Wenyi Gu, Markus Kimmann, Wim Laleman, Michael Praktiknjo, Jonel Trebicka
Variceal bleeding is a consequence of severe portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis. Although the rate of bleeding has decreased over time, variceal bleeding in the presence of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) carries a high-risk of treatment failure and short-term mortality. Treatment and/or removal of precipitating events (mainly bacterial infection and alcoholic hepatitis) and decrease of portal pressure may improve outcome of patients with acute decompensation or ACLF. Transjugular intrahepatic systemic shunts (TIPS), especially in the pre-emptive situation, have been found to efficiently control bleeding, prevent rebleeding and reduce short-term mortality...
June 7, 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Jessica Bernard, Corinn Marakovits, Leah Smith, Heather Francis
Mast cells (MCs) contribute to the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases (primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC)). PSC and PBC are immune-mediated, chronic inflammatory diseases, characterized by bile duct inflammation and stricturing, advancing to hepatobiliary cirrhosis. MCs are tissue resident immune cells that may promote hepatic injury, inflammation, and fibrosis formation by either direct or indirect interactions with other innate immune cells (Neutrophils, Macrophages/Kupffer cells, Dendritic Cells, Natural Killer, and Innate Lymphoid Cells)...
June 2, 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Snigdha Singh, Kiran Kumar Pvsn, J Pradeep Kumar, Sojit Tomo, Dharamveer Yadav, Praveen Sharma, Mahadev Rao, Mithu Banerjee
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare but severe adverse drug reaction seen in pharmacotherapy and a major cause of post-marketing drug withdrawals. Advances in genome-wide studies indicate that genetic and epigenetic diversity can lead to inter-individual differences in drug response and toxicity. It is necessary to identify how the genetic variations, in the presence of environmental factors can contribute to development and progression of DILI. Studies on microRNA, histone modification and DNA methylation, SNPs related to DILI were retrieved from databases and were analyzed for the current research and updates develop this narrative review...
May 24, 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Manasi Kotulkar, Dakota Robarts, Udayan Apte
Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) is a highly conserved member of the nuclear receptor superfamily expressed at high levels in the liver, kidney, pancreas, and gut. In the liver, HNF4α is exclusively expressed in hepatocytes, where it is indispensable for embryonic and postnatal liver development and for normal liver function in adults. It is considered a master regulator of hepatic differentiation because it regulates a significant number of genes involved in hepatocyte-specific functions...
May 22, 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Emma Vanderschueren, Jonel Trebicka, Wim Laleman
Endoscopy is and remains an indispensable tool in diagnosing and managing liver disease and its complications. Due to the progress in advanced endoscopy, endoscopy has become an alternative route for many surgical, percutaneous, and angiographic interventions, not only as a backup tool when conventional interventions fail but increasingly as a first-line choice. The term endo-hepatology refers to the integration of advanced endoscopy in the practice of hepatology. Endoscopy is key in the diagnosis and management of esophageal and gastric varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy, and gastric antral vascular ectasia...
May 16, 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Esteban Urias, Vincent L Chen
While nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease, most patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease do not develop cirrhosis and its complications. Therefore, risk stratification using inexpensive, noninvasive screening modalities is critical to avoid overdiagnosis and overtreatment of a large proportion of the population. In this review, we discuss the data supporting screening and current professional society recommendations on this topic. Screening for at-risk nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is recommended in patients with risk factors including diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis, and elevated aminotransferases...
May 16, 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Monika Adori, Sadam Bhat, Roberto Gramignoli, Ismael Valladolid-Acebes, Tore Bengtsson, Mathias Uhlèn, Csaba Adori
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder. Increased sympathetic (noradrenergic) nerve tone has a complex role in the etiopathomechanism of NAFLD, affecting the development/progression of steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and liver hemodynamical alterations. Also, lipid sensing by vagal afferent fibers is an important player in the development of hepatic steatosis. Moreover, disorganization and progressive degeneration of liver sympathetic nerves were recently described in human and experimental NAFLD...
May 8, 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Pedro Luiz Serrano Uson Junior, Mitesh J Borad
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) inhibitors are now being included in the treatment guidelines of multiple countries for patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Activation of the FGF-FGFR pathway is related to proliferation and tumor progression. Targeting the FGF-FGFR pathway is effective and can yield durable responses in patients with CCA harboring FGFR2 fusions or rearrangements. In this review article, we address molecules and clinical trials evaluating FGFR inhibitors in advanced CCA...
March 29, 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Minwook Kim, Fatima Rizvi, Donghun Shin, Valerie Gouon-Evans
The liver field has been debating for decades the contribution of the plasticity of the two epithelial compartments in the liver, hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells (BECs), to derive each other as a repair mechanism. The hepatobiliary plasticity has been first observed in diseased human livers by the presence of biphenotypic cells expressing hepatocyte and BEC markers within bile ducts and regenerative nodules or budding from strings of proliferative BECs in septa. These observations are not surprising as hepatocytes and BECs derive from a common fetal progenitor, the hepatoblast, and, as such, they are expected to compensate for each other's loss in adults...
February 10, 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Taylor J Kelty, Ryan J Dashek, W David Arnold, R Scott Rector
The association between liver and brain health has gained attention as biomarkers of liver function have been revealed to predict neurodegeneration. The liver is a central regulator in metabolic homeostasis. However, in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), homeostasis is disrupted which can result in extrahepatic organ pathologies. Emerging literature provides insight into the mechanisms behind the liver-brain health axis. These include the increased production of liver-derived factors that promote insulin resistance and loss of neuroprotective factors under conditions of NAFLD that increase insulin resistance in the central nervous system...
February 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Thomas N Smith, Alice Gallo de Moraes, Douglas A Simonetto
Patients with cirrhosis frequently require admission to the intensive care unit as complications arise in the course of their disease. These admissions are associated with high short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. Thus, understanding and characterizing complications and unique needs of patients with cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure helps providers identify appropriate level of care and evidence-based treatments. While there is no widely accepted critical care admission criteria for patients with cirrhosis, the presence of organ failure and primary or nosocomial infections are associated with particularly high in-hospital mortality...
February 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Madisyn Oxley, Heather Francis, Keisaku Sato
Growth hormone (GH) and downstream insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling mediate growth and metabolism. GH deficiency causes short stature or dwarfism, and excess GH causes acromegaly. Although the association of GH/IGF1 signaling with liver diseases has been suggested previously, current studies are controversial and the functional roles of GH/IGF1 signaling are still undefined. GH supplementation therapy showed promising therapeutic effects in some patients, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but inhibition of GH signaling may be beneficial for other liver diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinoma...
February 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Anna M Banc-Husu, Henry Shiau, Peace Dike, Benjamin L Shneider
Complications of cirrhotic portal hypertension (PHTN) in children are broad and include clinical manifestations ranging from variceal hemorrhage, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) to less common conditions such as hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. The approaches to the diagnosis and management of these complications have become standard of practice in adults with cirrhosis with many guidance statements available...
February 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Ahmad Anouti, Jessica L Mellinger
Cases of alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) are increasing at a steady rate in the United States with more patients presenting with alcohol-associated hepatitis and alcohol-associated cirrhosis. While alcohol use has increased across many demographic groups, women are suffering from a greater increase in alcohol use disorder (AUD), and are at a greater risk of ALD due to pathophysiological differences which include absorption of alcohol, first pass metabolism, and hormonal differences. Differences across race have also been found with Native Americans and Hispanics suffering from some of the largest increases in ALD rates...
February 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
George Cholankeril, Hashem B El-Serag
The burden for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) attributed to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) continues to grow in parallel with rising global trends in obesity. The risk of HCC is elevated among patients with NAFLD-related cirrhosis to a level that justifies surveillance based on cost-effectiveness argument. The quality of current evidence for HCC surveillance in all patients with chronic liver disease is poor, and even lower in those with NAFLD. For a lack of more precise risk-stratification tools, current approaches to defining a target population in noncirrhotic NAFLD are limited to noninvasive tests for liver fibrosis, as a proxy for liver-related morbidity and mortality...
February 2023: Seminars in Liver Disease
Nimish Thakral, Sasha Deutsch-Link, Ashwani K Singal
Alcohol-associated liver disease is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease are often diagnosed at advanced stage and disease spectrum including alcoholic hepatitis, a severe manifestation with a high short-term mortality. Corticosteroid, recommended first-line treatment for patients with alcoholic hepatitis, is a very suboptimal treatment. Although the use of early liver transplantation has increased with consistent benefit in select patients with alcoholic hepatitis, its use remains heterogeneous worldwide due to lack of uniform selection criteria...
December 26, 2022: Seminars in Liver Disease
Ashleigh Little, Abigail Medford, April O'Brien, Jonathan Childs, Sharon Pan, Jolaine Machado, Sanjukta Chakraborty, Shannon Glaser
Biliary epithelium (i.e., cholangiocytes) is a heterogeneous population of epithelial cells in the liver, which line small and large bile ducts and have individual responses and functions dependent on size and location in the biliary tract. We discuss the recent findings showing that the intrahepatic biliary tree is heterogeneous regarding (1) morphology and function, (2) hormone expression and signaling (3), response to injury, and (4) roles in liver regeneration. This review overviews the significant characteristics and differences of the small and large cholangiocytes...
December 15, 2022: Seminars in Liver Disease
Dennis Gregory McDuffie, David Murat Barr, Madeline Grace Helm, Thomas F Baumert, Ashutosh Agarwal, Emmanuel Thomas
Viral hepatitis is a leading cause of liver morbidity and mortality globally. The mechanisms underlying acute infection and clearance, versus the development of chronic infection, are poorly understood. In vitro models of viral hepatitis circumvent the high costs and ethical considerations of animal models, which also translate poorly to studying the human-specific hepatitis viruses. However, significant challenges are associated with modeling long-term infection in vitro. Differentiated hepatocytes are best able to sustain chronic viral hepatitis infection, but standard two-dimensional (2D) models are limited because they fail to mimic the architecture and cellular microenvironment of the liver, and cannot maintain a differentiated hepatocyte phenotype over extended periods...
November 19, 2022: Seminars in Liver Disease
Manuel Romero-Gómez, Rocío Aller, Franz Martín-Bermudo
Diet could be both culprit and solution of NAFLD. Dietary modifications have been associated with histological features improvement in NAFLD. The Western diet was related to a greater risk of disease progression while the Mediterranean diet (MD) could promote regression of histological lesions. Modifications in the nutrient composition seems to have lesser impact on NAFLD than dietary modifications. An intrinsic interaction between nutrients in the diet support a specific effect not seen when added separately...
November 2022: Seminars in Liver Disease
Bing Chen, W H Wilson Tang, Mario Rodriguez, Kathleen E Corey, Arun J Sanyal, Patrick S Kamath, Biykem Bozkurt, Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Gregg S Pressman, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Hashem B El-Serag, Chayakrit Krittanawong
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular diseases are both highly prevalent conditions around the world, and emerging data have shown an association between them. This review found several longitudinal and cross-sectional studies showing that NAFLD was associated with coronary artery disease, cardiac remodeling, aortic valve remodeling, mitral annulus valve calcifications, diabetic cardiomyopathy, diastolic cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias, and stroke. Although the specific underlying mechanisms are not clear, many hypotheses have been suggested, including that metabolic syndrome might act as an upstream metabolic defect, leading to end-organ manifestations in both the heart and liver...
November 2022: Seminars in Liver Disease
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