Clifford G Morgan, Leslie E Neidert, Kyle S Stigall, Gerardo J Rodriguez, G Andrew Pratt, Dominic Lonowski, Kelly Harrell, Neal D McNeal, Michael M Tiller, Sylvain Cardin, Jacob J Glaser
BACKGROUND: Decompensated hemorrhagic shock (DHS) is the leading cause of preventable death in combat casualties. "Golden hour" resuscitation effects on cerebral blood flow and perfusion following DHS in prolonged field care (PFC) are not well investigated. Using an established non-human primate model of DHS, we hypothesized non-invasive regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2) and Transcranial Doppler (TCD) would correlate to the invasive measurement of partial pressure of oxygen (PtO2) and Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) in guiding hypotensive resuscitation in a PFC setting...
September 9, 2020: Shock
Jieyan Wang, Yingyi Luan, Erica K Fan, Melanie J Scott, Yuehua Li, Timothy R Billiar, Mark A Wilson, Yong Jiang, Jie Fan
Cell necroptosis, a form of regulated inflammatory cell death, is one of the mechanisms that controls cell release of inflammatory mediators from innate immune cells, such as polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), and critically regulates the progress of inflammation. Cell necroptosis features receptor-interacting protein (RIPK) 1 activation and necroptosome formation. This leads to loss of plasma membrane integrity, the release of cell contents into the extracellular space, and subsequent increased inflammation...
September 9, 2020: Shock
Hayley L Letson, Geoffrey P Dobson
The effect of analgesia on physiological systems has received little attention in trauma research. Our aim was to examine the effect of two different analgesics, buprenorphine and carprofen, on adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium (ALM) resuscitation in a rat model of laparotomy and non-compressible hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to Saline Carprieve®, ALM Carprieve®, Saline Buprenorphine, or ALM Buprenorphine (all n = 10). Anesthetized animals underwent surgical placement of chronic catheters and laparotomy, then hemorrhage was induced by liver resection (60% left lateral lobe)...
September 9, 2020: Shock
Marta J Madurska, James D Ross, Thomas M Scalea, Jonathan J Morrison
The emerging concept of endovascular resuscitation applies catheter-based techniques in the management of patients in shock to manipulate physiology, optimize hemodynamics and bridge to definitive care. These interventions hope to address an unmet need in the care of severely injured patients, or those with refractory non-traumatic cardiac arrest, who were previously deemed non-survivable. These evolving techniques include Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of Aorta (REBOA), Selective Aortic Arch Perfusion (SAAP) and Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) and there is growing literature base behind them...
September 9, 2020: Shock
Rongrong Shen, Dong Pan, Zhengquan Wang, Xiaohong Jin, Zilong Li, Haojie Wang
INTRODUCTION: One of the main contents of post-resuscitation care is to alleviate cardiac and neurological damage in cardiac arrest (CA) victims. Recently, dexmedetomidine pre- and post-conditioning have been shown to both effectively protect the heart and brain against regional ischemia reperfusion injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine post-conditioning on cardiac and neurological outcomes after CA and resuscitation in swine. METHODS: A total of 28 male domestic swine were randomized into four groups: sham, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), low-dose dexmedetomidine post-conditioning (LDP), and high-dose dexmedetomidine post-conditioning (HDP)...
September 9, 2020: Shock
Fumiko Nakamura, Takashi Muroya, Atsunori Onoe, Hitoshi Ikegawa, Yasuyuki Kuwagata
We hypothesized that jejunal mucosal tissue blood flow would decrease following norepinephrine (NE) administration in endotoxic shock. We aimed of this study to evaluate changes in superior mesenteric venous (SMV) blood flow and jejunal mucosal tissue blood flow of the intestinal vascular system over time by administration of NE in rabbits with endotoxic shock. We created four groups (n = 8 each): control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/kg) group, NE (2 μg/kg/min) group, and LPS+NE group. As indicators of circulation, we measured mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), cardiac output, SMV blood flow, and jejunal mucosal tissue blood flow every 30 minutes from 0 to 240 minutes...
September 9, 2020: Shock
Zachary S Bailey, Lai Yee Leung, Xiaofang Yang, Katherine Cardiff, Janice Gilsdorf, Deborah Shear, Patrick M Kochanek
Pre-hospital resuscitation using whole blood (WB) is the standard of care for hemorrhagic shock (HS) but there is no consensus recommendation for resuscitation in the presence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to a lack of sufficient evidence. In order to evaluate the optimal resuscitation strategies for TBI+HS, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups based on resuscitation fluid and pre-hospital mean arterial pressure (MAP) threshold (n = 9-10/group): Lactated Ringer's (LR) -60mmHg (LR60), LR-70mmHg (LR70), WB-60mmHg (WB60), WB-70mmHg (WB70)...
September 9, 2020: Shock
Yuichiro Shimoyama, Osamu Umegaki, Noriko Kadono, Toshiaki Minami
BACKGROUND: Sepsis remains a major cause of mortality in critically ill patients. This study aimed determine whether presepsin is a predictor of septic AKI, ARDS, DIC, and shock. METHODS: A total of 83 adult patients diagnosed with sepsis were prospectively examined. Presepsin values were measured immediately after ICU admission and on Days 2, 3, and 5 after ICU admission. Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, platelet to lymphocyte ratio, Prognostic Index, and Prognostic Nutritional Index were also examined at baseline...
September 9, 2020: Shock
Andreas German Loth, Daniela Brigitta Guderian, Birgit Haake, Kai Zacharowski, Timo Stöver, Martin Leinung
INTRODUCTION: Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has been spreading worldwide. Since the main route of infection with SARS-CoV-2 is probably via contact with virus-containing droplets of the exhaled air, any method of securing the airway is of extremely high risk for the health care professionals involved. We evaluated the aerosol exposure to the interventional team during a tracheotomy in a semi-quantitative fashion. In addition, we present novel protective measures...
September 9, 2020: Shock
Gretchen L Sacha, Alyssa Y Chen, Nicole M Palm, Abhijit Duggal
INTRODUCTION: Clinical studies evaluating the use of hydrocortisone in patients with septic shock are heterogeneous in design with conflicting results. The appropriate time in which to initiate hydrocortisone after shock onset is unknown. This study sought to compare clinical outcomes including vasopressor duration and mortality in patients with septic shock who received hydrocortisone based on timing of initiation after shock onset. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients between 2011 and 2017 admitted to ten medical, surgical, and neurosciences ICUs at a large, tertiary care academic medical center...
September 2, 2020: Shock
James Watchorn, Dean Y Huang, Jennifer Joslin, Kate Bramham, Sam D Hutchings
BACKGROUND: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common complication of COVID-19 critical illness but the pathophysiology is uncertain. Some evidence has indicated that a vascular aetiology may be implicated. We used contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and echocardiography to study renal perfusion and global blood flow and compared our findings with measurements taken in a group of septic shock patients and healthy volunteers. METHODS: Prospective case-control study. Renal perfusion variables were assessed with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS); macrovascular blood flow was assessed using Doppler analysis of large renal vessels; echocardiography was used to assess right and left heart function and cardiac output...
September 2, 2020: Shock
Dinesh G Goswami, Luiz F Garcia, Christopher Dodoo, Alok K Dwivedi, Yun Zhou, Dimitri Pappas, Wendy E Walker
Sepsis occurs when an infection induces a dysregulated immune response, and is most commonly bacterial in origin. This condition requires rapid treatment for successful patient outcomes. However, the current method to confirm infection (blood culture) requires up to 48 h for a positive result and many true cases remain culture-negative. Therefore, new diagnostic tests are urgently needed. Recent clinical studies suggest that CD69, CD64 and CD25 may serve as useful biomarkers of sepsis. In this study, we evaluated the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and cecal slurry (CS) mouse models as tools to study these biomarkers in young and aged mice, and elucidate the timeliness and specificity of sepsis diagnosis...
September 2, 2020: Shock
Julia Walczak, Shirin Hasan, Navid Shoaee, Dylan Tromblay, Kuzhali Muthumalaiappan
INTRODUCTION: In this study, using burn patient's PBMCs, we have shown that the Epo independent stage of the terminal enucleation stage to reticulocyte formation is impeded in the presence of autologous plasma (BP). Furthermore, substitution with allogeneic control plasma (CP) from the healthy individual in place of BP rectified this enucleation defect. The exclusive role of burn microenvironment in late stage erythropoiesis defect was further demarcated through control healthy human bone marrow cells cultured in the presence of CP, BP and cytokines...
September 2, 2020: Shock
Yo Huh, Yura Ko, Kyungjin Hwang, Kyoungwon Jung, Yoon-Ho Cha, Yoo Jin Choi, Jisook Lee, Jung Heon Kim
BACKGROUND: To compare admission lactate and base deficit (BD), which physiologically reflect early hemorrhagic shock, as outcome predictors of pediatric trauma. METHODS: We reviewed the data of children with trauma who visited a Korean academic hospital from 2010 through 2018. Admission lactate and BD were compared between children with and without primary outcomes. The outcomes included in-hospital mortality, early (≤24 hours) transfusion, and early surgical interventions for the torso or major vessels...
September 2, 2020: Shock
Michael A Mazzeffi, Jonathan H Chow, Kenichi Tanaka
Patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) frequently have hypercoagulability caused by the immune response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The pathophysiology of COVID-19 associated hypercoagulability is not fully understood, but characteristic changes include: increased fibrinogen concentration, increased Factor VIII activity, increased circulating von Willebrand factor, and exhausted fibrinolysis. Anticoagulant therapy improves outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 and viscoelastic coagulation testing offers an opportunity to tailor anticoagulant therapy based on an individual patient's coagulation status...
September 2, 2020: Shock
Anne Kirstine Hoeyer-Nielsen, Mathias J Holmberg, Anne V Grossestreuer, Tuyen Yankama, Jean-Pierre Branton, Michael W Donnino, Katherine M Berg
INTRODUCTION: Mitochondrial dysfunction leading to impairment of oxygen extraction, referred to as cytopathic hypoxia, contributes to morbidity in sepsis. Oxygen consumption (VO2) may be a useful measure of the severity of cytopathic hypoxia. We monitored VO2 and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) in septic patients and investigated the association with hospital survival. METHODS: We retrospectively identified adult (≥18 years) septic patients from a larger prospective observational cohort of critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation...
August 31, 2020: Shock
Fatema Mustansir Dawoodbhoy, Bharati Kadamb Patel, Kadamb Patel, Madhav Bhatia, Chuen Neng Lee, Shabbir M Moochhala
Critical illness results in significant changes in the human gut microbiota, leading to the breakdown of the intestinal barrier function, which plays a role in the pathogenesis of multiple organ dysfunction. Patients with sepsis/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have a profoundly distorted intestinal microbiota rhythm, which plays a considerable role in the development of gut-derived infections and intestinal dysbiosis. Despite recent medical developments, post-surgical complications are associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate...
August 31, 2020: Shock
Jing Yue, Ronghao Zheng, Huiping Wei, Jie Li, Jiannan Wu, Ping Wang, Hui Zhao
BACKGROUND: A considerable debate on whether fluid bolus could decrease childhood mortality in pediatric patients with septic or severe infection shock is still unresolved. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the mortality rates after fluid bolus among children with septic or severe infection shock. METHODS: A systematic electronic search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases was conducted to identify relevant published studies till 30 March 2020...
August 31, 2020: Shock
Timothy M Guenther, Marguerite W Spruce, Lindsey M Bach, Connor M Caples, Carl A Beyer, John K Grayson, Frederick J Meyers, Tina L Palmieri, Ian E Brown
BACKGROUND: Combined burn and traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatment priorities may not align due to opposing fluid resuscitation paradigms used in treating burns and TBI. We developed a porcine model of combined thermal injury/TBI and compared an "aggressive" fluid resuscitation strategy using the Parkland formula and a "restrictive" resuscitation strategy using the modified Brooke formula. METHODS: Twenty eight swine were deeply anesthetized and received a 40% total body surface area full thickness burn injury and TBI...
August 31, 2020: Shock
Elise Pretzsch, Florian Bösch, Bernhard Renz, Jens Werner, Martin Angele, Irshad H Chaudry
In cancer patients, surgical removal of the primary tumor is one of the major steps within a multimodal therapy concept toward eliminating the disease and limiting further progression. In this respect, surgical trauma can have potent effects on the patient's immune system. Intraoperative blood loss associated with major surgical trauma leads to reduced blood flow, regional hypoxia, metabolic and microenvironmental alterations stimulating an inflammatory response characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (i...
August 31, 2020: Shock
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