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Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal

Robert R Tanz, Elizabeth J Ranniger, Jason L Rippe, Renée L Dietz, Caroline L Oktem, Christine L Lowmiller, Stanford T Shulman
BACKGROUND: Timely, accurate diagnosis of streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis prevents ARF and limits antibiotic overuse. The Illumigene® Group A Streptococcus assay (Meridian Bioscience) is a molecular test for GAS pharyngitis with high sensitivity and specificity. We sought to determine whether the Illumigene test is more likely than throat culture to be positive in patients without pharyngeal symptoms and explore the limits of detection of the test. METHODS: Patients aged 3-17 years were eligible if they had no history of pharyngitis or use of antibiotics within the previous 2 weeks; there were no URI symptoms, sore throat, or fever; and no signs of infection...
February 6, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Catherine E Foster, Sheldon L Kaplan
Seasonal influenza infection is associated with secondary bacterial complications involving the upper and lower respiratory tract. However, the association of influenza infection with secondary severe or complicated head and neck infections is not appreciated. We report six cases of head and neck infections following influenza infection in pediatric patients.
February 6, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jacob Genizi, Orit Golan-Shany, Tanya Tarazov, Sarel Pechter, Nurit Assaf, Idan Segal, Isaac Srugo, Ellen Bamberger
BACKGROUND: Bell's palsy is a peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve, the etiology of which is unknown. Using PCR technology, it is possible to sample accessible body fluids and identify possible viral factors. The purpose of this research was to investigate its connection to the herpes virus family by testing for the presence of the virus in the saliva and tear fluid of Bell's palsy patients. METHODS: Saliva and tears were collected from 42 children and adolescents who had idiopathic facial nerve paralysis...
February 4, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Britta Manuel, Matthes Hackbusch, Julia Tabatabai, Johannes Hoos, Rebecca Peters, Sarah Valerie Schnee, Clara Marlene Ihling, Paul Schnitzler, Johannes Pfeil
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) in young children. Early detection of RSV infection can avoid unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, and is required to prevent the nosocomial spread of RSV infection in pediatric hospitals. We developed a web tool to calculate the probability of RSV infection in children hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection (RSVpredict). METHODS: During winter seasons 2014/15 to 2017/18, 1545 children hospitalized with clinical symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection at the University Hospital Heidelberg/Germany were prospectively included...
February 4, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Archana Chacko, Sophie Ch Wen, Gunter Hartel, Nitin Kapur, Claire E Wainwright, Julia E Clark
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium abscessus complex pulmonary disease (M. abscessus PD) in cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging to treat. Current guideline therapeutic regimens involving an intensive phase of intravenous antibiotics followed by a consolidation phase of inhaled and oral antibiotics are not evidence-based. The objectives of this study were to characterize the clinical outcomes and clearance of Mycobacterium abscessus complex (M. abscessus) from respiratory cultures in children with CF M...
February 4, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Dorothy E Dow, Aisa M Shayo, Coleen K Cunningham, Blandina Mmbaga
Adolescents living with HIV tend to have poor adherence that often breeds HIV resistance mutations and virologic failure. This study evaluated risk behavior, virologic outcomes, and HIV resistance mutations in Tanzanian youth living with HIV. Participants were primarily perinatally infected, mean age 16.7 years and 41.5% had virologic failure. Those receiving first-line therapy demonstrated over 90% resistance to their current therapy.
February 4, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Steven R Nesheim, Lauren F FitzHarris, Kristen Mahle Gray, Margaret A Lampe
The number of infants with HIV born in the United States has decreased for years, approaching the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's incidence goal for eliminating perinatal HIV transmission. We reviewed recent literature on perinatal HIV in the United States. Among perinatally HIV-exposed infants (whose mothers have HIV, without regard to infants' HIV diagnosis), prenatal and natal antiretroviral use has increased, maternal HIV infection is more frequently diagnosed prior to pregnancy, and breastfeeding is uncommon...
February 4, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jiaosheng Zhang, Laura Folgori, Yingfen Hsia, Mike Sharland, Yonghong Yang
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major health threat in China. Very limited information is available on AMR rates in Chinese neonates, with data often published in local languages. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review and the aims were to (i) review the AMR rates for bloodstream isolates from Chinese neonates and (ii) estimate the likely efficacy of first-line treatments for neonatal sepsis on selected pathogens. Medline, Embase, and the Chinese language only CNKI databases were systematically searched for papers published in 2000-2016 combining terms for "China" AND 'Neonates' AND 'Antimicrobial resistance' AND 'Blood Culture'...
January 10, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Rutger Bennet, Sahar Nejat, Margareta Eriksson
During 2000 to 2018, 1831 children were screened as part of tuberculosis contact investigation at the Stockholm Northern Clinic. The risk of a child having a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) was 33%, and positive interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) 12%. The risk of tuberculosis disease was 6.1% (TST) and 13% (IGRA) in positive-testing children.
January 10, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Angela Gentile, María Florencia Lucion, María Del Valle Juarez, María Soledad Areso, Julia Bakir, Mariana Viegas, Alicia Mistchenko
BACKGROUND: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children. We aimed to describe the clinical-epidemiological pattern and risk factors for mortality associated with RSV infection. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional study of ALRI in children admitted to the Children's Hospital among 2000-2017. Viral diagnosis was made by fluorescent antibody techniques or real time-PCR. We compared clinical-epidemiological characteristics of RSV infection in non-fatal versus fatal cases...
January 10, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Yuta Aizawa, Takayo Shoji, Kenta Ito, Masashi Kasai, Hiroki Sakurai, Etsushi Toyofuku, Kisei Minami, Tadashi Hoshino, Yuho Horikoshi
BACKGROUND: The risk factors of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bloodstream infection (BSI) are not yet known in children. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors and outcomes associated with MDR GNB BSI in children. METHODS: Patients with GNB BSI were enrolled between April 2010 and March 2017 at eight children's hospitals in Japan. Clinical and microbiologic data were collected retrospectively. The risk factors and outcomes of MDR and non-MDR GNB BSI were compared...
January 10, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mulya Rahma Karyanti, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Maria A C Jansen, J A P Hans Heesterbeek, Arno W Hoes, Patricia Bruijning-Verhagen
BACKGROUND: Dengue incidence is rising globally which was estimated 100 million per year, whereas in Indonesia was estimated 7.5 million per year. Dengue clinical course varies from mild dengue fever (DF) to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Patients, clinicians and care facilities would benefit if reliable predictors can determine at admission which cases with clinically suspected dengue will progress to DHF or DSS. METHODS: From 2009 through 2013, a cohort of 496 children admitted with clinically suspected dengue at a tertiary care hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia in, was followed until discharge...
January 9, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Mildred A Iro, Manish Sadarangani, Alecia Nickless, Dominic F Kelly, Andrew J Pollard
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis is a serious neurologic condition which can result in admission to intensive care. Yet, there are no studies on pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission rates and usage of intensive care resources by children with encephalitis in England and Wales. The objectives of this study were to (i) define the PICU incidence and mortality rates for childhood encephalitis, (ii) describe usage of intensive care resources by children with encephalitis admitted to PICU, and (iii) explore the associated cost from PICU encephalitis admissions...
January 3, 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Frantz Jean Louis, Nathanael Segaren, Olbeg Desinor, R Suzanne Beard, Reginald Jean-Louis, Joy Chang, Sylvie Boisson, Erin N Hulland, Nick Wagar, Joshua DeVos, Kesner François, Josiane Buteau, Jacques Boncy, Barbara J Marston, Jean Wysler Domerçant, Chunfu Yang, Macarthur Charles
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to determine the frequency and patterns of HIVDR-associated mutations among children <18 months old born to HIV-1-positive mothers enrolled in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services in Haiti. METHODS: Between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014, HIV-positive remnant dried blood spots (DBS) collected from children under 18 months old for Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) at the National Public Health Laboratory were used for HIV-1 genotyping...
December 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Emmanouil Rampakakis, Julie Vaillancourt, Sara Mursleen, John S Sampalis
BACKGROUND: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus remaining a concern for healthcare providers and the public. Evidence of the longitudinal burden of IMD and associated costs are scarce. Here we have evaluated the healthcare utilization and cost associated with hospitalized IMD cases in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Observational cohort study utilizing the Ontario provincial claims databases, comprising: (1) individuals hospitalized with IMD between January 1995 and June 2012 and (2) age-, gender- and area-matched non-IMD controls (1:20 ratio)...
March 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Neeraj Kumar, Imran Rizvi, Shweta Pandey, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Ravi Uniyal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Chen Stein-Zamir, Irina Sokolov, Nitza Abramson, Hanna Shoob
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Corwin A Robertson, Monica Mercer, Alexandre Selmani, Nicola P Klein, Robert Jeanfreau, David P Greenberg
BACKGROUND: For children <3 years of age, a half dose of inactivated influenza vaccine (7.5 μg hemagglutinin per strain) has been used for more than 30 years, but several studies indicate that a full dose (15 μg hemagglutinin per strain) can be used in this population without increasing the rate of fever or other reactions. Here, we compare the safety and immunogenicity of full and half doses of quadrivalent, split-virion, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) in children 6-35 months of age...
March 2019: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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