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Carole-Anne Whigham, Teresa M MacDonald, Susan P Walker, Natalie J Hannan, Stephen Tong, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino
Pregnancy complications such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia are diseases with limited biomarkers for prediction, and a complete lack of therapeutic options. We define placenta-enriched molecules as those that are highly expressed in the placenta relative to all other human tissues. Many exist including mRNAs, miRNAs and proteins. It is now well established that placenta-enriched mRNAs are found within the maternal circulation and are cleared rapidly after birth. Similarly, distinct clusters of miRNAs that are placenta-enriched have been identified and are measurable within the circulation...
February 4, 2019: Placenta
Sam A Mesiano, Gregory A Peters, Peyvand Amini, Rachel A Wilson, Gregory P Tochtrop, Focco van Den Akker
In the 1930s the "progestin" hormone produced by the corpus luteum was isolated and found to be a Δ4 -keto-steroid. It was aptly named progesterone (P4) and in the following 30 years the capacity of P4 and derivatives to prevent preterm birth (PTB) was examined. Outcomes of multiple small studies suggested that progestin prophylaxis beginning at mid-gestation decreases the risk for PTB. Subsequent larger trials found that prophylaxis with weekly intramuscular injections of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17HPC) beginning at mid-gestation decreased PTB risk in women with a history of PTB...
January 28, 2019: Placenta
K K Ferguson, T F McElrath, D E Cantonwine, B Mukherjee, J D Meeker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2019: Placenta
Bingbing Wang, Panwen Wang, Nataliya Parobchak, Nathan Treff, Xin Tao, Junwen Wang, Todd Rosen
BACKGROUND: Chromatin alterations are important mediators of gene expression changes. We have recently shown that activated non-canonical NF-κB signaling (RelB/p52) recruits histone acetyltransferase CBP and deacetylase HDAC1 to selectively acetylate H3K9 (H3K9ac) to induce expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2) in the human placenta. Both of these genes play a role in initiating parturition in human pregnancy. METHODS: We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by gene sequencing (ChIP-seq) in primary term human cytotrophoblast (CTB) with use of antibodies to RelB, CBP, HDAC1 and H3K9ac...
January 10, 2019: Placenta
Ramkumar Menon, Scott M Williams, Ronald F Lamont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2019: Placenta
K Adu-Bonsaffoh, C Gyamfi-Bannerman, S A Oppong, J D Seffah
INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth remains an important clinical challenge with significant short and long-term complications although its burden in the developing world is not adequately explored. This study determines the incidence, specific determinants and outcomes of preterm birth at a teaching hospital in Ghana. METHODS: Retrospective review of singleton births at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) in Ghana between 1st January to 31st December, 2015. RESULTS: Preterm birth (PTB) occurred in 1478 (18...
January 8, 2019: Placenta
Chaini Konwar, Giulia Del Gobbo, Victor Yuan, Wendy P Robinson
The application of genomic approaches to placental research has opened exciting new avenues to help us understand basic biological properties of the placenta, improve prenatal screening/diagnosis, and measure effects of in utero exposures on child health outcomes. In the last decade, such large-scale genomic data (including epigenomics and transcriptomics) have become more easily accessible to researchers from many disciplines due to the increasing ease of obtaining such data and the rapidly evolving computational tools available for analysis...
January 7, 2019: Placenta
Esther Tseng, Sonia Soo Yee Teoh, Yao Wang, Guiying Nie
Preeclampsia is hallmarked by systemic endothelial dysfunction, including increased endothelial permeability and oedema. Placenta-derived factors in maternal blood contribute to endothelial barrier impairment, but molecular mechanisms are unclear. HtrA4 is a placenta-specific protease that is secreted into the maternal circulation and elevated in early-onset preeclampsia. In this study, we found HtrA4 cleaved the key endothelial junctional protein VE-cadherin in vitro. HtrA4 at concentrations found in preeclampsia also cleaved VE-cadherin in HUVECs as an endothelial model, disrupted cell-cell connections and induced intercellular gaps...
January 2, 2019: Placenta
D P Zhao, L Verbeek, L S A Tollenaar, A B Te Pas, D Oepkes, E Lopriore
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between Hb levels and the size of the placental anastomoses. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all uncomplicated MC twins delivered vaginally at our center from 2002 to 2017. Hb levels at birth and on day 2 were retrieved. All MC placentas were routinely injected with colored dye and high-resolution pictures were taken for computer-based analysis. We measured the size of arterio-arterial (AA) and veno-venous (VV) anastomoses as well as the total venous size, defined as the sum of the diameter of first generation of placental veins within 5 cm of each cord insertion...
January 2, 2019: Placenta
A Rapacz-Leonard, M Leonard, M Chmielewska-Krzesińska, K Paździor-Czapula, T Janowski
BACKGROUND: Major histocompatibility protein class I (MHC-I) is believed to be expressed in the horse allantochorion only in limited areas at limited times. However, its expression has only been investigated in early pregnancy with non-quantitative techniques that cannot reliably detect small amounts of protein. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relative expression of MHC-I in the allantochorion and endometrium during days 90-240 of pregnancy (PREG), parturition with physiological delivery of fetal membranes (PHYS), and parturition with retention of these membranes (FMR)...
December 24, 2018: Placenta
Kei Tanaka, Momoe Watanabe, Shinji Tanigaki, Mitsutoshi Iwashita, Yoichi Kobayashi
OBJECTIVES: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α) promotes tumor growth by enhancing tumor angiogenesis; however, the effects on choriocarcinoma remain unknown. We investigated the effects of TNF-α on the production of placental growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in BeWo cells and also examined its significance on the interactions with the endothelial cells by using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). MATERIALS & METHODS: After incubation with TNF-α (10-105  pg/mL), the expression of PlGF and VEGF-A in BeWo cells were assessed by ELISA and RT-PCR...
December 24, 2018: Placenta
Liam Dunn, Sailesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum fetal compromise (IFC) may result from the gradual decline in placental function during labour and can precipitate adverse neonatal outcomes. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a biomarker of placental function. This study aims to investigate maternal PlGF levels and adverse perinatal outcomes in term labour. METHODS: Prospective observational study (Mater Mothers' Hospital, Brisbane). Eligibility: 37+0 - 42+0 weeks gestation, singleton, cephalic, non-anomalous pregnancies...
December 22, 2018: Placenta
Alisse Hauspurg, Emily K Redman, Vanessa Assibey-Mensah, W Tony Parks, Arun Jeyabalan, James M Roberts, Janet M Catov
INTRODUCTION: Women with adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) have excess risk of later life cardiovascular disease (CVD) perhaps related to an underlying high-risk vascular phenotype. We sought to determine if placental evidence of maternal malperfusion in uncomplicated pregnancies is associated with an increased risk of APOs in subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: 536 women with more than one delivery and an initial uncomplicated pregnancy with placental pathology examination between 2008 and 2012 were included...
December 21, 2018: Placenta
Yeukai Tm Mangwiro, Jessica F Briffa, Sogand Gravina, Dayana Mahizir, Kristina Anevska, Tania Romano, Karen M Moritz, James Sm Cuffe, Mary E Wlodek
Fetal growth and development are dependent on adequate placental nutrient transfer. The surface area of the placental villous network is a key determinant of nutrient exchange, which is regulated by vasculogenic and angiogenic factors. These factors are altered by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal obesity in both the first (F1) and second (F2) generations. We investigated the impact of endurance exercise in IUGR dams fed a High-fat diet on placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Uteroplacental insufficiency (Restricted) or sham (Control) surgery was induced on embryonic day (E) 18 in Wistar-Kyoto rats...
December 15, 2018: Placenta
Anna C M Fabre-Gray, Colin J Down, Christopher R Neal, Rebecca R Foster, Simon C Satchell, Victoria L Bills
There is a significant glycocalyx present at the maternal-fetal interface of the human placenta, with increasing evidence to suggest it has an important role in placental function. Glycocalyx is adversely affected by traditional tissue processing and fixation techniques. Using transmission electron microscopy, we present methodologies for reliably imaging and measuring glycocalyx of both the syncytiotrophoblast and fetal capillary endothelium in term healthy placentae. These techniques can be used to study the role of the placental glycocalyx in both health and disease, including pre-eclampsia...
December 13, 2018: Placenta
Li Guo, Yu Liu, Ying Guo, Yongkang Yang, Biliang Chen
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality globally. The imbalance of trophoblast homeostasis is closely linked with the pathogenesis of PE. MicroRNA-423-5p (miR-423-5p) has been reported to be abnormally expressed in placenta and blood plasma of pregnant women with PE. In the present study, miR-423-5p expression in blood plasma of pregnant women with PE and healthy pregnant women was detected. Also, the roles and molecular mechanisms of miR-423-5p in the development of trophoblast cells were further investigated...
December 7, 2018: Placenta
Tanja Jankovic-Karasoulos, Dale McAninch, Dylan McCullough, Rebecca L Wilson, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Claire T Roberts
Human placental functional studies are often performed using immortalised trophoblast cells and cell lines established from human choriocarcinomas, which, while practical, may not truly reflect trophoblast function in vivo. Primary trophoblast cultures derived from human placentas following pregnancy termination or delivery are more clinically relevant, but trophoblast isolation protocols are only available for 1st trimester and term placental tissues. Here we report a method for isolation and purification of primary villous cytotrophoblasts from 2nd trimester human placentas, that yields >99% trophoblast purity as shown by immunofluorescence...
November 22, 2018: Placenta
Cyntia Duval, Marie-Eve Brien, Virginie Gaudreault, Ines Boufaied, Bernadette Baker, Rebecca L Jones, Sylvie Girard
INTRODUCTION: Inflammation is an important cause of placental dysfunction often associated with pregnancy complications. One well-known cause of inflammation is infection, through conserved "pathogen-associated molecular patterns" (PAMPs). Endogenous inducers of inflammation, known as "damage-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs), have also been associated with pathological pregnancies and could contribute to the observed placental inflammation. Although both stimuli (i...
January 2019: Placenta
Mizuki Uenaka, Mayumi Morizane, Kenji Tanimura, Masashi Deguchi, Maki Kanzawa, Tomoo Itoh, Hideto Yamada
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common cause of congenital viral infections in humans. The unusual structure of the placenta plays a pivotal role in CMV transmission from mothers to fetuses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histopathological findings of placentas with congenital CMV infections. METHODS: We obtained placental specimens from 35 women who had newborns with congenital CMV infections. Placental specimens, extraplacental membranes, and umbilical cords were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis...
January 2019: Placenta
Sarah J Delforce, Eugenie R Lumbers, Saije K Morosin, Yu Wang, Kirsty G Pringle
INTRODUCTION: Placental development occurs in a low oxygen environment, which stimulates angiogenesis by upregulating vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (SERPINE1) and the angiopoietin-2/-1 ratio (ANGPT2/1). At this time, Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 R) is highly expressed. We postulated that the early gestation placental oxygen milieu, by stimulating the angiotensin (Ang) II/AT1 R pathway, increases expression of proliferative/angiogenic factors...
January 2019: Placenta
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