Daniel Gillett, James MacFarlane, Waiel Bashari, Rosy Crawford, Ines Harper, Iosif A Mendichovszky, Luigi Aloj, Heok Cheow, Mark Gurnell
Tumors of the pituitary gland, although mostly benign adenomas, are a cause of significant morbidity and even excess mortality due to local compressive effects (eg visual loss, hypopituitarism) and unregulated hormone secretion (eg acromegaly or Cushing Disease). Surgery, radiotherapy, and medical management (sometimes in combination) may be needed to mitigate the effects of tumor expansion and endocrine dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a central role in treatment planning for most patients...
March 23, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Marie Nicod Lalonde, Ricardo Dias Correia, Gerasimos P Syktiotis, Niklaus Schaefer, Maurice Matter, John O Prior
Primary hyperparathyroidism (1° HPT) is a relatively common endocrine disorder usually caused by autonomous secretion of parathormone by one or several parathyroid adenomas. 1° HPT causing hypercalcemia, kidney stones and/or osteoporosis should be treated whenever possible by parathyroidectomy. Accurate preoperative location of parathyroid adenomas is crucial for surgery planning, mostly when performing minimally invasive surgery. Cervical ultrasonography (US) is usually performed to localize parathyroid adenomas as a first intention, followed by 99m Tc- sestamibi scintigraphy with SPECT/CT whenever possible...
March 13, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Colleen Olkowski, Bruna Fernandes, Gary L Griffiths, Frank Lin, Peter L Choyke
Prostate cancer remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity, affecting millions of men, with a large percentage expected to develop the disease as they reach advanced ages. Treatment and management advances have been dramatic over the past 50 years or so, and one aspect of these improvements is reflected in the multiple advances in diagnostic imaging techniques. Much attention has been focused on molecular imaging techniques that offer high sensitivity and specificity and can now more accurately assess disease status and detect recurrence earlier...
March 5, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Eren M Veziroglu, Faraz Farhadi, Navid Hasani, Moozhan Nikpanah, Mark Roschewski, Ronald M Summers, Babak Saboury
Our review shows that AI-based analysis of lymphoma whole-body FDG-PET/CT can inform all phases of clinical management including staging, prognostication, treatment planning, and treatment response evaluation. We highlight advancements in the role of neural networks for performing automated image segmentation to calculate PET-based imaging biomarkers such as the total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV). AI-based image segmentation methods are at levels where they can be semi-automatically implemented with minimal human inputs and nearing the level of a second-opinion radiologist...
March 2, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Aage K O Alstrup, Mie R Dollerup, Mette I T Simonsen, Mikkel H Vendelbo
Today preclinical PET imaging connects laboratory research with clinical applications. Here PET clearly bridges the gap, as nearly identical imaging protocols can be applied to both animal and humans. However, some hurdles exist and researchers must be careful, partly because the animals are usually anesthetized during the scans, while human volunteers are awake. This review is based on our own experiences of some of the most important pitfalls and how to overcome them. This includes how studies should be designed, how to select the right anesthesia and monitoring...
February 27, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
John Buscombe
The use of radioiodine (I-131) in the management of patients suffering differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has changed little in the past 40 years. The use of a standardized approach has served the majority of patients well over that time. However, there have been recent doubts concerning over this approach in some low risk patients and if so, how can these patients recognized and which patients who may need more intensive treatment. A number of clinical trials have questioned the paradigms used in the treatment of DTC including what activity of I-131 should be used for ablation and which low risk patients should be treated with I-131 especially as there remains some doubts as to the long-term safety of I-131...
February 20, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Morten Bentestuen, Noor Al-Obaydi, Helle D Zacho
Fibroblast activation protein inhibitor (FAPI) is a promising tracer in oncologic positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Numerous studies have demonstrated the superior sensitivity of FAPI PET/CT over fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT in several types of cancer. However, the cancer specificity of FAPI uptake remains understudied, and several cases of false-positive FAPI PET/CT findings have been reported. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science was conducted for studies published prior to April 2022 reporting nonmalignant FAPI PET/CT findings...
February 20, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
M Michael Sathekge, Kirsten Bouchelouche
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Kirsten Bouchelouche, M Michael Sathekge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Giorgio Treglia, Vittoria Rufini, Arnoldo Piccardo, Alessio Imperiale
Currently, there is a discrepancy among the available guidelines on the usefulness of nuclear medicine techniques in medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) diagnosis and treatment. Aim of this review is to provide an update on diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine techniques in this setting. Evidence-based data clearly demonstrates the usefulness of PET/CT with different radiopharmaceuticals in recurrent MTC (in particular when serum calcitonin is higher than 150 pg/mL or calcitonin doubling time is shortened) and 18 F-FDOPA should be the preferred PET radiopharmaceutical...
January 24, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Sanjay K Jain
Bacterial infections are a major threat to human health. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of bacterial infections is essential for early interventions and rational use of antibiotic treatments. However, antibiotics are often initiated empirically while diagnostic tests are being performed. Moreover, traditional diagnostic tools, namely microscopy, microbiology and molecular techniques, are dependent upon sampling suspected sites of infection, and then performing tests. This approach is often invasive, labor intensive, time consuming, and subject to the uncertainties of incorrect sampling and contamination...
January 24, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Edel Noriega-Álvarez, José Martín-Comín
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Classically, two subtypes of IBD are recognized: Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. There is not a single and reliable test for IBD diagnosis but the nuclear medicine techniques like 99m Tc-HMPAO autologous labelled leukocytes scintigraphy (WBCS) and PET/CT plays a role in the management of IBD. Leukocytes can be labelled "in vitro" (using 99m Tc-HMPAO in Europe or 111 In-oxine in America) or "in vivo" using antigranulocyte monoclonal antibodies...
January 24, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Anna L Goodman, Alice Packham, Amy R Sharkey, Gary J R Cook
Bloodstream infection or sepsis is a common cause of mortality globally. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is of particular concern, through its ability to seed metastatic infections in almost any organ after entering the bloodstream (S. aureus bacteraemia), often without localising signs. A positive blood culture for S. aureus bacteria should lead to immediate and urgent identification of the cause. Failure to detect a precise focus of infection is associated with higher mortality, sometimes despite appropriate antibiotics...
January 22, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Lijuan Feng, Siqi Li, Chaoran Wang, Jigang Yang
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children and arises from anywhere along the sympathetic nervous system. It is a highly heterogeneous disease with a wide range of prognosis, from spontaneous regression or maturing to highly aggressive. About half of pediatric neuroblastoma patients develop the metastatic disease at diagnosis, which carries a poor prognosis. Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis, staging, response assessment, and long-term follow-up of neuroblastoma...
January 21, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Xue Zhang, Hiroshi Wakabayashi, Tomo Hiromasa, Daiki Kayano, Seigo Kinuya
As a rare kind of non-epithelial neuroendocrine neoplasms, paragangliomas (PGLs) exhibit various clinical characteristics with excessive catecholamine secretion and have been a research focus in recent years. Although several modalities are available nowadays, radiopharmaceuticals play an integral role in the management of PGLs. Theranostics utilises radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic intentions by aiming at a specific target in tumour and has been considered a possible means in diagnosis, staging, monitoring and treatment planning...
January 12, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Francesco Cicone, Giulia Santo, Caroline Bodet-Milin, Giuseppe Lucio Cascini, Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré, Caroline Stokke, Arne Kolstad
Systemic radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is arguably the most effective and least toxic anticancer treatment for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In treatment-naïve patients with indolent NHL, the efficacy of a single injection of RIT compares with that of multiple cycles of combination chemotherapy. However, 20 years following the approval of the first CD20-targeting radioimmunoconjugates 90 Y-Ibritumomab-tiuxetan (Zevalin) and 131 I-tositumomab (Bexxar), the number of patients referred for RIT in western countries has dramatically decreased...
January 10, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Emilia Fortunati, Norma Bonazzi, Lucia Zanoni, Stefano Fanti, Valentina Ambrosini
Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are rare and heterogeneous tumors, originating mostly from the gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tract followed by the lungs. Multidisciplinary discussion is mandatory for optimal diagnostic and therapeutic management. Well-differentiated NEN (NET) present a high expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR) and can be studied with [68Ga]-DOTA-peptides ([68Ga]Ga-DOTANOC, [68Ga]Ga-DOTATOC, [68Ga]Ga-DOTATATE) PET/CT to assess disease extension and the eligibility for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT)...
January 7, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Alberto Signore, Valeria Bentivoglio, Michela Varani, Chiara Lauri
Imaging infection still represents a challenge for researchers. Despite nuclear medicine (NM) offers valuable tools able to discriminate between infections and inflammation, there is an unmet clinical need to develop new strategies able to specifically target the causative pathogen, to select the best antimicrobial treatment for each patient and to accurately assess therapeutic efficacy. These aspects are commonly addressed by microbiology or histology but the diagnosis often relies on invasive procedures that are prone to contamination or sample bias and do not reflect the spatial heterogeneity of the infective process...
January 4, 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Lucia Zanoni, Davide Bezzi, Cristina Nanni, Andrea Paccagnella, Arianna Farina, Alessandro Broccoli, Beatrice Casadei, Pier Luigi Zinzani, Stefano Fanti
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represents a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by different clinical courses, varying from indolent to highly aggressive. 18 F-FDG-PET/CT is the current state-of-the-art diagnostic imaging, for the staging, restaging and evaluation of response to treatment in lymphomas with avidity for 18 F-FDG, despite it is not routinely recommended for surveillance. PET-based response criteria (using five-point Deauville Score) are nowadays uniformly applied in FDG-avid lymphomas...
May 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Claudine Régis, Khadija Benali, François Rouzet
Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. The diagnostic can be made by histological identification of non-caseous granuloma or by a combination of clinical criteria. Active inflammatory granuloma can lead to fibrotic damage. Although 50% of cases resolve spontaneously, systemic treatments are often necessary to decrease symptoms and avoid permanent organ dysfunction, notably in cardiac sarcoidosis. The course of the disease can be punctuated by exacerbations and relapses and the prognostic depends mainly on affected sites and patient management...
March 2023: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
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