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Pediatric Pulmonology

Sophie Yammine, Kathryn A Ramsey, Billy Skoric, Louise King, Philipp Latzin, Tim Rosenow, Graham L Hall, Sarath C Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: In children with cystic fibrosis (CF) lung clearance index (LCI) from multiple-breath washout (MBW) correlates with structural lung disease. As a shorter test, single-breath washout (SBW) represents an attractive alternative to assess the ventilation distribution, however, data for the correlation with lung imaging are lacking. METHODS: We assessed correlations between phase III slope (SIII) of double-tracer gas SBW, nitrogen MBW indices (LCI and moment ratios for overall ventilation distribution, Scond, and Sacin for conductive and mainly acinar ventilation, respectively) and structural lung disease assessed by chest computed tomography (CT) in children with CF...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Leontien C C Toussaint-Duyster, Monique H M van der Cammen-van Zijp, Johan C de Jongste, Dick Tibboel, Rene M H Wijnen, Saskia J Gischler, Joost van Rosmalen, Hanneke IJsselstijn
OBJECTIVE: Children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) suffer from long-term pulmonary morbidity. Longitudinal data of exercise capacity in these children are lacking. We hypothesized that exercise capacity would be impaired in children with CDH and deteriorates over time. We evaluated exercise capacity and its determinants in CDH patients longitudinally until 12 years of age. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal follow-up study in tertiary university hospital...
February 11, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Timothy J Kidd, Keith Grimwood, Scott C Bell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Trinidad Sánchez, David Gozal, Dale L Smith, Catalina Foncea, Carmen Betancur, Pablo E Brockmann
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Similar to other respiratory diseases, sleep disordered breathing (SDB) may be exacerbated by air contaminants. Air pollution may have an impact on incidence and severity of SDB in children. The aims of this study were to examine potential associations between the exposure to different air pollutants and SDB symptoms in children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, parents from first grade children of elementary schools throughout Chile were included...
February 4, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Nina D'Vaz, Toluwalose A Okitika, Claire Shackleton, Sunalene G Devadason, Graham L Hall
INTRODUCTION: Spacer devices optimize delivery of aerosol therapies and maximize therapeutic efficacy. We assessed the impact of spacer device on the prevalence and magnitude of bronchodilator response (BDR) in children with asthma. METHODS: Children with physician confirmed asthma and parentally reported symptoms in the last 12 months were recruited for this study. Each participant completed two separate visits (5-10 days apart) with spirometry performed at baseline and following cumulative doses of salbutamol (200, 400, 800, and 200 μg) delivered by either a small volume disposable spacer or a large volume multi-use spacer...
February 4, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Tuğba Şişmanlar Eyüboğlu, Ayşe T Aslan, Tugba Ramaslı Gursoy, Zeynep R Onay, Ulker Kocak, Anıl Aktas Tapısız
Nocardia spp is a gram-positive aerobic filamentous bacteria that causes pulmonary and systemic infections, especially in patients with immunosuppression or chronic lung diseases. It is rarely reported in children with cystic fibrosis. Macrophage activation syndrome is a life-threatening disease with an excessive inflammatory response usually triggered by infections. There are few reports in cystic fibrosis related to macrophage activation syndrome. Herein we report a child with cystic fibrosis who had macrophage activation syndrome due to Nocardia infection...
January 31, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Daniel M Hinds, Don B Sanders, James E Slaven, Mauricio Romero, Stephanie D Davis, John C Stevens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 29, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Christopher W Course, Sailesh Kotecha, Sarah J Kotecha
BACKGROUND: Decreased lung function is common in preterm-born survivors. Increased fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) appears to be a reliable test for eosinophillic airway inflammation especially in asthma. We, systematically, reviewed the literature to compare FeNO levels in preterm-born children and adults who did or did not have chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) in infancy with term-born controls. METHODS: We searched eight databases up to February 2018...
January 29, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Meera S Meerkov, Fauziya Hassan, Ronald D Chervin, John D Barks, Martha D Carlson, Renée A Shellhaas
OBJECTIVE: Among older infants and children, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has negative neurocognitive consequences. We evaluated the frequency and potential impact of SDB among newborns who require intensive care. STUDY DESIGN: Term and near-term newborns at risk for seizures underwent 12-h attended polysomnography in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Bayley Scales of Infant Development, third edition (Bayley-III) were administered at 18-22 months. RESULT: The 48 newborns (EGA 39...
January 27, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Daniel V Chang, Alejandro Teper, Juan Balinotti, Christian Castro Simonelli, Facundo Garcia-Bournissen, Carlos Kofman
BACKGROUND: Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) has been proposed for monitoring airway inflammation, diagnosis, and prediction of steroid responsiveness in asthma. However, its utility after elective suspension of asthma medication is still unclear. We aimed to determine the association between eNO values and the subsequent loss of asthma control (LAC) in asymptomatic asthmatic children after inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) withdrawal. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study...
January 27, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Stefano Nobile, Paolo Marchionni, Carlo Gidiucci, Alessio Correani, Maria L Palazzi, Cristina Spagnoli, Clementina Rondina, Virgilio P Carnielli
OBJECTIVE: To assess oxygen diffusion at 36 weeks' post-menstrual age in preterm infants by means of the non-invasive oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (36w-SFR) and to identify factors associated with 36w-SFR - ie, gestational age (GA) and early respiratory disease patterns (ERP). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. PATIENTS: 1005 preterm infants born below 32 weeks' GA...
January 27, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Bernadette B L J Elders, Sergei M Hermelijn, Harm A W M Tiddens, Bas Pullens, Pjotr A Wielopolski, Pierluigi Ciet
BACKGROUND: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques to image the larynx have evolved rapidly into a promising and safe imaging modality, without need for sedation or ionizing radiation. MRI is therefore of great interest to image pediatric laryngeal diseases. Our aim was to review MRI developments relevant for the pediatric larynx and to discuss future imaging options. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify all morphological and diagnostic studies in which MRI was used to image the pediatric larynx, laryngeal disease, or vocal cords...
January 25, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Alberto Maffey, Alejandro Colom, Carolina Venialgo, Eduardo Acastello, Patricia Garrido, Hugo Cozzani, Cecilia Eguiguren, Alejandro Teper
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have prospectively evaluated recovery process and long-term consequences of pleural space infections. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical, pulmonary, and diaphragmatic function and radiological outcome in patients hospitalized with pleural empyema. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Previously healthy patients from 6 to 16 years were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and treatment data were registered. At hospital discharge, and every 30 days or until normalization, patients underwent a clinical evaluation, diaphragmatic ultrasound, and lung function testing...
January 23, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Azza A Tantawy, Amira A Adly, Fatma S E Ebeid, Eman A Ismail, Mahitab M Hussein, Randa M Shaarawy, Reham A Kamel
BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is considered a candidate biomarker for lung integrity and for disease progression. AIM: We determined the level of SP-D in children and adolescents with SCD and assessed its possible relation to pulmonary complications and lung function. METHODS: Serum SP-D levels were assessed in 50 SCD patients compared with 30 healthy controls. High-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the chest was done...
January 22, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Georgia Katsouli, Anastasia Polytarchou, Marina Tsaoussoglou, Ioanna Loukou, George Chrousos, Athanasios G Kaditis
OBJECTIVES: Although progress has been made in the standardized interpretation of nocturnal oximetry in children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), no evidence exists on oximetry abnormalities in other respiratory disorders. We aimed to compare obstructive lung disease (OLD) and SDB regarding nocturnal oximetry parameters. METHODS: We analyzed oximetry recordings from children with (i) OLD (obliterative bronchiolitis; cystic fibrosis); (ii) snoring and adenotonsillar hypertrophy (SDB); and (iii) no respiratory disorder (controls)...
January 22, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Danielle Goetz, Benjamin T Kopp, Ann Salvator, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Karen McCoy, Daniel H Leung, Margaret Kloster, Bonnie R Ramsey, Sonya H Heltshe, Drucy Borowitz
IMPORTANCE: Treatment recommendations for infants with CF standardize care, but most surveillance or treatment guidance of pulmonary manifestations are consensus-based due to sparse evidence. OBJECTIVE: To report observations about pulmonary correlates of growth and other clinical features in infants with CF. METHODS: We analyzed data from the prospective Baby Observational and Nutrition Study conducted in 28 centers across the US, including clinical features, medications, guardian diaries of respiratory symptoms, oropharyngeal swab cultures and chest radiographs (CXR) collected over the first year of life...
January 22, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Ricardo Iramain, Jose A Castro-Rodriguez, Alfredo Jara, Laura Cardozo, Norma Bogado, Rocío Morinigo, Raúl De Jesús
INTRODUCTION: In moderate-severe asthma exacerbation, salbutamol by inhaler (MDI) is superior to salbutamol delivered by nebulizer (NEB); however, to our knowledge, no studies in children with exclusively severe exacerbations were performed. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide by MDI versus by NEB in severe asthma exacerbations. METHODS: We performed a clinical trial enrolling 103 children (2-14 years of age) with severe asthma exacerbations (defined by the Pulmonary Score ≥ 7) seen at the emergency room in Asuncion, Paraguay...
January 22, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Katelyn Tadd, Lucy Morgan, Tim Rosenow, André Schultz, Clarissa Susanto, Conor Murray, Philip Robinson
BACKGROUND: Structural lung changes seen on computed tomography (CT) scans in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) are currently described using scoring systems derived from CF populations. This practise assumes lung damage in the two conditions is identical, potentially resulting in a failure to identify PCD-specific changes. Our study addresses this assumption. METHODS: A total of 58 CT scans from 41 PCD patients (age 2-48 years) were examined and the presence and extent of abnormalities common in CF; bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, atelectasis, mucous plugging, and air trapping noted...
January 21, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Marina S Oliveira, Natasha Y Matsunaga, Marina L E Rodrigues, André M Morcillo, Maria A G de Oliveira Ribeiro, Antônio F Ribeiro, Maria de Fátima C P Servidoni, Roberto José N Nogueira, Monica Corso Pereira, José Dirceu Ribeiro, Adyléia Aparecida D C Toro
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D acts on the immune system and lung response. Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) may be deficient in this vitamin. The aims of the study were to evaluate vitamin D levels and severity of lung disease in infants and preschoolers diagnosed with CF, and to compare them to a group of children without pancreatic insufficiency (PI). METHODS: Patients with CF up to 4 years old were included, and compared to an age-matched group of children without diagnosis of CF...
January 20, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Keyur Donda, Nandini Vijayakanthi, Fredrick Dapaah-Siakwan, Parth Bhatt, Deepa Rastogi, Shantanu Rastogi
BACKGROUND: The management practices of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in the newborn have changed over time. We examine the trends in the epidemiology, resource utilization, and outcomes (mortality and bronchopulmonary dysplasia [BPD]) of RDS in preterm neonates ≤34 weeks gestational age (GA) in the United States. METHODS: In this retrospective serial cross-sectional study, we used ICD-9 codes to classify preterm infants GA ≤34 weeks between 2003 and 2014 from the National Inpatient Sample as having RDS or not...
January 20, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
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