander Zampronio, Christian Lehmann
Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction, caused by a dysregulated host response to an infection and can progress to septic shock, which represents a major challenge in critical care with a high mortality rate. Currently, there is no definitive treatment available for the dysregulated immune response in sepsis. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms may be useful for elucidating the molecular basis of sepsis and may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies...
February 22, 2021: Shock
Jong Min Lee, Seung Don Baek, Tae Hyun Kim, Hwa Ran Jeon, Jin Hee Han, Jai Won Chang
Polymyxin B hemoperfusion (PMX-HP) may improve the clinical outcomes of patients with sepsis and gram-negative bacteremia by reducing endotoxin levels. However, the recent studies with the variable degree of renal support have shown that the improvement of survival rate by PMX-HP remains unclear in such patients. Therefore, we investigated whether the addition of PMX-HP to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) could improve the survival rate than CRRT alone. This study included 231 patients with sepsis undergoing CRRT alone or PMX-HP with CRRT...
February 17, 2021: Shock
Takeshi Ebihara, Hisatake Matsumoto, Tsunehiro Matsubara, Hiroshi Matsuura, Tomoya Hirose, Kentaro Shimizu, Hiroshi Ogura, Sujin Kang, Toshio Tanaka, Takeshi Shimazu
INTRODUCTION: Cytokines compose a network and play crucial roles in the pathogenesis and prognosis of sepsis. Adipose tissue is an important immune endocrine organ that releases adipocytokines. This study aimed to evaluate adipocytokines in sepsis from a network perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study of 37 patients with sepsis and 12 healthy controls was conducted from February 2014 to July 2015. Blood samples were collected from patients on days 1 (within 24 h of diagnosis), 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, and 15 and from healthy controls...
February 17, 2021: Shock
Xavier Chapalain, Olivier Huet, Thibault Balzer, Agathe Delbove, Frédéric Martino, Sophie Jacquier, Pierre-Yves Egreteau, Cédric Darreau, Marjorie Saint-Martin, Nicolas Lerolle, Cécile Aubron
INTRODUCTION: Fluid administration is one of the first line of treatment for hemodynamic management of sepsis and septic shock. Studies investigating the effects of chloride-rich fluids including normal saline on renal function report controversial findings. METHODS: This is a prospective, observational, multicenter study. Patients with septic shock, defined according to Sepsis-2 definition were eligible. A "high-dose" of chloride was defined as a chloride intake greater than 18 g administrated within the first 48 h of septic shock management...
February 17, 2021: Shock
Yini Sun, Takehiko Oami, Zhe Liang, Ashley A Miniet, Eileen M Burd, Mandy L Ford, Craig M Coopersmith
Sepsis-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is mediated by disruption of the epithelial tight junction, which is closely associated with the peri-junctional actin-myosin ring. Genetic deletion of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) reverses intestinal hyperpermeability and improves survival in a murine model of intra-abdominal sepsis. In an attempt to determine whether these findings could be translated using a more clinically relevant strategy, this study aimed to determine if pharmacologic inhibition of MLCK using the membrane permeant inhibitor of MLCK (PIK) improved gut barrier function and survival following sepsis...
February 17, 2021: Shock
Suyan Li, Hui Guo, Xin Xu, Ranliang Hua, Qian Zhao, Jian Li, Jian Lv, Jianguo Li
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of four therapeutic methods to modify gut microbiota dysbiosis and brain dysfunction in septic rats. METHODS: Rats were treated with fecal microbiota transplantation, prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics after exposure to lipopolysaccharide. The diversity and composition of gut microbiota, electroencephalogram values, and the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the cortex were analyzed. RESULTS: Fecal microbiota transplantation was the most efficacious method to restore intestinal microbial diversity and exert the best corrective effects in modulating microbial composition in septic rats...
February 15, 2021: Shock
Hiroshi Kono, Naohiro Hosomura, Hidetake Amemiya, Hiromichi Kawaida, Shinji Furuya, Hidenori Akaike, Yoshihiko Kawaguchi, Makoto Sudo, Daisuke Ichikawa
BACKGROUND: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is associated with high mortality in patients with severe sepsis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of recombinant human thrombomodulin (rhTM) in septic patients undergoing continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF). Furthermore, effects of rhTM in acute lung injury, the first target organ in sepsis, was investigated using a sepsis model in rats. METHODS: Clinical laboratory data, and the DIC, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), and Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores were compared between patients undergoing CHDF alone (rhTM- group; n = 23 cases) and patients undergoing CHDF treated with rhTM (rhTM+ group; n = 21 cases)...
February 15, 2021: Shock
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