Ye Liu, Yiming Li, Dongxue Xu, Jing Zhang, Zhiyong Peng
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has swept over the world and causes thousands of deaths. Although the clinical features of COVID-19 become much clearer than before, there are still further problems with the pathophysiological process and treatments of severe patients. One primary problem is with the paradoxical immune states in severe patients with COVID-19. Studies indicate that Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can attack the immune system, manifested as a state of immunosuppression with a decrease in lymphocytes, whereas a state of hyperinflammation, presenting as elevated cytokine levels, is also detected in COVID-19...
January 13, 2021: Shock
Thomas Datzmann, Tamara Merz, Oscar McCook, Csaba Szabo, Peter Radermacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2021: Shock
Yan Geng, Qiang Ma, Yong-Sheng Du, Na Peng, Ting Yang, Shi-Yu Zhang, Feng-Fu Wu, Hua-Liang Lin, Lei Su
PURPOSE: Rhabdomyolysis (RM) has been associated with many viral infectious diseases, and associated with poor outcomes. We aim to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of rhabdomyolysis (RM) in patients with COVID-19. METHOD: This was a single-center, retrospective, cohort study of 1,014 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 at the Huoshenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China, between February 17 and April 12, 2020. RESULTS: The overall incidence of RM was 2...
January 13, 2021: Shock
Jenny Seilitz, Isabelle Grafver, Lars Kiszakiewicz, Ioannis Oikonomakis, Kjell Jansson, Birger Axelsson, Kristofer F Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Splanchnic vasodilation by inodilators is an argument for their use in critical cardiac dysfunction. To isolate peripheral vasoactivity from inotropy, such drugs were investigated, and contrasted to vasopressors, in a fixed low cardiac output (CO) model resembling acute cardiac dysfunction effects on the gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that inodilators would vasodilate and preserve the aerobic metabolism in the splanchnic circulation in low CO. METHODS: In anaesthetized pigs, CO was lowered to 60% of baseline by partial inferior caval vein balloon inflation...
January 13, 2021: Shock
MengQi Zhang, Kimberly F Macala, Alison Fox-Robichaud, Asher A Mendelson, Manoj M Lalu
In this mini-review we provide an overview of sex- and gender-dependent issues in both clinical and preclinical sepsis. The increasing recognition for the need to account for sex and gender in biomedical research brings a unique set of challenges and requires researchers to adopt best practices in conducting and communicating sex- and gender-based research. This may be of particular importance in sepsis given the potential contribution of sex bias in the failures of translational sepsis research in adults and neonates...
January 4, 2021: Shock
Julie Goswami, Taleen A MacArthur, Meera Sridharan, Rajiv K Pruthi, Robert D McBane, Thomas E Witzig, Myung S Park
There is increasing evidence that novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to a significant coagulopathy, a phenomenon termed "COVID-19 associated coagulopathy". COVID-19 has been associated with increased rates of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events, a source of significant morbidity and mortality in this disease. Further evidence suggests a link between the inflammatory response and coagulopathy associated with COVID-19. This presents a unique set of challenges for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of thrombotic complications...
December 29, 2020: Shock
Amin M Ektesabi, Keisuke Mori, James Tsoporis, Chirag Vaswani, Sahil Gupta, Chris Walsh, Amir K Varkouhi, Shirley H J Mei, Duncan J Stewart, W Conrad Liles, John Marshall, Pingzhao Hu, Thomas Parker, Claudia C Dos Santos
Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (MD) is an important pathophysiological feature of multiorgan failure caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Patients with MD continue to be managed in intensive care units with limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling disease pathogenesis. Emerging evidences supports the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) therapy for treating critically ill septic patients. Combining this with the known role that microRNAs (miRNAs) play in reversing sepsis-induced myocardial-dysfunction, this study sought to investigate how MSC administration alters miRNA expression in the heart...
December 29, 2020: Shock
Shuai Liu, Meihong Deng, Pinhua Pan, Heth R Turnquist, Bruce R Pitt, Timothy R Billiar, Li-Ming Zhang
IL-33 and WISP1 play central roles in acute lung injury (ALI) induced by mechanical ventilation with moderate tidal volume (MTV) in the setting of sepsis. Here, we sought to determine the inter-relationship between IL-33 and WISP1 and the associated signaling pathways in this process.We used a two hit model of cecal ligation puncture (CLP) followed by MTV ventilation (4 h 10 ml/kg) in wildtype, IL-33-/- or ST2-/- mice or wildtype mice treated with intratracheal antibodies to WISP1. Macrophages (Raw 264...
December 24, 2020: Shock
John W Keyloun, Tuan D Le, Anthony E Pusateri, Robert L Ball, Bonnie C Carney, Thomas Orfeo, Kathleen E Brummel-Ziedins, Maria C Bravo, Melissa McLawhorn, Lauren T Moffatt, Jeffrey W Shupp
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between burn injury and admission plasma levels of Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) and Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI), and their ability to predict 30-day mortality. BACKGROUND: SDC-1 and TFPI are expressed by vascular endothelium and shed into the plasma as biomarkers of endothelial damage. Admission plasma biomarker levels have been associated with morbidity and mortality in trauma patients, but this has not been well characterized in burn patients...
December 23, 2020: Shock
Sydnée L'Ecuyer, Kim Gilbert, Benjamin Brochu, Joseph Beyrouthy, Chao Liu, Caroline Bouchard, Marc-André Gagné, François Khazoom, Francis Bernard, Guy Rousseau, Emmanuel Charbonney
Secondary brain injury following hemorrhagic shock (HS) is a frequent complication in patients, even in absence of direct brain trauma, leading to behavioral changes and more specifically anxiety and depression. Despite pre-clinical studies showing inflammation and apoptosis in the brain after HS, none have addressed the impact of circulating mediators. Our group demonstrated an increased uric acid (UA) circulation in rats following HS. Since UA is implicated in endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory response, we hypothesized UA could alter the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and impact the brain...
December 23, 2020: Shock
John C Greenwood, David H Jang, Audrey E Spelde, Jacob T Gutsche, Jiri Horak, Michael A Acker, Todd J Kilbaugh, Frances S Shofer, John G T Augoustides, Jan Bakker, Benjamin S Abella
INTRODUCTION: Lactic acidosis after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is common and associated with an increase in postoperative morbidity and mortality. A number of potential causes for an elevated lactate after cardiopulmonary bypass including cellular hypoxia, impaired tissue perfusion, ischemic-reperfusion injury, aerobic glycolysis, catecholamine infusions, and systemic inflammatory response after exposure to the artificial cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. Our goal was to examine the relationship between early abnormalities in microcirculatory convective blood flow and diffusive capacity and lactate kinetics during early resuscitation in the intensive care unit...
December 23, 2020: Shock
Kerri Lopez, Andrew Suen, Yang Yang, Sheng Wang, Brittney Williams, Jing Zhu, Jiang Hu, Gary Fiskum, Alan Cross, Rosemary Kozar, Catriona Miller, Lin Zou, Wei Chao
BACKGROUND: Aeromedical evacuation can expose traumatically injured patients to low pressure (hypobaria) and hypoxia. Here we sought to assess the impact of hypobaria on inflammation, organ injury, and mortality in a mouse model of polytrauma. METHODS: Eight to 12 week-old male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to sham or polytrauma consisting of bowel ischemia by superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion, hindlimb muscle crush, and tibia fracture. Two hours after injury, animals were randomized to undergo either 6 hours of hypobaria or sea-level, room air conditions...
December 23, 2020: Shock
Sahil Gupta, James N Tsoporis, Song-Hui Jia, Claudia C Dos Santos, Thomas G Parker, John C Marshall
Host cells recognize molecules that signal danger using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) are the most studied class of PRRs and detect pathogen associated molecular patterns and danger associated molecular patterns. Cellular TLR activation and signal transduction can therefore contain, combat and clear danger by enabling appropriate gene transcription. Here we review the expression, regulation and function of different TLRs, with an emphasis on TLR-4, and how TLR adaptor protein binding directs intracellular signaling resulting in activation or termination of an innate immune response...
December 21, 2020: Shock
Cihan Bedel, Mustafa Korkut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2020: Shock
Tsunehiro Matsubara, Yutaka Umemura, Hiroshi Ogura, Hiroshi Matsuura, Takeshi Ebiharara, Hisatake Matsumoto, Kazuma Yamakawa, Kentarou Shimizu, Hideshi Okada, Takeshi Shimazu
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) secrete anti-inflammatory mediators that protect against acute inflammation. Current evidence suggests that BMMNC transplantation can reduce acute tissue injury caused by systemic inflammation and lung dysfunction. This study evaluated the role of BMMNCs in reducing systemic inflammatory responses to vascular endothelial injury in sepsis. Bone marrow cells were harvested from the tibias and femurs of twelve-week-old male Wistar rats; BMMNCs were separated by density centrifugation...
December 16, 2020: Shock
Stephanie Arnold, Sajeel A Shah, Simon J Cleary, Blaze G OʼShaughnessy, Richard T Amison, Kate Arkless, Clive P Page, Simon C Pitchford
Haemolysis that occurs in intravascular haemolytic disorders, such as sickle cell disease and malaria, is associated with inflammation and platelet activation. Alveolar haemorrhage, for example following primary blast lung injury (PBLI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), results in the escape of erythrocytes (RBCs) into alveolar spaces, where they subsequently lyse and release their intracellular contents. However, the inflammatory effects of RBCs in the airways are not fully understood. We hypothesized that RBCs in the airway induce an inflammatory response, associated with platelet activation...
December 9, 2020: Shock
Hiroshi Giga, Bin Ji, Kazuya Kikutani, Shuji Fukuda, Takashi Kitajima, Seishi Katsumata, Miho Matsumata, Tetsuya Suhara, Shigeto Yamawaki, Nobuaki Shime, Koji Hosokawa, Hidenori Aizawa
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a diffuse brain dysfunction associated with sepsis. The development of an effective strategy for early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention is essential for the prevention of poor prognosis of SAE. Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial protein implicated in steroidogenesis and inflammatory responses. Despite accumulating evidence that implicates TSPO in the neuroinflammatory response of the central nervous system, the possible role of TSPO in SAE remains unclear...
December 4, 2020: Shock
Nadine Beckmann, Fabian Schumacher, Burkhard Kleuser, Erich Gulbins, Vanessa Nomellini, Charles C Caldwell
Infection is a common and often deadly complication after burn injury. A major underlying factor is burn-induced immune dysfunction, particularly with respect to neutrophils as the primary responders to infection. Temporally after murine scald injury, we demonstrate impaired bone marrow neutrophil chemotaxis towards CXCL1 ex vivo. Additionally, we observed a reduced recruitment of neutrophils to the peritoneal after elicitation seven days after injury. We demonstrate that neutrophil ceramide levels increase after burn injury, and this is associated with decreased expression of CXCR2 and blunted chemotaxis...
December 1, 2020: Shock
Lauren S Kelly, Dijoia B Darden, Brittany P Fenner, Philip A Efron, Alicia M Mohr
Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) have both unique and common responses following hemorrhage, injury, and sepsis. HSPCs from different lineages have a distinctive response to these 'stress' signals. Inflammation, via the production of inflammatory factors, including cytokines, hormones, and interferons, has been demonstrated to impact the differentiation and function of HSPCs. In response to injury, hemorrhagic shock, and sepsis, cellular phenotypic changes and altered function occur, demonstrating the rapid response and potential adaptability of bone marrow hematopoietic cells...
November 23, 2020: Shock
Lu Li, Aihua Qin, Xiao Yang, Shuliang Zhou, Yun Luo, Fangfang Zhu, Bo Hu, Jianguo Li, Shuhan Cai, Zhiyong Peng
PURPOSE: We used lung ultrasonography to identify features of COVID-19 pneumonia and to evaluate the prognostic value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed lung ultrasonography on 48 COVID-19 patients in an ICU (Wuhan, China) using a 12-zone method. The associations between lung ultrasonography score, PaO2/FiO2, APACHE II, SOFA, and PaCO2 with 28-day mortality were analyzed and the receiver operator characteristic curve was plotted. RESULTS: 25...
November 23, 2020: Shock
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