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Seminars in Nuclear Medicine

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545520/pet-ct-lung-ventilation-and-perfusion-scanning-using-galligas-and-gallium-68-maa
#1
REVIEW
Pierre-Yves Le Roux, Rodney J Hicks, Shankar Siva, Michael S Hofman
Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) is now possible by substituting Technetium-99m (99m Tc) with Gallium-68 (68 Ga), using the same carrier molecules as conventional V/Q imaging. Ventilation imaging can be performed with 68 Ga-carbon nanoparticles using the same synthesis device as Technegas. Perfusion imaging can be performed with 68 Ga-macroaggregated albumin. Similar physiological processes can therefore be evaluated by either V/Q SPECT/CT or PET/CT. However, V/Q PET/CT is inherently a superior technology for image acquisition, with higher sensitivity, higher spatial and temporal resolution, and superior quantitative capability, allowing more accurate delineation and quantification of regional lung function...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545519/studies-of-radioaerosol-deposition-in-the-respiratory-tract
#2
REVIEW
Philip Chi Lip Kwok, Martin Wallin, Myrna B Dolovich, Hak-Kim Chan
Deposition of aerosols in the respiratory tract can be quantitatively and qualitatively studied by scintigraphy. The most commonly used radionuclide for this purpose is technetium-99m. The effects of various factors on particle deposition have been investigated by using radiolabeled aerosols in the past decade. Most of these studies were in vivo but some were in vitro or ex vivo. The factors examined include particle size, formulation, inhaler design, inhalation flowrate, body posture, and gravity. They have been shown to influence pulmonary deposition, nasal high flow nebulization, and intranasal delivery...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545518/v-q-spect-normal-values-for-lobar-function-and-comparison-with-ct-volumes
#3
REVIEW
Dale L Bailey, Catherine E Farrow, Edmund M Lau
Ventilation and perfusion lung imaging with SPECT/CT permits accurate delineation of the individual lobes of the lungs using the CT images for use in ascribing the relative functional contribution to overall lung function of the lobes of both ventilation and perfusion. Moreover, an advantage of using Technegas as the ventilation agent and radiolabelled macro-aggregated albumin microspheres as the perfusion agent is that the deposition pattern is fixed upon administration and thus different patient postures can be studied and the effect of gravity and position determined, even though the scans must be acquired with the subject supine using conventional gamma camera SPECT/CT systems...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545517/lung-scintigraphy-in-the-assessment-of-aerosol-deposition-and-clearance
#4
REVIEW
Alejandro Sanchez-Crespo
Environmental and occupational exposure to particulate aerosols is known to have negative health effects. However little is known about how these aerosols trigger the development of pathophysiological mechanisms in the body or the fate of ultrafine particles in the lungs after inhalation. The development of aerosols of different origin that can be labeled to a large variety with radionuclides compatible with clinical gamma camera systems opens the possibility of using lung scintigraphy imaging to study these causalities in detail...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545516/ventilation-perfusion-spect-imaging-diagnosing-other-cardiopulmonary-diseases-beyond-pulmonary-embolism
#5
REVIEW
Marika Bajc, Ari Lindqvist
Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/P SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique recommended primarily for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and is golden standard for the diagnosis of chronic PE. Furthermore, interpreting ventilation and corresponding perfusion images enables pattern recognition of many other cardiopulmonary disorders that affect lung function and also allows quantification of their extent. Using Technegas for the ventilation imaging, grading of small airway disease in COPD is possible and the method is recommended for PE diagnosis in patients with severe COPD that is not possible with radiolabelled liquid aerosols...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545515/lung-ventilation-perfusion-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-in-infants-and-children-with-nonembolic-chronic-pulmonary-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Alejandro Sanchez-Crespo
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides high contrast three dimensional images of the regional distribution of a radiotracer. SPECT is a widely used technique in pulmonary investigations of the ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) in the adult patient, mainly in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. However, safety concerns among practitioners due to radiation exposure and the use of macroaggregate albumin for the perfusion scan have historically precluded the use of SPECT in pediatric patients with nonembolic pulmonary disorders...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545514/spect-v-q-in-lung-cancer-radiotherapy-planning
#7
REVIEW
Enid M Eslick, Mark J Stevens, Dale L Bailey
Curative-intent lung cancer radiation therapy either alone (RT) or combined with immuno-chemotherapy is associated with potential risk of serious radiation-induced lung injury. This review provides a summary of the role of SPECT ventilation perfusion (V/Q) imaging as an emerging adjunct to lung cancer RT planning and treatment dosimetry. Denoted "functional lung avoidance RT" it is hypothesized that preferential dosimetric avoidance of physiologically functional lung may reduce the frequency of radiation-induced lung injury...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545513/pre-surgical-evaluation-of-lung-function
#8
REVIEW
Kshama Wechalekar, Justin Garner, Sima Gregg
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects 400 million individuals worldwide and is predicted to be the third leading cause of death by 2020 with a projected economic cost of 4.8 trillion US dollars by 2030. Lung volume reduction surgery is an established means of targeting hyperinflation in patients with severe emphysema, optimizing ventilator mechanics, and reducing the work of breathing. Preoperative evaluation of regional lung function is essential to planning and predicting the outcomes of surgery. The traditional planar approach is inaccurate for lobar contribution since it is not based on anatomy...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545512/letter-from-the-guest-editors
#9
EDITORIAL
Dale L Bailey, Paul J Roach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545511/lung-scintigraphy-in-copd
#10
REVIEW
Jann Mortensen, Ronan M G Berg
Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy is a functional imaging biomarker that has the potential of captivating the heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It specifically images the distribution of ventilation and perfusion within the lungs, which is a critical pathophysiological component of COPD. The extent of ventilation defects and ventilation inhomogeneity, as well as the ventilation-perfusion ratio distribution thus correlate with severity of disease. Furthermore, specific scintigraphic patterns, such as the "stripe sign" may detect centrilobular emphysematous lesions with a higher sensitivity than other imaging techniques...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545510/spect-ventilation-imaging-in-asthma
#11
REVIEW
Catherine Farrow, Gregory King
Uneven distribution of ventilation, or ventilation heterogeneity, has been observed in asthma for over 60 years using multiple breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) studies. Ventilation heterogeneity has been known to predict airway hyperresponsiveness (the ability of the airways to constrict too easily and by too much) in asthma, which is a core physiological characteristic of this disease. SPECT ventilation imaging allows topographical analysis of changes in ventilation distribution. Technegas as a SPECT ventilation agent has a key advantage as it remains fixed after inhalation, which allows imaging of upright ventilation distribution, analogous of pulmonary function tests...
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30545509/letter-from-the-editors
#12
EDITORIAL
Leonard M Freeman, M Donald Blaufox
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30322481/novel-quantitative-pet-techniques-for-clinical-decision-support-in-oncology
#13
REVIEW
Habib Zaidi, Abass Alavi, Issam El Naqa
Quantitative image analysis has deep roots in the usage of positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical and research settings to address a wide variety of diseases. It has been extensively employed to assess molecular and physiological biomarkers in vivo in healthy and disease states, in oncology, cardiology, neurology, and psychiatry. Quantitative PET allows relating the time-varying activity concentration in tissues/organs of interest and the basic functional parameters governing the biological processes being studied...
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30322480/nuclear-medicine-imaging-of-prostate-cancer-in-the-elderly
#14
REVIEW
Paolo Castellucci, Cristina Nanni, Valentina Ambrosini
Due to the increasing life expectancy, the diagnosis of malignancy and treatment of elderly patients is becoming more common. Prostate cancer is particularly frequent in this setting. Many different approaches are now available, but some of them imply significant risks or collateral effects. In those patients an accurate evaluation of risk-to-benefit ratio is needed, and functional imaging such as PET/CT is important for the clinician to make the appropriate choice. PET/CT in prostate cancer is a well-tolerated procedure that can be used to accurately assess the tumor extent during the entire clinical history of the disease...
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30322479/diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-osteoporosis-with-18-f-sodium-fluoride-pet-an-unavoidable-path-for-the-foreseeable-future
#15
REVIEW
Catherine C Reilly, William Y Raynor, Abigail L Hong, Daniel C Kargilis, Jae S Lee, Austin G Alecxih, Nishtha Gupta, Marie K Lim, Abdullah Al-Zaghal, Thomas J Werner, Sylvia S Rhodes, Abass Alavi, Chamith S Rajapakse
The prevalence of metabolic bone diseases particularly osteoporosis and its precursor, osteopenia, continue to grow as serious global health issues today. On a worldwide perspective, 200million people suffer from osteoporosis and in 2005, over 2million fracture incidents were estimated due to osteoporosis in the United States. Currently, osteoporosis and other metabolic bone diseases are evaluated primarily through dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and rarely by bone biopsy with tetracycline labeling or Technetium-99m (99m Tc) based bone scintigraphy...
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30322478/applications-of-pet-imaging-in-the-evaluation-of-musculoskeletal-diseases-among-the-geriatric-population
#16
REVIEW
Abdullah Al-Zaghal, William Raynor, Mohsen Khosravi, Ali Guermazi, Thomas J Werner, Abass Alavi
Medical imaging plays a particularly important role in the care of elderly patients, in whom complex symptomatology and a high prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases necessitate sensitive imaging modalities. MRI is the most commonly used imaging modality in the evaluation of various musculoskeletal disorders. The integration of positron emission technique and computed tomography as well as magnetic resonance imaging allows for generating complimentary data for accurate and quantitative diagnosis. This article highlights the implementations of molecular imaging probes in the assessment of prevalent musculoskeletal disorders among geriatric population with emphasis on osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, diabetic foot, and prosthetic joint infections...
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30322477/pet-imaging-in-movement-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Baijayanta Maiti, Joel S Perlmutter
Positron emission tomography (PET) has revealed key insights into the pathophysiology of movement disorders. This paper will focus on how PET investigations of pathophysiology are particularly relevant to Parkinson disease, a neurodegenerative condition usually starting later in life marked by a varying combination of motor and nonmotor deficits. Various molecular imaging modalities help to determine what changes in brain herald the onset of pathology; can these changes be used to identify presymptomatic individuals who may be appropriate for to-be-developed treatments that may forestall onset of symptoms or slow disease progression; can PET act as a biomarker of disease progression; can molecular imaging help enrich homogenous cohorts for clinical studies; and what other pathophysiologic mechanisms relate to nonmotor manifestations...
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30322476/cognitive-impairment-and-dementias
#18
REVIEW
Mohsen Khosravi, Andrew Newberg, Abass Alavi
PET has been a key component in the diagnostic armamentarium for evaluating neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. PET imaging has been used for the diagnosis of these disorders, for identification of their pathophysiology, and for following treatment of these disorders. Further, PET imaging has been extensively used for both research and clinical purposes. This chapter will review the current literature with regard to PET imaging and neurodegenerative disorders. This includes an evaluation of the most commonly used tracer (FDG) that measures cerebral metabolism, as well as neurotransmitter tracers, and tracers designed to reveal specific pathophysiological processes...
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30322475/the-role-of-pet-in-evaluating-atherosclerosis-a-critical-review
#19
REVIEW
Mateen Moghbel, Abdullah Al-Zaghal, Thomas J Werner, Caius Mihail Constantinescu, Poul Flemming Høilund-Carlsen, Abass Alavi
Atherosclerosis is a common age-related disorder and is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries. Structural imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI, have been of limited value in early detection of atherosclerotic plaques, and therefore, there is a dire need for techniques that are highly sensitive and specific for this purpose. Over the past decade, PET imaging with FDG and NaF has been tested for detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques in the major coronary arteries...
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30322474/letter-from-the-guest-editors
#20
EDITORIAL
Abass Alavi, Poul Flemming Høilund-Carlsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
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