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Han Wang, Ruiling Qin, Yanqin Cheng
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a life-threatening cardiopulmonary disorder. LncRNA-Ang362 (lnc-Ang362) regulates miR-221 and miR-222 in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, which can lead to pulmonary arterial hypertension. The present study was design to investigate the function and underlying mechanisms of lnc-Ang362 in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS: The expression of lnc-Ang362, miR-221 and miR-222 in 15 PAH patients and 10 healthy controls were measured by qRT-PCR...
July 15, 2019: Shock
Ina Lackner, Birte Weber, Deborah Knecht, Klemens Horst, Borna Relja, Florian Gebhard, Hans-Christoph Pape, Markus Huber-Lang, Frank Hildebrand, Miriam Kalbitz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to define the influence of trauma on cardiac glucose and fatty acid transport. The effects were investigated in vivo in a porcine mono- and polytrauma model and in vitro in human cardiomyocytes, which were treated simultaneously with different inflammatory substances, mimicking post-traumatic inflammatory conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the porcine fracture- and polytrauma model, blood glucose concentrations were measured by blood gas analysis during an observation period of 72 h...
July 15, 2019: Shock
Jessica I Goergens, Nicole M Heinen, Jan Zoller, Benedikt Preckel, Inge Bauer, Ragnar Huhn, Dirk Ebel, Annika Raupach
BACKGROUND: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Evidence suggests that hyperglycemia inhibits IPC-induced cardioprotection. The effects of hyperglycemia initiated during different phases of IPC on myocardial injury were characterized with emphasis on apoptosis and aggregation of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to 35 min of myocardial ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion...
July 11, 2019: Shock
Chau Tran Bao Vu, Arsa Thammahong, Hideo Yagita, Miyuki Azuma, Nattiya Hirankarn, Patcharee Ritprajak, Asada Leelahavanichkul
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial aspergillosis in patients with sepsis have emerged in the past few years. Blockade of PD-1/PD-L pathway has tended to become a promising therapeutic strategy as it improved the outcome of bacterial sepsis and post-sepsis secondary fungal infection. Recently, the controversial effects of PD-1 blockade on infectious diseases, including aspergillosis, have been demonstrated, therefore, the efficacy of anti-PD-1 drug still remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was conducted as a mouse sepsis model...
July 11, 2019: Shock
Yong Qin, Geber Peña, Patrick Morcillo, Sukhwinder Singh, Anne C Mosenthal, David H Livingston, Zoltan Spolarics
Common X-linked genetic polymorphisms are expected to alter cellular responses affecting males and females differently through sex-linked inheritance pattern as well as X chromosome (ChrX) mosaicism and associated ChrX skewing, which is unique to females. We tested this hypothesis in ex vivo lipopolysaccharide and phorbol ester-stimulated polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) and monocytes from healthy volunteers (n = 51). Observations were analyzed after stratification by sex alone or the presence of variant IRAK1 haplotype a common X-linked polymorphism with previously demonstrated major clinical impacts...
July 10, 2019: Shock
Taeyoung Kong, Sung Phil Chung, Hye Sun Lee, Sinae Kim, Jihwan Lee, Sung Oh Hwang, Sang Do Shin, Kyoung Jun Song, Kyung Chul Cha, Je Sung You
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the lactate/albumin ratio (LAR) to identify its significance as a prognostic marker for favourable neurologic outcome and survival in patients with return of spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Based on the LAR and multiple parameters, we developed new nomograms and externally validated the tools. METHODS: We conducted an observational study using a prospective, multicentre registry of out-of-cardiac arrest resuscitation provided by the Korean Cardiac Arrest Research Consortium registry from October 2015 to June 2017...
July 10, 2019: Shock
Min Yang, Limin Che, Tianfeng Hua, Yangyang Zou, Zhengfei Yang
BACKGROUND: Ivabradine selectively inhibits the If current, reducing the heart rate and protecting against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of ivabradine on post-resuscitation myocardial function in a porcine model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ventricular fibrillation was induced and untreated for 8 minutes while defibrillation was attempted after 6 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in anesthetized domestic swine...
July 3, 2019: Shock
Akbar Ahmad, Aline Haas De Mello, Bartosz Szczesny, Gábor Törö, Michela Marcatti, Nadiya Druzhyna, Lucas Liaudet, Stefano Tarantini, Reinaldo Salomao, Francisco Garcia Soriano, Csaba Szabo
OBJECTIVE: Activation of the constitutive nuclear and mitochondrial enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cell dysfunction, inflammation and organ failure in various forms of critical illness. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the clinically approved PARP inhibitor olaparib in an experimental model of pancreatitis in vivo and in a pancreatic cell line subjected to oxidative stress in vitro. The preclinical studies were complemented with analysis of clinical samples to detect PARP activation in pancreatitis...
July 2, 2019: Shock
Ruth Shaylor, Lilach Gavish, Gal Yaniv, Linn Wagnert-Avraham, S David Gertz, Charles Weissman, Jacob Megreli, Gil Shimon, Ben Simon, Asaf Berman, Arik Eisenkraft
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is a leading cause of death on the battlefield. Current methods for predicting hemodynamic deterioration during hemorrhage are of limited accuracy and practicality. During a study of the effects of remote ischemic preconditioning in pigs that underwent hemorrhage, we noticed arrhythmias among all pigs that died before the end of the experiment but not among surviving pigs. The present study was designed to identify and characterize the early maladaptive hemodynamic responses (tachycardia in the presence of hypotension without a corresponding increase in cardiac index or mean arterial blood pressure) and their predictive power for early mortality in this experimental model...
July 2, 2019: Shock
Mengya Li, Guifeng Li, Buwei Yu, Yan Luo, Qifang Li
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is a transcription factor that is critical for tissue adaption to hypoxia and inflammation. Previous studies had indicated that normoxic activation of HIF-1α in cancer involves inhibition or mutation of the metabolic enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). We have found that local inhibition of HIF-1α ameliorates acute lung injury (ALI) induced by trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) in rats. In this study, we found pulmonary activation of HIF-1α and inhibition of SDH during THS-Induced ALI in rats and transcriptional activation of HIF-1α during ALI induced by T/HS lymph via SDH pathway in vitro...
June 26, 2019: Shock
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Vivian Wang, Christopher Auger, David Patsouris, Saeid Amini-Nik, Marc G Jeschke
Severely burned patients suffer from a hypermetabolic syndrome that can last for years after the injury has resolved. The underlying cause of these metabolic alterations most likely involve the persistent elevated catecholamine levels that follow the surge induced by thermal injury. At the cellular level, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in metabolic tissues is a hallmark observed in patients following burn injury and is associated with several detrimental effects. Therefore, ER stress could be the underlying cellular mechanism of persistent hypermetabolism in burned patients...
June 19, 2019: Shock
Francisco Vasques-Nóvoa, Tiago L Laundos, António Madureira, Nuno Bettencourt, José P L Nunes, Fátima Carneiro, José A Paiva, Perpétua Pinto-do-Ó, Diana S Nascimento, Adelino F Leite-Moreira, Roberto Roncon-Albuquerque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2019: Shock
Emilio Rodriguez-Ruiz, Ana Lopez-Lago, Rebeca Hernandez-Vaquero, Isabel Granja-Gomez, Ana Estany-Gestal, Ezequiel Alvarez, Miguel Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose L Garcia-Allut
BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a result of non-enzymatic glycation of proteins and lipids, which can attach to either their cell surface receptor (RAGE) or its soluble form (sRAGE). Evidence exists for the implication of AGE-RAGE axis in sepsis, but data are still insufficient and conflicting. We aimed to analyse the kinetics of plasma and skin AGEs and sRAGE during sepsis, and their association with outcome in septic patients. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study...
June 19, 2019: Shock
Jude Baptiste, Florine Tissier, Audrey Dubourg, Michael Droguet, Thomas Castel, Léon Karelle, Giroux-Metges Marie-Agnès, Jean-Pierre Pennec
Sepsis is a frequent complication in patients in intensive care units (ICU). Diaphragm weakness,one of the most common symptoms observed, can lead to weaning problemsduring mechanical ventilation. Over the last couple of years, members of thetransforming growth factor (TGF) β family,such as myostatin, activin A and TGF-β1,have beenreported to strongly trigger the activation of protein breakdown involved in muscle wasting. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TGF-βinhibitorLY364947on the diaphragm during chronic sepsis...
June 10, 2019: Shock
Jacob C Jentzer, Brandon Wiley, Courtney Bennett, Dennis H Murphree, Mark T Keegan, Kianoush B Kashani, Malcolm R Bell, Gregory W Barsness
BACKGROUND: The use of norepinephrine may be associated with better outcomes in some patients with shock. We sought to determine whether norepinephrine was associated with lower mortality in unselected cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) patients compared to other vasopressors, and whether patterns of vasopressor and inotrope usage in the CICU have changed over time. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated consecutive adult patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital CICU from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2015...
June 4, 2019: Shock
John Kim, Leen Arnaout, Daniel Remick
INTRODUCTION: A small clinical trial showed HAT therapy improved survival but no studies have been reported in animal models to examine potential mechanisms. METHODS: Sepsis was induced in female mice using the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Physiologic parameters including heart rate (HR), pulse distension (PD) and respiratory rate (RR) were measured non-invasively at baseline, 6 and 24 hours post CLP. These measurements stratified mice into predicted to live (Live-P) or die (Die-P)...
June 4, 2019: Shock
Rachel Stansfield, Danielle Morris, Emmanuel Jesulola
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an anti-fibrinolytic agent used to prevent traumatic exsanguination. It was first introduced to clinical practice for the management of patients with bleeding disorders, especially adapted to reduce bleeding in haemophiliacs undergoing oral surgical interventions. TXA exerts its action on the coagulation process by competitively inhibiting plasminogen activation, thereby reducing conversion of plasminogen into plasmin. This ultimately prevents fibrinolysis and reduces haemorrhage. Thus, TXA may be well suited for the management of traumatic haemorrhage in the pre-hospital setting...
June 4, 2019: Shock
Ming-Shun Hsieh, Chorng-Kuang How, Vivian Chia-Rong Hsieh, Pau-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported improved sepsis outcomes when certain preadmission antihypertensive drugs, namely, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), are used. This study aims to determine whether preadmission antihypertensive drug use, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), is associated with decreased total hospital mortality in sepsis. METHODS: This study was conducted using the unique database of a sepsis cohort from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan...
May 21, 2019: Shock
P S Reynolds
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2019: Shock
Jian-Li Wang, Yu-Zhen Li, Tian-Qi Tao, Xiao-Reng Wang, You Wang, Dan-Dan Song, Xiu-Hua Liu
BACKGROUND: Impaired autophagic flux contributes to cardiomyocyte death in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Restoring the impaired autophagic flux by using agents may be a promising strategy that alleviates myocardial I/R injury. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of exogenous calreticulin (CRT) postconditioning on impaired autophagic flux induced by Hypoxia/Reoxygenation (H/R) injury in H9c2 cells. METHODS: Rat myocardial I/R injury model was prepared...
May 20, 2019: Shock
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