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Ya-Nan Xue, Bing-Bing Yu, Ya-Nan Liu, Rui Guo, Jiu-Ling Li, Li-Chao Zhang, Jing Su, Lian-Kun Sun, Yang Li
BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel (PTX) is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of prostate cancer. However, most patients develop resistance and metastasis, and thus new therapeutic approaches are urgently required. Recent studies have identified widespread anti-tumor effects of zinc (Zn) in various tumor cell lines, especially prostate cancer cells. In this study, we examined the effects of Zn as an adjuvant to PTX in prostate cancer cells. METHODS: PC3 and DU145 cells were treated with different concentrations of Zn and/or PTX...
February 3, 2019: Prostate
Yadong Xu, Qiong Song, Laura E Pascal, Mingming Zhong, Yibin Zhou, Jianhua Zhou, Fang-Ming Deng, Jiaoti Huang, Zhou Wang
BACKGROUND: DHX15 is a member of the DEAH-box (DHX) RNA helicase family. Our previous study identified it as an AR coactivator which contributes to prostate cancer progression. METHODS: We investigated DHX15 expression in castration resistant prostate cancer specimens and the influence of DHX15 on the responsiveness of prostate cancer cells to DHT stimulation. We also explored the role DHX15 played in enzalutamide resistance and the interacting domain in DHX15 with AR...
February 3, 2019: Prostate
Shikha Gaur, Mitchell E Gross, Chun-Peng Liao, Bin Qian, Jean C Shih
BACKGROUND: Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is best known for its role in neuro-transmitter regulation. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are used to treat atypical depression. MAOA is highly expressed in high grade prostate cancer and modulates tumorigenesis and progression in prostate cancer. Here, we investigated the potential role of MAOA inhibitors (MAOAIs) in relation to the androgen receptor (AR) pathway and resistance to antiandrogen treatment in prostate cancer. METHODS: We examined MAOA expression and the effect of MAOI treatment in relation to AR-targeted treatments using the LNCaP, C4-2B, and 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cell lines...
January 28, 2019: Prostate
Ranjit S Padda, Florence K Deng, Sabine I Brett, Colleen N Biggs, Paul N Durfee, Charles J Brinker, Karla C Williams, Hon S Leong
OBJECTIVE: To determine if prostate-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in patient plasma samples are of exocytotic origin (exosomes) or released by the cell membrane (microparticles/microvesicles). Both malignant and normal prostate cells release two types of EVs into the circulation, exosomes, and microparticles/microvesicles which differ in size, origin, and mode of release. Determining what proportion of prostate-derived EVs are of exosomal versus microparticle/microvesicle EV subtype is of potential diagnostic significance...
January 24, 2019: Prostate
Young Hyo Choi, Deok Hyun Han, Seon-Woo Kim, Min-Ji Kim, Hyun Hwan Sung, Hwang Gyun Jeon, Byong Chang Jeong, Seong Il Seo, Seong Soo Jeon, Hyun Moo Lee, Han Yong Choi
BACKGROUND: The anti-cancer activities of curcumin are well-documented from preclinical studies using prostate cancer models. Our objective was to evaluate the anti-cancer activity of oral curcumin in patients with prostate cancer. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on patients with prostate cancer who received intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD). Participants who finished the first on-treatment period of IAD were randomized into a curcumin or placebo group...
January 22, 2019: Prostate
Nicolae Ghinea, Blaise Robin, Christophe Pichon, Renaud Leclere, André Nicolas, Caroline Chnecker, Jean-François Côté, Bertrand Guillonneau, Aurelian Radu
BACKGROUND: Perineural invasion (PNI) is generally accepted as a major route of cancer dissemination in malignancies associated with highly enervated organs. However, the effect of cancer cells on vasa nervorum remains unknown. We studied this effect in locally advanced prostate cancer, a high-risk feature associated with approximately 20% of prostate cancer specific mortality. METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry for CD34, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), FSHR, podoplanin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and VEGFR-2 as well as histochemical methods to examine the vasa nervorum of nerves invaded by cancer cells in tissue samples from 85 patients...
January 20, 2019: Prostate
Changlin Li, Chenchen He, Ying Xu, Haixia Xu, Yuzhe Tang, Hemantkumar Chavan, Shaofeng Duan, Antonio Artigues, Marcus Laird Forrest, Partha Krishnamurthy, Suxia Han, Jeffrey M Holzbeierlein, Benyi Li
BACKGROUND: Alternol is a natural compound isolated from fermentation products of a mutant fungus. Our previous studies demonstrated that Alternol specifically kills cancer cells but spares benign cells. METHODS: To investigate the mechanism underlying alternol-induced cancer cell-specific killing effect, we took a comprehensive strategy to identify Alternol's protein targets in prostate cancer cells, including PC-3, C4-2, and 22RV1, plus benign BPH1 cell lines...
January 20, 2019: Prostate
Daniel P Petrylak, Philip Kantoff, Nicholas J Vogelzang, Anthony Mega, Mark T Fleming, Joe J Stephenson, Richard Frank, Neal D Shore, Robert Dreicer, Edward F McClay, William R Berry, Manish Agarwal, Vincent A DiPippo, Yakov Rotshteyn, Nancy Stambler, William C Olson, Stephen A Morris, Robert J Israel
BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a well-characterized target that is overexpressed selectively on prostate cancer cells. PSMA antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody conjugated to the microtubule disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), which is designed to specifically bind PSMA-positive cells, internalize, and then release its cytotoxic payload into the cells. PSMA ADC has demonstrated potent and selective antitumor activity in preclinical models of advanced prostate cancer...
January 20, 2019: Prostate
Brian W Simons, Norman F Turtle, David H Ulmert, Diane S Abou, Daniel L J Thorek
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), also known as glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), is highly overexpressed in primary and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). This has led to the development of radiopharmaceuticals for targeted imaging and therapy under current clinical evaluation. Despite this progress, the exact biological role of the protein in prostate cancer development and progression has not been fully elucidated. This is in part because the human PSMA and mouse PSMA (mPSMA) have different patterns of anatomical expression which confound study in the most widely utilized model organisms...
January 17, 2019: Prostate
Maria Koleva, Dorian Dikov, Veselin Belovejdov, Victoria Sarafian
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic metaplasia (EM) in the prostate is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules in benign prostatic epithelium. These granules show exocrine-type morphology and positive expression for prostate specific antigen (PSA) and some lysosomal markers. The nature and the full immunohistochemical profile of the granules of EM have not been studied in detail yet. AIM: The aim of the current study is to investigate the expression of epithelial mucins (MUCs) in prostatic epithelium with EM...
January 16, 2019: Prostate
Roni M Joentausta, Antti Rannikko, Teemu J Murtola
BACKGROUND: Improved prostate cancer (PCa) survival by statin use has been reported among PCa patients managed with radiation or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), while results are controversial for men managed surgically. We evaluate the association between cholesterol-lowering medication with initiation of ADT and disease-specific death among PCa cases who underwent radical prostatectomy in Finland between 1995 and 2013. METHODS: The study cohort included 14 424 men with PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy in Finland between 1995 and 2013...
January 16, 2019: Prostate
Nobuhiro Haga, Hidenori Akaihata, Junya Hata, Hiroyuki Hiraki, Ruriko Honda, Ryo Tanji, Akifumi Onagi, Tomoyuki Koguchi, Seiji Hoshi, Soichiro Ogawa, Masao Kataoka, Yuichi Sato, Kei Ishibashi, Yoshiyuki Kojima
BACKGROUND: To elucidate the pathogenesis of benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) in humans due to chronic inflammation caused by arteriosclerosis, the relationships between prostate size and the degree of chronic inflammation induced by local arteriosclerosis were investigated. METHODS: The present cohort included 50 subjects who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in a prospective study. The presence or absence of local arteriosclerosis in the prostatic arteries removed during RARP was evaluated by microscopic assessment...
January 13, 2019: Prostate
Yufei Liu, Xiaobo Wu, Haowen Jiang
BACKGROUND: High fat diet (HFD) and its responsive change of gut microbiota are associated with numerous diseases in human and animal studies. But how maternal and post-weaning HFD may influence the tumorigenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) in male offspring has not yet been reported. METHODS: We studied both solitary and combined effects of maternal or/and post-weaning HFD on the tumorigenesis of prostate in offspring using a transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model...
January 6, 2019: Prostate
Liancheng Fan, Yan Yang, Chenfei Chi, Xiaowei Ma, Rui Wang, Yiming Gong, Hongying Zheng, Jiahua Pan, Yinjie Zhu, Baijun Dong, Wei Xue
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the value of the serum neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) markers in helping to select the best treatment sequence of abiraterone acetate (AA) and docetaxel-prednisone (DP) in mCRPC. METHODS: Eighty-eight mCRPC patients were identified (42 in the DP-to-AA group and 46 in the AA-to-DP group). The serum levels of NED markers were measured before the first-line treatment in 88 patients and also before and after DP therapy in 38 patients. We determined their impact on OS, radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS), and PSA-PFS...
January 6, 2019: Prostate
Mingfeng Zhao, Mei Qi, Xinjun Li, Jing Hu, Jing Zhang, Meng Jiao, Xinnuo Bai, Xijia Peng, Bo Han
BACKGROUND: Cullin 4B (CUL4B), a scaffold protein that assembles CRL4B ubiquitin ligase complexes, is overexpressed in many types of solid tumors and contributes to epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressors. However, its clinical significance and underlying molecular mechanisms in prostate cancer (PCa) remain unknown. METHODS: The clinical significance of CUL4B in PCa was characterized by in silico method. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to study the transcript and protein expression levels of CUL4B and C-MYC...
January 4, 2019: Prostate
Lindsay A Broadfield, Katarina Marcinko, Evangelia Tsakiridis, Panayiotis G Zacharidis, Linda Villani, James S V Lally, Gabe Menjolian, Danitra Maharaj, Tammy Mathurin, Marcia Smoke, Thomas Farrell, Paola Muti, Gregory R Steinberg, Theodoros Tsakiridis
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) is a key therapeutic modality for prostate cancer (PrCa), but RT resistance necessitates dose-escalation, often causing bladder and rectal toxicity. Aspirin, a prodrug of salicylate (SAL), has been associated with improved RT response in clinical PrCa cases, but the potential mechanism mediating this effect is unknown. SAL activates the metabolic stress sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which inhibits de novo lipogenesis, and protein synthesis via inhibition of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC), and the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR), respectively...
January 4, 2019: Prostate
Shinji Fujii, Shinichi Yamashita, Natsuho Hayashi, Takuro Goto, Juntaro Koyama, Takuma Sato, Shuichi Shimada, Yoshihide Kawasaki, Hideaki Izumi, Naoki Kawamorita, Koji Mitsuzuka, Akihiro Ito, Yoichi Arai
BACKGROUND: Many elderly men suffer from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Recently, chronic ischemia in the prostate has been suggested to be related to BPH. Thus, the impact of chronic ischemia on the development of prostatic hyperplasia and the efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor for hyperplasia were evaluated in a rat model with chronic ischemia induced by local atherosclerosis. METHODS: Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham operation, regular diet, placebo (SRP); arterial endothelial injury, high cholesterol diet, placebo (AHP); or arterial endothelial injury, high cholesterol diet, and tadalafil as a PDE5 inhibitor (AHT)...
December 28, 2018: Prostate
Pedro Augusto Marischka Mateus, Larissa Akemi Kido, Rafael Sauce Silva, Valéria Helena Alves Cagnon, Fabio Montico
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation has been implicated in cancer etiology and angiogenesis is stimulated in this disease. In prostate, the crosstalk between malignant epithelial cells and their microenvironment is an essential step of tumorigenesis during which glandular stroma undergo changes designated as reactive stroma. Thus, the aim herewith was to evaluate the effects of associating anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic therapies on cancer progression, correlating them with steroid hormone receptor (AR and ERα), reactive stroma (vimentin, αSMA, and TGF-β), and cell proliferation (PCNA) markers expression in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model...
December 25, 2018: Prostate
Janaina L S Donadio, Li Liu, Vincent L Freeman, Dede N Ekoue, Alan M Diamond, Giovanna Bermano
BACKGROUND: NKX3.1 is a tumor suppressor frequently lost in prostate cancer. Previous studies by others indicated that the risks associated with reduced NKX3.1 levels can be enhanced by anti-oxidant supplementation. Selenium is an essential component of several proteins with anti-oxidant functions and lower levels of selenium have been associated with greater risk of prostate cancer. In contrast, participants of the select prostate cancer prevention trial were at increased risk of prostate cancer when supplemented with selenium when their baseline selenium levels were high...
December 23, 2018: Prostate
Hiroaki Iwamoto, Kouji Izumi, Ariunbold Natsagdorj, Renato Naito, Tomoyuki Makino, Suguru Kadomoto, Kaoru Hiratsuka, Kazuyoshi Shigehara, Yoshifumi Kadono, Kazutaka Narimoto, Yohei Saito, Kyoko Nakagawa-Goto, Atsushi Mizokami
BACKGROUND: Coffee inhibits the progression of prostate cancer; however, the direct mechanism through which coffee acts on prostate cancer cells remains unclear. This study aimed to identify the key compounds of coffee that possess anti-cancer effects and to investigate their mechanisms of action. METHODS: The anti-proliferation and anti-migration effects of six potentially active types of coffee compounds, including kahweol acetate, cafestol, caffeine, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and trigonelline hydrochloride, were evaluated using LNCaP, LNCaP-SF, PC-3, and DU145 human prostate cancer cells...
December 19, 2018: Prostate
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