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Physical Therapy

Maria Elvén, Jacek Hochwälder, Elizabeth Dean, Anne Söderlund
BACKGROUND: Although physical therapist students must be well prepared to integrate biopsychosocial and behavioral perspectives into their clinical reasoning, there is a lack of knowledge regarding factors that influence such competence. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the associations among the independent variables: knowledge, cognition, metacognition, psychological factors, contextual factors, and curriculum orientation vis-à-vis behavioral medicine competencies; and the dependent variables: outcomes of input from client (IC), functional behavioral analysis (FBA), and strategies for behavior change (SBC) as levels in physical therapist students' clinical reasoning processes...
March 14, 2019: Physical Therapy
Margaret Galloway, Dianne L Marsden, Robin Callister, Kirk I Erickson, Michael Nilsson, Coralie English
BACKGROUND: Undertaking exercise after stroke improves cardiorespiratory fitness and walking capacity after stroke, but the effect of altering exercise dose (via frequency, intensity, time, and type) on fitness or walking capacity is unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to synthesize the current evidence for the effects of different doses of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and walking capacity in people after stroke. DATA SOURCES: Seven relevant electronic databases were searched using keywords relating to stroke and cardiorespiratory fitness...
March 5, 2019: Physical Therapy
Margarita D Tsiros, Sarah P Shultz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2019: Physical Therapy
Jodi A Cisewski, Laura L Durbin, Elizabeth G Bond, Min Qian, Jack M Guralnik, Judith Kasper, Thelma J Mielenz
BACKGROUND: Driving a motor vehicle is an important aspect of mobility for older adults. Limited lower extremity functioning performance, as measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), has been associated with various negative health outcomes, but little is known about the association of SPPB scores with driving status. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether lower (poorer) SPPB scores are associated with an increased rate for being a current nondriver among a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults...
March 5, 2019: Physical Therapy
Kimberley S van Schooten, Ellen Freiberger, Myriam Sillevis Smitt, Veronika Keppner, Cornel Sieber, Stephen R Lord, Kim Delbaere
BACKGROUND: Higher levels of concern about falling in older people have been associated with slower walking speed and an increased risk of falls. However, it is unclear whether this relationship is independent or confounded by other fall risk factors, such as physical and cognitive function. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of concern about falling on gait speed, adjusted for physiological fall risk and cognitive function. DESIGN: This was an observational, cross-sectional study...
March 4, 2019: Physical Therapy
Aimi L Forsyth, Riddhi Y Joshi, Colleen G Canning, Natalie E Allen, Serene S Paul
BACKGROUND: People with Parkinson disease (PD) are twice as likely to develop flexed truncal posture as the general older population. Little is known about the mechanisms responsible beyond associations with age, axial motor impairments, and disease severity. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore: (1) the associations of the non-motor impairments of PD with flexed posture and (2) the relationships of flexed posture with activity limitations. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study...
March 4, 2019: Physical Therapy
Mary Rahlin, Joyce Barnett, Elaine Becker, Charlene M Fregosi
Clinical assessment of movement and posture guides the decision-making process in designing interventions for infants and children with movement disorders. Clinical reasoning is influenced by the therapist's understanding of developmental processes. The views of development grounded in perception-action, dynamic systems, and neuronal group selection theories are well recognized in current literature and supported by a large body of research. Based on the available evidence, intervention must be task-specific, repetitive, and highly salient to the child...
February 27, 2019: Physical Therapy
R T Harbourne, S E Berger
BACKGROUND: Embodied cognition interests physical therapists because efforts to advance motor skills in young infants may affect learning. However, we do not know if simply advancing motor skill is enough to support advances in cognition. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effect of two interventions on the developing motor skill of sitting and problem solving and to describe the feasibility of using eye-tracking technology to explore visual and motor interaction...
February 27, 2019: Physical Therapy
Beth A Smith, Martha L Hall, Ben Greenspan, Peter Rohloff, Laura A Prosser, Michele A Lobo
This paper will define "wearables" as objects that interface and move with users, spanning clothing through smart devices. A novel design approach merging information from across disciplines and considering users' broad needs will be presented as the optimal approach for designing wearables that maximize usage. Then, three categories of wearables applicable to rehabilitation and habilitation will be explored: (1) inclusive clothing (eg, altered fit, fasteners), (2) supportive wearables (eg, orthotics, exoskeletons), and (3) smart wearables (eg, with sensors for tracking activity or controlling external devices)...
February 27, 2019: Physical Therapy
Stacey C Dusing, Emily C Marcinowski, Nelci A C F Rocha, Tanya Tripathi, Shaaron E Brown
Parents are their infant's first teachers and play a very important role in early development. Early Intervention strives to enhance infant participation in the family and regulations require the engagement of families in assessment and intervention. Infants born preterm or with motor impairments demonstrate altered social engagements which may influence parent child interaction and the efficacy of therapy services. However, therapists rarely assess or report on the quality of parent infant interaction in research focused on the efficacy of interventions or in clinical practice...
February 26, 2019: Physical Therapy
Samuel T Nemanich, Chao-Ying Chen, Mo Chen, Elizabeth Zorn, Bryon Mueller, Colleen Peyton, Jed T Elison, James Stinear, Raghu Rao, Michael Georgieff, Jeremiah Menk, Kyle Rudser, Bernadette Gillick
BACKGROUND: Perinatal brain injuries often impact the corticospinal system, leading to motor impairment and cerebral palsy (CP). While transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been widely used to study corticospinal connectivity in adults and older children, similar studies of young infants are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to establish the safety and feasibility of advanced TMS assessments of the corticospinal connectivity of young infants with perinatal brain injury...
February 26, 2019: Physical Therapy
Nicholas E Fears, Brooke C Bailey, Blair Youmans, Jeffrey J Lockman
BACKGROUND: Visual-motor integration is an integral component of many adaptive behaviors and has been linked to school readiness. In young school-age children, visual-motor integration is typically assessed with the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (Beery VMI), a standardized instrument that measures children's ability to copy two-dimensional forms. The Beery VMI is scored on the basis of children's final written product, but does not directly measure the process of visual-motor integration that underlies children's form copying...
February 26, 2019: Physical Therapy
Jaclyn Dawe, Jaynie F Yang, Darcy Fehlings, Jirapat Likitlersuang, Peter Rumney, José Zariffa, Kristin E Musselman
BACKGROUND: For children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP), rehabilitation aims to increase movement of the affected arm. However, no validated measure objectively examines this construct in pediatric practice or daily life. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and known-groups validity of accelerometry as a measure of arm movement in children with HCP. DESIGN: This was a prospective cross-sectional study...
February 25, 2019: Physical Therapy
Poonam K Pardasaney, Gregory C Pope, Peter Amico, Anne Deutsch, Tracy Kline, Jill Dever, Benjamin Silver, Scott Scheffler, Ann Meadow, Pamela West
BACKGROUND: Clinical characteristics driving variations in Medicare outpatient physical therapy expenditures are inadequately understood. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to examine variations in annual outpatient physical therapy expenditures of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries by primary diagnosis and baseline functional mobility and to assess whether case mix groups based on primary diagnosis and functional mobility scores would be useful for expenditure differentiation...
February 25, 2019: Physical Therapy
Jamie M Holloway, Toby M Long
Participation is a major outcome area for physical therapists serving young children with disabilities. Contemporary models of disability such as the International Classification of Function, developmental theories such as the system perspective, and evidence-based early childhood practices recognize the interdependence of developmental domains, and suggest change in 1 area of development influences change in another. Physical therapy provided in naturally occurring activities and routines, considered the preferred service delivery method, promotes participation of young children with disabilities...
February 25, 2019: Physical Therapy
Ellen Christin Arntzen, Bjørn Kåre Straume, Francis Odeh, Peter Feys, Paolo Zanaboni, Britt Normann
Background: Balance and trunk control are often impaired in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Interventions addressing these issues are needed. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the immediate and long-term effects of a 6-week individualized, group-based, comprehensive core stability intervention (GroupCoreDIST) with those of standard care on balance and trunk control in individuals with MS. Design: This study was a prospective, assessor-masked randomized controlled trial...
February 4, 2019: Physical Therapy
Lucy Armitage, Lauren Kark, Sharon Czerniec, Li Khim Kwah
Background: Measurements of residual limb volume often guide decisions on the type and timing of prosthetic prescription. To help inform these decisions, it is important that clinicians use measurement tools that are reliable and valid. Purpose: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the reliability and validity of measurement tools for residual limb volume in people with limb amputations. Data Sources: A comprehensive search on MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and Web of Science was performed on July 11, 2016...
February 4, 2019: Physical Therapy
Koen J F M Dekkers, Rob J E M Smeets, Yvonne J M Janssen-Potten, Andrew M Gordon, Lucianne A W M Speth, Eugene A A Rameckers
Background: For children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (USCP), reduced muscle strength may lead to activity limitations. However, despite existence of many upper limb strength measures, none measure strength in the context of functional activities in which the strength must be maintained for several seconds. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of two newly developed functional hand and upper limb muscle-strength tests (Cup- and Box task) in children (7-12 years) with USCP...
February 4, 2019: Physical Therapy
Li K Kwah, Jordan Green, Jane Butler, Lawrence Lam
Background: Quality of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is important to ensure guideline adoption by clinicians. Purpose: This review aimed to identify CPGs for management of limb amputations, appraise the quality of CPGs, and synthesize the recommendations from comprehensive CPGs of high quality. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, guideline specific websites, amputee association/network websites and Google Scholar from were searched April 2007 to April 2017...
February 1, 2019: Physical Therapy
Kim Allison, Jenny Setchell, Thorlene Egerton, Clare Delaney, Kim L Bennell
Background: Physical therapists are at the frontline of treatment for knee osteoarthritis (OA). International guidelines recommend weight-loss for individuals with knee OA who are overweight and research indicates that patients believe it is appropriate for physical therapists to address weight. Objectives: The objective was to explore physical therapists' attitudes to their role in weight management for people with OA. Design: This was a qualitative semi-structured telephone interview study...
January 31, 2019: Physical Therapy
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